A word of peace in a piece of the world: hippie songs and lyrics for cultural awareness raising in an EFL class

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(1)Running head: HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS A Word of Peace in a Piece of the World: Hippie Songs and Lyrics for Cultural Awareness Raising in an EFL Class. María Camila Garay Agudelo Paula Valeria Segura Soto. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Facultad de Ciencias y Educación Licenciatura en Educación Básica con Énfasis en Inglés Bogotá 2018.

(2) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 2. A Word of Peace in a Piece of the World: Hippie Songs and Lyrics for Cultural Awareness Raising in an EFL Class. María Camila Garay Agudelo Paula Valeria Segura Soto. Monograph Director: Rigoberto Castillo Ph.D. A project submitted as a requirement to obtain the BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Facultad de Ciencias y Educación Licenciatura en Educación Básica con Énfasis en Inglés Bogotá 2018.

(3) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS Note of Acceptance. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________. Monograph Director: ______________________. Monograph Juror: ______________________. 3.

(4) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 4. Acknowledgements. Primarily, we want to thank our monograph director, Ph.D. Rigoberto Castillo, for his assistance and dedicated involvement in our research project. Without his support and encouragement, this paper would have never been accomplished. We would also like to show our gratitude to all the teachers and professors who had an impact in our project and in our lives, throughout the five years and a half we dedicated to our degree in Colombia and Mexico. Thanks to that powerful force, who never abandons us and who has always enlightened our path, for the good health and wellbeing to complete this work. Finally yet importantly, none of this could have happened without our parents and sisters, thanks to their unconditional love and great effort day by day to help us get through all these years..

(5) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 5. Abstract The purpose of this study is to describe the contribution of using songs and lyrics as a means to integrate cultural understanding and language development in an English as a foreign language class with middle school. We observed that our learners had difficulty to understand and express themselves. This inquiry looked into proficiency and cultural awareness by introducing discussion on selected hippie song lyrics. The social and cultural context of the late 1960’s Hippie movement were the subject of study through the genre lyrics. The literature review discusses connections between language learning and cultural expressions. Findings of this qualitative study suggest that culture contextualized language and enhanced comprehension, thus facilitating expression. This monograph hopes to contribute to a pedagogical reflection on how learners may gain insights into understanding a word of peace and a piece of the world.. Key words: cultural awareness, EFL, hippie movement, lyrics, songs.

(6) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 6. Table of Contents Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ 5 Chapter I. Problem Statement ........................................................................................................ 11 Description of the context of research ....................................................................................... 11 Evidence of the Problem ............................................................................................................ 11 Research Questions .................................................................................................................... 12 Objectives .................................................................................................................................. 12 General objective. ................................................................................................................ 12 Specific objectives. ............................................................................................................... 12 Chapter II. Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 13 Cultural awareness ..................................................................................................................... 13 The Hippie Movement ............................................................................................................... 15 Learning Theory that Underpins this Study ............................................................................... 17 Teaching English Supported with Songs ................................................................................... 18 Chapter III. Research Design ......................................................................................................... 23 Research Paradigm..................................................................................................................... 23 Population and Sampling ........................................................................................................... 23 Data Collection Procedures and Instruments ............................................................................. 24 Observation. ......................................................................................................................... 24 Document review.................................................................................................................. 25.

(7) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 7. Learning artifacts................................................................................................................. 25 Video and audio recordings’ transcriptions ...................................................................... 26 Teacher’s Role ........................................................................................................................... 27 Student’s Role ............................................................................................................................ 27 Validity ...................................................................................................................................... 28 Reliability................................................................................................................................... 31 Credibility .................................................................................................................................. 31 Chapter IV. Pedagogical Intervention............................................................................................ 34 Selection of Songs ..................................................................................................................... 35 Lesson Plan ................................................................................................................................ 37 Criteria for Data Analysis .......................................................................................................... 39 Chapter V. Data Analysis and Findings ......................................................................................... 41 Content Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 41 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 42 Woodstock. ........................................................................................................................... 42 Philosophy............................................................................................................................. 45 Materialism........................................................................................................................... 51 Love. ...................................................................................................................................... 55 Reflections and Opinions. .................................................................................................... 58 Chapter VI. Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 62.

(8) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 8. Conclusions ................................................................................................................................ 62 Implications ............................................................................................................................... 64 Limitations and Further Research .............................................................................................. 65 References ...................................................................................................................................... 66 Appendices..................................................................................................................................... 78 Appendix A ................................................................................................................................ 78 Appendix B ................................................................................................................................ 80.

(9) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 9. We consider that culture needs to be explicitly taught in the language classroom; some others would argue that culture is implicit in learning another language and that belief may devalue the role of teaching culture. Hinkel (1999) reflects that cultural aspects of interaction and learning often appear mundane, but these relationships influence the way in which the learning of a second culture can be carried out. This relationship also addresses the impact of culture on learning to interact, speak, construct meaning, and write in a second language, while remaining within the sociocultural paradigms specific to a particular language and its speakers. Teaching a language involves more than the knowledge of codes to communicate with others; it involves the whole idea to be within different context of customs, values and ideas. Halliday’s definition of context in Kramsch (1993) as “a total environment in which text unfolds and of language as a part of reality, a shaper of reality” (p. 67), establishes the context as an intertextual notion which is shaped through speech. Due to the diversity of meanings, contexts vary and are recreated and changed by the speakers. For Kramsch (1993), speakers manage and shape enforced contexts to set their own needs and expose their own meanings. We developed this work with ninth graders from a small urban school who had a beginner English language level. We introduced to the syllabus the study of seven song lyrics produced by representatives of the Hippie movement, which was very influential in the late 1960’s and 1970’s in the western hemisphere. We arrived at this decision bearing in mind that for our learners, music plays and important role, and it would be a way to get them closer to another culture. We chose songs and lyrics that represented important features of the hippie movement as discussed in chapter IV. Furthermore, we proposed the analysis of the genre song lyrics to organize texts and tasks. Students identified unknown grammar, words and idiomatic expressions, which as Simpson (2015) claims are better understood in songs since these serve as.

(10) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 10. contexts to clarify meanings and interpretations of events. The tenets of the Hippie movement, the messages conveyed, the analysis of the structures and of language in the lyrics guided discussions. Considering ways to approach these necessities, we concur with Tran-Hoang-Thu (2010) who states that teachers have the possibility to deal with culture teaching in different ways, but no matter what way they choose, they cannot under any circumstance avoid it. For Klippel (1994), the relationship between language and culture learning goes through three spheres: the empathy and understanding of a culture, the acquisition of knowledge about linguistics, and the development of the communicative skill. We approached the empathy with songs that represented the multiplicity of a culture, since they offer a view towards the understanding of others’ thoughts and beliefs. The analysis of the lyrics allowed the learners to review and acquire new linguistic knowledge. Finally, the discussions encouraged them to transmit their opinions one way or another, leading them to develop their communicative skills..

(11) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 11. Chapter I. Problem Statement. For our middle school learners, it was difficult to put words in a string of sentences and to express ideas in propositions. They recognized simple and coordinated sentences, but had difficulty to convey meanings and messages in coordinated sentences. We worked with middle schoolers since they showed the ability to reflect on social and historical issues. In addition, they had exposure to English language through radio, TV and social networks. Description of the context of research In the teaching practicum at a secondary school in the southwest of Bogotá, we were in charge of a group of 35 pupils, a ninth grade where we carried out our study. The school has more than 2500 students -girls and boys- distributed into two branches -A and B; the branch Awhere the research took place- has two shifts -morning and afternoon, with grades from preschool to 11th grade. Evidence of the Problem We noticed that their performances were far below from their familiarity with the language. This means, that even though they displayed knowledge of grammar and vocabulary, it was not evident since they were not able to organize and structure an idea. However, when they studied a cultural aspect, they showed interest on communicating ideas in English for giving an opinion. In our practicum, we checked their knowledge using fill-in-the-gaps activities and written production tasks, and even though their language was not mistakes-free, it was noticeable they had clear basic notions; however, when we asked for participation, there was a minimum number.

(12) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 12. of participants and the ones who did participate seemed to struggle at uttering ideas. We tried other teaching techniques, but the results were always promising. Therefore, we implemented the study of song lyrics to enhance cultural awareness and encourage them to share their ideas either writing or speaking, taking into account that language and culture are indivisible and should complement each other. We resolved to use songs by way of a cultural representation since it is an aspect that is recurrent in our lives and in which cultural allusions are manifested. Research Questions The preliminary analysis to identify the problem, the literature review, the discussion of the constructs and the report of key research reports and of relevant theses allowed us to formulate this research question: How may the analysis of hippie song lyrics enhance cultural awareness? We believe that using songs as a strategy for teaching a language involves a historical context that we cannot, as teachers, set aside; on the contrary, we should be able to integrate those cultural representations in the L2 classroom for enriching the learning-teaching process. Objectives General objective. To analyze the raise of cultural awareness in English language learners exposed to hippie songs and lyrics in a public school in Bogotá. Specific objectives. We established two objectives: . To identify the possible contributions of using songs and lyrics in the EFL classroom.. . To contrast the results with other similar research projects..

(13) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 13. Chapter II. Literature Review. We analyzed several studies on teaching target language culture of the last decade. These studies influenced the design of our pedagogical intervention. In section 2.1, we discuss the concept of cultural awareness in connection with the Hippie Movement. In 2.2, we present the learning theory this work is based on. Cultural awareness Learning another language has become relevant for many societies, which means that our job as language teachers needs to go beyond teaching the language to foster the understanding of cultural diversity. Nevertheless, these understanding does not refer strictly to identify others’ cultural representations; it includes becoming more conscious about our own so that to be able to see who we are in relation to the other (Lynch, 2014). Cultural awareness consists on an ability to appreciate and value the manifestations of other cultures, while recognizing your own culturally influenced beliefs and behaviors (Woodward Smith, 1997). This should be taken then as an opportunity in the classroom, as Merril Valdés (1986) declares: “just as similarities and contrasts in the native and target languages have been found to be useful tools in language study, so cultural similarities and contrasts, once identified and understood, can be used to advantage” (p. 1). However, it is possible to encounter negative reactions and even rejection towards others’ practices and perspectives, and this is when critical culture awareness gets into the game. For Byram, Gribkova & Starkey (2002) Critical Culture Awareness is an ability to critically evaluate values and viewpoints in one’s own and others’ culture. As teachers, we should not look for our learners to identify differences between their own and the target culture, we have to act as.

(14) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 14. mediators to help them develop attitudes and awareness that lead them to be conscious and respectful about the others. We realized the influence of musical movements and their potential for debating about cultural principles and values. We were inspired by the figure of Bob Dylan, one of the most prolific and influential figures in popular music of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. A well-known singer-songwriter of folk songs with an important content of social protest whose work shows that, through songs, people express their points of view and criticisms towards several issues that afflict today's society. Bob Dylan received the Nobel Prize for literature showing that song lyrics influence people, inviting them to reflect about the common and static perspectives of their culture. Dylan was considered the musical incarnation of the hippie spirit (La Prensa, 2016) due to the relationship of his music and lyrics with the movement. The hippie movement influenced film, literature, arts, and of course popular music (Bhaddock, 2014). Different songs and documentaries like "Woodstock: 3 days of peace, music and love", portray and represent what was the life of the hippies then. Even though the movement reached its end in the late 1960's, their ideas are still valid in today's world, with a significant positive as well as negative impact, mainly because their thinking influenced purely conservative society. Although the existence of this movement was several decades ago, there is still the discussion of how controversial it resulted in the history of the United States. Ward (n.d.) declares that there are different views regarding the significance of the 1960s, but that it remains the dispute between popular music being “a powerful cultural, social, and economic force in the period” or simply playing “an important role in shaping how the decade has been remembered”..

(15) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 15. However, for Moretta (2017) the movement’s legacy transcended from its time and place into the present through music, fashion, and philosophy. Thanks to the media, this particular type of music is still present in the young generation of our times that did not witness nor experienced the movement of that time. Ward (n.d.) mentions several characteristic songs and artists that became representative for the movement. For instance: the folk revivalism of Bob Dylan and Joan Baez; the folk-rock syntheses of the Byrds; the surfing sounds of the Beach Boys; the free jazz of Archie Shepp and Ornette Coleman; the girl-group sounds of the Chiffons and Crystals; the southern-fried soul of Percy Sledge and Otis Redding; the lush Nashville countrypolitanism of Eddy Arnold and Tammy Wynette…” (para. 1). The Hippie Movement The hippie movement was an influential countercultural movement originated in the 1960s which had repercussions on American politics, laws and society overall. During this period, the young people were dissatisfied with the decisions made after the Second World War; they wanted to separate from society and they did so by protesting against situations they found unacceptable in the world, like the Vietnam War. As a result, many of the members of this movement tried to establish their own towns, laws, political institutions and economy (Moretta, 2017). These young people were born in the aftermath of World War II (around 1946 until 1964), and they represent to the largest generation that has ever existed in the United States at one time “possessed of a mentality, temperament, and way of looking at life and the world in general” that differs from any previous generation of Americans. This generation gave a new.

(16) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 16. definition to freedom since they truly felt free to do whatever made them feel spiritually, emotionally, and sensually fulfilled (Moretta, 2017). The emergence of the movement split American socio-cultural history into something that had not been seen since the end of the World War II, but it ended soon. Nonetheless, the power of the hippies helped to transform the foundations of the post-war culture that remained, as well as confronting the general consent that had supported those assumptions, changing values and norms. The new countercultural phenomenon penetrated every facet of the American society. In words of Moretta (2017) it was impossible to resist hippiedom’s many appeals and attractions, whether they came in the form of sexual freedom, mind-altering drugs, rock and roll music, rollicking dancehalls and free concerts in the parks, flamboyant clothing, outrageous street theatrics, the occult, Eastern mysticism, or cooperative/communal living. The hippie movement appeared during the rising sexual revolution, they inherited several countercultural beliefs and practices concerning sex and love from the Beat Generation. Hippies brought to life again the slogan free love, this “meant you were free to love whomever you pleased, whenever you pleased, however you pleased” (Stone, 1999), in a few words they made all the taboos go away. The movement stimulated sexual activity and stimulation: group sex, public sex, homosexuality, open relationships. The counterculture rejected the prevailing puritanical and moral code of the time, claiming it was a manifestation of the people’s hypocrisy. All this liberation made its way in the American society resulting in the free flow of information about sex, the expansion of the Gay and Women’s Liberation movements, and the concern about health issues related to sex started to gain interest..

(17) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 17. Hippies believed that loving meant to accept others as they were, giving them the right to express themselves and to not be judged based on their appearance. Thus, the way to resolve and accept these differences among people, ideologies and religions was peace. Peace was the fundamental of the hippie philosophy. The postwar represented a period of financial security for middle class Americans, thus the 1950s were characterized by an unthinkable consumption of goods; happiness and fulfillment in the United States was defined by material acquisitions and economic stability and prosperity. Materialism and capitalism had consumed the society by the late 1960s, reason why and according to Rubin (1968) in the Berkeley Barb1, the hippies wanted to free it from property hang-ups, success fixations, positions, titles, names, and hierarchies. For the movement, the human experience was being replaced by bourgeois precepts; consequently, new values for living were needed to fill the spiritual emptiness created by materialism (Moretta, 2017). Learning Theory that Underpins this Study For this research, the constructivist and functionalist perspectives are related to the constructs discussed above. On one hand, Taber (2011) states that the learner comes to knowledge by recognizing the meaning of what is found in the environment. Thus, the object or event in the environment (this could be anything; a chair, a chemical reaction, a utility bill on the doormat, a sentence read from a novel, the utterance of a teacher in a classroom) is assumed to have some inherent meaning, which the learner is able to identify, and so add to their store of knowledge about the world (p. 40-41).. 1. The Berkeley Barb was one of the earliest underground newspapers to serve the civil rights, anti-war, and countercultural movements in the Sixties, published in Berkeley, California..

(18) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 18. This philosophical viewpoint about the nature of knowledge focuses on how learners construct meaning based on the interaction between their ideas and experiences; when learners are given new information, they include it into an already existing knowledge without making any modification (assimilation) or reframe their mental representations of the world to fit new information or experiences (accommodation) (Taber, 2011). On the other hand, Halliday, in Bernstein (2003), states that functionalism analyzes language in terms of the interrelated systems of choices that are available for expressing meaning. Basic to the approach is the notion that language structures cannot be idealized and studied without taking into account the circumstances of their use, including the extra linguistic social context. From this functional view, language acquisition needs to be seen as the mastery of linguistic functions. Learning one's mother tongue is learning the uses of language, and the meanings, or rather the meaning potential, associated with them. The structures, the words and the sounds are the realization of this meaning potential. Learning language is learning how to mean. (p. 345) This perspective fits in the project because the functions of language and its elements are key in order to understand linguistic processes and structures, taking into account the contexts in which the language is used, by whom and in which situations. Teaching English Supported with Songs The use of songs in the language classroom has been recommended to enhance students’ motivation but also to increase their knowledge in the target language. Using songs can be of benefit to any classroom to increase lexical, grammatical, phonological, sociolinguistic and cultural competencies (Engh, 2013). It offers the richness of the target language due to the use of idiomatic and poetic expressions; lyrics represent a great source for developing communicative.

(19) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 19. skills in the foreign language, because lyrics need the use of rhythms -which can be related to languages' intonation- and include conversational speech and poetic expressions. The use of songs promotes language awareness, which allow the apprentice to gain understanding into how languages work, by promoting their sensitivity. Şevik (2011) research’s findings demonstrate that teachers believe that songs should be an essential part of the curriculum and also that songs have a high pedagogical value which helps students to develop communicative skills and to give them more opportunities to show their abilities in the target language. Following Şevik’s ideas, Morales (2008) affirms that “the presence of music in diverse contexts and the variety of uses and situations in which it is involved are an important reason to believe that music plays a remarkable role in people’s lives”. For us, the implementation of music in language learning implied a simultaneous work of the communicative skills. Besides, we used it for real purposes due to the relation between the lyrics of a song and life events. Morales (2008) states that the use of music “can release the practice of English from the pressure of academic duties, and help learners face real use of the language in real contexts”. In addition, we concur with Neff and Rucynski Jr. (2013) that language and culture are indivisible -or should be, in the case of language teaching- and it implies language learning to be directly related to culture learning. These authors establish two reasons why language learners should be aware of the target language culture: . When communicating with someone in a foreign language it is not only necessary to count on the linguistic competence, but also to have clear cultural references -which includes geography, occupations, pastime, historical events, famous people-, formal and informal ways to address to someone, and conversational routines. (p.12).

(20) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS . 20. Memorizing vocabulary and grammar is not enough to become proficient in a language if you are not aware of the sociocultural rules among native speakers when communicating to each other. (p.12) Since students cannot be taken to the real cultural context of the target language,. language teachers must involve and bring the cultural context into the classroom. With this objective, Brown (2007) established some guidelines: . Practice empathy to relate them [students] in cultural matters. (p. 64). . Recognize cultural connotations of both native and target culture. (p. 64). . Educate them about other cultures, in order to understand there is no culture better than another. (p. 64). . Help them to appreciate and celebrate diversity, especially when cultural differences are shown. (p. 64) Supporting this idea, Tayari & Mahdavi (2015) state that “songs are one of the sources of. cultural and linguistic items with respect to second or foreign language learning” (p. 214). Music helps to connect pupils to new cultures and it also helps them to open up to new realities, that is possible because a large number of songs discuss cultural topics such as ethics, customs, history, religion, cultural differences, and others, which are influential when learning a language. The findings of Diakou (2013) revealed that most of the students developed an increase in their language learning abilities after proper implementation of songs in the EFL class; basically, because songs encourage learners to use and practice authentic language outside the classroom (Jenkins & Dixon, 1983; Harwood, 1998 in Engh, 2013). Songs also offer a variety of insights of the different cultures like stories and myths, this provides "a window into the frames.

(21) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 21. of reference and values of the peoples whose language we are learning" (Candling, (1992) in Engh (2013)). The use of music in an educational context has not only an impact on language learning. Several authors agree that the first thing that comes to mind when someone thinks of music is enjoyment. In this sense, Mora (2000) explains that “language learning and music relate to each other since music and speech connect through sounds and are used to convey a message, although language is precise and music mostly emotional” (p.147). Music seems to be a perfect tool to engage students in the language learning not just in the classroom but also it motivates them to practice the foreign language outside the classroom. There is some resemblance with Silva Ros’ (2006) ideas who thinks that music makes activities more enjoyable for people in general, in fact, many learners perform their academic tasks with popular background music, so that makes it a good didactic resource for supporting activities in the English class. Mashayekh & Hashemi (2011) state that the role of music is divided in two aspects: participant-orientated and performance-orientated. The former refers to the joy that music brings to each individual as an active music experience. They are actually involved in the performing act such as singing a song, whistling a tune, or playing a musical instrument. (p. 2188) That is to affirm that emotional factors can affect the language learning process, because we are moved by our emotions. Music is "a complex of activities, ideas, and objects that are patterned into culturally meaningful sounds" (p.27) for Merriam (1964). In this definition we can observe the direct relation between culture and music, this last one seen as part of the first one, since those ideas and objects patterns are reflected in the lyrics of the songs, and socially shaped by the specific.

(22) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 22. cultural environment such songs are part of. Based on that, Nagy & Herman (1987) in Engh (2013) state that “music consistently surrounds our lives and may potentially assist educators in removing boundaries between the various communities that students belong to” (p. 114)..

(23) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 23. Chapter III. Research Design This chapter covers type of research, settings and participants, as well as data techniques and instruments used in the inquiry. The implementation of the pedagogical activities aimed at finding an answer to this project main question: How may the analysis of hippie song lyrics enhance cultural awareness? Research Paradigm According to Bricki & Green (2007) “qualitative research is characterized by its aims, which relate to understand some aspect of social life, and its methods which -in general- generate words, rather than numbers, as data for analysis” (p. 2). This is a qualitative research project, which consists on observing what our ninth graders do and how they behave and react when they are approached to cultural aspects of a specific movement important for North American history. Population and Sampling The participants were 36 middle schoolers of ninth grade between 13 and 15 years old from low-income families. Due to the conditions of the setting and our role of teachers, we used convenience sampling for selecting the population. We based this on Etikan, Musa, & Alkassim (2016) who assure that “convenience samples are sometimes regarded as ‘accidental samples’ because elements may be selected in the sample simply as they just happen to be situated, spatially or administratively, near to where the researcher is conducting the data collection” (p.2). The unit of analysis was a 9th grade, for we wanted to scrutinize both their response when exposed to a cultural and social issue as well as the development of communicative skills in the target language. We had worked with this group previously and we had an idea of how their performance in class was, all of them had in common their Basic English level..

(24) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 24. Data Collection Procedures and Instruments Observation. Marshall & Rossman (1995) define observation as "the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for study" (p.79). This allows the researcher to describe the participant’s behavior without relying on reports from parents or teachers. There are two types of observation: overt –when participants know they are being observed-, or covert –the participants are not fully informed about the observation(Reason Network, n.d.). Underage population was the focus of this project, so we had to get an informed consent from the parents. The overt observation was the most appropriate. We observed students’ behavior to get an idea of their interest in the activities, or to know if these had to be reformulated in order to be meaningful and motivating. This instrument also helped us to recognize their strengths and weaknesses. We took notes at the end of each class about what they said and how they behaved. DATE OBSERVATION September At the beginning of the class, I called the roll and then one of the 25th, 2017 students turned on the TV to play the song of that session. The class began with some questions about the topic seen the previous class. What song did we listen to the previous class? What is the author of that song? What topic do we discuss last class? The ones who participate the most are always the same students. I introduced the artist “Joan Baez”, giving a bit of information about what this artist did and why it is relevant to the hippie movement. Then, each of them was given a worksheet with the lyrics in disorder. In the meantime, the video was playing, most of them were looking at the subtitles on the TV, others were looking at the worksheet and a group was trying to complete the activity by following the song. After listening to the song for the second time, they were asked to select a word of the lyrics that they did not know and then to look it up in the dictionary for knowing its meaning. Due to not many students had one, they shared them among themselves. Then they gave the definition of their word out loud. Approximately half of the group participated..

(25) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 25. The song was discussed answering some questions. To finish the class, the words "love" and "materialism" were written on the board. They were told to write a word (using seen vocabulary) that relates to each of the two main words. At the beginning, the group was not motivated to participate but when they were told that they were going to receive positive points of participation, most of the students felt interested to complete the mind map. At the end of the class, everyone hands in their worksheets. Table 1. Example of class observation. (Own production) Table 1 is an example of one of the observations. There, we highlight important aspects in class as the participation and the motivation of the group towards the song and the activities. The observations let us notice if their reactions and behavior in the activities matched with what they said in the final products of the tasks. We can also point out based on the observations that all the comments made in class were in Spanish. However, when they had to write something they made a great effort to do it in English. Some of them also tried to present the final project in English. Document review. According to Bowen (2009) document review “is a systematic procedure for reviewing or evaluating documents—both printed and electronic (computer-based and Internet-transmitted) material”. This strategy allows the researcher to review prior literature, to select, apprise and synthesize the data for later on be organized into categories (p. 28). We reviewed different works which main objective was to demonstrate the benefits of using music in the classroom. In addition, thanks to the theory used on how to study the songs, it was possible to find the most appropriate way to select and analyze the lyrics of the songs to reach the goals of this project. This discussion is presented in the Literature Review and in the Pedagogical Intervention (Chapters II and IV, respectively). Learning artifacts. Learning artifacts, sometimes called learning objects, are anything that apprentices produce that will allow the researcher to judge how well they have learned the.

(26) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 26. material (Vanier College , 2013). This type of material is the evidence of the learning process in ways that can be shared with others, and help us understand as researchers. Barkley & Major (2016) assure that “artifacts provide teachers with rich data through multiple media from which to assess student learning and development” (p. 303). This is one of the most important instruments because having the lyrics, they found easier to analyze and understand what the song was about and, at the same time to use it as a support to participate in class. Moreover, videos taken from the YouTube platform, photographs taken in the sessions and pictures of the artists complemented the activities to gather the learning artifacts we used for the analysis of the data. Video and audio recordings’ transcriptions. This instrument goes along with the observations because it allows the researcher to carry out a more exhaustive analysis by having details of the sessions that could have been overlooked. Pirie (1996) places in her paper videorecordings “as a means of data gathering, under scrutiny, acknowledging its strengths, while exposing its weaknesses and illuminating the need for honesty, both with ourselves and with others, as to the true nature of the data we are analyzing” (p.3). Pawar (2013) states that “the data is recorded in the digital format hence it could be stored properly for the long duration and reference could be taken any time.” (p1.) Almost all the classes were audio-recorded to analyze in detail what our pupils said or how they reacted after watching the videos of each song. Some of them that were not able to present the final task in class video recorded themselves, which gave us more data for the final analysis. Although they knew that they were being recorded, this did not interfere with their performance in the activities, they behaved the same as when they were not being recorded. We transcribed the data video and audio recorded from verbal interaction with respondents. “This is an essential tool in linguistics where recorded speech is systematically.

(27) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 27. represented in a specific language” (Annum, 2017, p. 3). It allowed us to put the information into written words. In terms of validity, it allowed not only to demonstrate that the results are authentic, but also helped to focus our inquiry. Because some of the information was collected in audio and video files, transcripts were necessary. For example, in the last session the instrument used for data collection was video recordings, in this way their ideas could be preserved and then transcribed and analyzed for this work. Teacher’s Role According to Harmer (2007) we can use the term facilitator to describe a specific type of teacher, “one who is democratic rather than autocratic”, and who fosters learner autonomy through different resources as group or pair work (p. 109). Harmer also describes another type of teacher called teacher resource, “who is able to offer guidance as to where students can go to look for information.” (p.110). The English head teacher was not present in the activities, giving us the control of the class. As practicum teachers, we designed the materials we used based on the songs we chose (see Chapter IV). One of us implemented the activities and both organized and classified the data for the analysis. We encouraged them to use resources that they had at hand to be more independent in learning. Regarding the assessment, a quantitative evaluation was requested from the head teacher; we took into account the participation, the attendance and the presentation of the final project. Later on, the head teacher included the grades along with the work they had done in their regular English classes. Student’s Role During the sessions, learners were encouraged to retake and use their previous knowledge and reflect on their thinking. “Through collaboration and cooperation with others, students.

(28) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 28. engaged in experiential learning that is authentic, holistic, and challenging.” (Iowa Core, n.d., p.1). The participants had an active role in this project, providing their own insights and reflecting about their peers’ opinions. That is the reason why the lesson plans were designed to generate a discussion with the group to contrast their own values with hippies’ principles. They worked individually most of the sessions; for the final session they made a group presentation. The activities carried out in the classes allowed them to freely communicate their points of view, giving rise to positive discussions. At the beginning of the implementation of the classes, they had the opportunity not to see homework as an obligation, but due to their lack of compliance in doing the assignments, it was necessary to take action together with the head teacher. We decided to give positive points to the people who looked for information about the topic before coming to class, and to those who carried out the tasks that complemented the activities. Validity Qualitative research is based on subjective, interpretive, and contextual data elements. According to Joppe (2000) in Golafshani (2003) validity “determines whether the research truly measures what it was intended to measure or how truthful the research results are” (p.1). Although it is impossible to guarantee the validity of a research, we intended to consistently describe the pedagogical intervention and analyze the data collected, in accordance with the five categories proposed by Maxwell (1992) in an attempt to legitimate the validity of our qualitative research. The first category is “descriptive validity” which denotes the accuracy of the data, meaning that this accuracy refers not only to the data but also to its reporting, which must truly reflect what participants have said or done. Along those lines, participants’ behavior should be.

(29) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 29. primarily seen only as a physical event rather than as an activity with an intended meaning. Descriptive validity is the base on which all the other categories of validity are built upon (Maxwell, 1992, p. 286). We transcribed the data collected in video and audio recordings without making any corrections or notes on what they said. We wrote down information exactly as participants worded it, regardless if it made sense or if it was relevant. This is observable in the section of analysis, where the simple concepts or statements appear as in the original sources. The second category, “interpretive validity”, is associated with how well the researcher reports the participants’ meaning of events or behaviors. Interpretations are the result of inferring from the punctual words and actions of participants in the particular situations studied (Maxwell, 1992, pp. 288-290). We adhered to the words and concepts used by the participants aiming to keep their intentions; we believed that changing the vocabulary and expressions would change the original intended meaning. We attempted to carefully analyze performance and actions by comparing what was said with the notes of the observations, in order to gain a better understanding of their perspectives by associating their words to behaviors -like laughingobserved. Having the concrete description of the participants’ behavior and its interpretation, the researcher should then address the theoretical constructions that were developed in the study (Maxwell, 1992, p. 291). “Theoretical validity”, the third category, looks to evaluate the theorized relationships among the researcher’s concepts in context with the phenomena. In this part it is important for the researcher to provide a coherent explanation of how the theoretical constructs fit together in order to explain the phenomena. Briefly, the researcher should be able to generate data that supports the theory (Maxwell, 1992, p. 291)..

(30) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 30. Our research intended to arise cultural awareness and foster language skills by the use of hippie songs and lyrics. We had two main constructs, music and cultural awareness, which were approached by consulting several research studies (See Appendix a). . Regarding music, we wanted to include it in our project because it had shown its usefulness to motivate apprentices, to teach culture, and to improve language skills. The participation in class and the interventions, as shown with the artifacts and reflections in Chapter V, gave account of its effectiveness for motivation and culture teaching.. . There was a slight improvement of their written language skills, which can be observed when it is analyzed how their statements became more and more complex as the sessions passed. However, there was not enough data to support the improvement of their oral language skills.. . Cultural awareness was said to serve as a useful mechanism to help learners understand cultural diversity. They never showed discontent during the discussions and they were always eager to address the differences and similarities and reflect about them; this was specially discussed during the session about love (See Conclusions).. The fourth category, “generalizability”, states that the theory resulted from the study could be universally applicable. In other words, generalizability assumes that the resulted theory may be useful to make sense of similar groups or situations, rather than making sense only of particular individuals or situations (Maxwell, 1992, p. 293). While our scope was limited, we feel some degree of generalizability of this research applies considering that previous studies in.

(31) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 31. diverse contexts, coincide that songs and lyrics enable language performance and provide a window into culture. The fifth and last category, “evaluative category”, refers to an evaluative framework drawn by the researchers. This consists on providing the readers with the researchers’ own understandings and interpretations of the phenomena (Maxwell, 1992, p. 295). Our viewpoints regarding the analysis and results appear in the Conclusions and Implications. However, there are also some parts in the section of Data Analysis where we included our reflections after the participants’ perspectives were addressed and described. Reliability Joppes (2000) in Golafshani (2003) states that a study is reliable if: its results can be reproduced under a similar methodology, they give account of the total population under study and, they are consistent over time (p. 1). Sum, reliability refers to replicating processes and producing consistent results time after time. However, human behaviors and interactions are dynamic, reason why reliability tends to be a problematic issue in qualitative research. Thus, it is essential to offer a detailed description of the research practices, analysis, and conclusions, in order to demonstrate that the research study’s findings can be applicable to other contexts, circumstances, and situations. This is why this study has a detailed description of the pedagogical intervention, which includes the description of the process for selecting the songs and organizing the lesson plans and activities, as well as a complete explanation of the criteria that was followed for analyzing the results. Credibility Credibility is defined as the confidence the researcher provides about the truth of the findings (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p. 218). For this, the researcher must link the research study.

(32) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 32. findings with reality. Lincoln & Guba (1985) describe several techniques to establish the rigorousness of the inquiry: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, negative case analysis, referential adequacy, member-checking, peer debriefing, and triangulation. We adopted the last two. “Peer debriefing” consists on seeking support from other professionals, in order to contrast the researcher’s perceptions with the comments received, finally to develop the conclusion of the study (Anney, 2014, p. 276). In this case, we constructed and developed this research counting on the feedback and assistance of our monograph director. Moreover, we had the opportunity to share and discuss the study in two symposia, where teachers and undergraduates of the same field from different universities contributed with their comments and opinions. “Triangulation” entails using multiple data sources in order to gain a more complete understanding of the phenomena that is being studied (Denzin, 1978, p. 3). There are four types of triangulation identified by Denzin (1978): methods triangulation, triangulation of sources, analyst triangulation, and theoretical triangulation. We used the methods triangulation, which implies either different data collection modes (interview, questionnaire, observation, testing) or different designs (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). In this particular case, we employed several collection modes to gather data throughout the research process: observations, documents review, learning artifacts, and video and audio recordings’ transcriptions, which allowed showing consistency among the findings. For instance, for the last session data was collected using most of the instruments: the session was registered through the notes of the observations; transcriptions were made based on the video recordings of the participants’ presentations, where learning artifacts – posters- were presented and collected too..

(33) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 33.

(34) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 34. Chapter IV. Pedagogical Intervention We selected tasks, songs, and lyrics considering these factors: cultural information, the grammatical structure lyrics, and language use. For this, several authors like Morales (2008), Cuestas Cifuentes (2006), Kuattiningsih (2007), and Silva Ros (2006) agree on having specific criteria to find songs that meet aspects that need to be covered in class. Coats (2016) suggests selecting songs from a variety of genres in the target language. We chose rock, since we aimed to focus on counter-cultural themes of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. First, we chose three of the key aspects in which the hippies influence the world. The first one was their way of life, thoughts and the origins of the movement. The second one was their manifestation of anti-war and of sexual freedom. Finally, their criticism towards the human attachment to the material world. Table 1 shows our choices. Table 1. Content of the pedagogical intervention that narrowed the inquiry. (Own Production) Feature of Hippism General introduction to Hippie movement Promote an ideology focused on peace, love, and personal freedom. Aversion to commercialism: superficial values and materialism. Life is not what other think you should be. Love is free. Wrap up. Name of the song Woodstock (1970). Artist Joni Mitchell. Imagine (1971). John Lennon. The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down (1971) Mercedes Benz (1970) Like A Rolling Stone (1965) All You Need Is Love (1967) Lola (1970) Artist chosen by students (Joni Mitchell, John Lennon, Joan Baez, Janis Joplin, Bob Dylan, The Beatles, The Kinks). Joan Baez Janis Joplin Bob Dylan The Beatles The Kinks.

(35) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 35. Selection of Songs The criteria for selecting the songs took into account the objective of the research based on Kuattiningsih (2007) and Murphey (1992) cited in Lopera (2003). 1. The lyrics vocabulary must be according to students’ level. We selected a group from a Basic English level who had been formally exposed to the language for at least two years; hence, they had knowledge of vocabulary but not broad grammar notions. 2. Songs should be suitable for the topic of the lesson. The message should deal with leading cultural topics that link the implicit and explicit content of the song along with the context and reality of the apprentice, facilitating the discussion of those associations. We bore in mind the problematic content that the lyrics include, such as references to violence or explicit language. We chose three main features of the hippie movement: love, materialism, and philosophy. We also chose a song that encompassed the hippie movement to introduce the topic and, allowed us as teacher-researchers to observe how much of the topic they knew and how familiar they were with this type of music. We also took into account the song content, since this should be the most appropriate for the level and the age of the pupils. The song "Lola" by the Kinks, for example, talks about sexuality, and we included questions that encouraged them to think critically, for instance: “Do you think there is any relation between the meaning of “love” for the hippies and sexuality?” “How can you relate those topics? “Do you think sexuality has changed through the years?” “Do you think transgenderism was accepted in the 60’s? Why?” “Do you consider that the current society is more open minded than before?” 3. Songs should integrate the four language skills. Integrating the skills allows to implement a wider range of activities in the lesson and to work on a realistic communicative.

(36) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 36. level. We made sure that we planned activities in which they could speak –discussions-, read – subtitles in the videos, lyrics in the worksheets-, listen –songs- and write –worksheets-. 4. Songs should arouse the creative and imaginative use of language. Songs should draw students’ attention so that to stimulate the discussion of their feelings, attitudes and thoughts, leading them to the creative and imaginative use of language. Based on this fourth criterion, we chose the songs “Imagine” by John Lennon for imagining a world in peace without borders or divisions of religion and nationalities, as well as the possibility of living free of material possessions. Therefore, they could contrast points of view. The introductory song, Woodstock by Joni Mitchel, presented the epitome of the Hippie movement. In 1969, the concert at Woodstock became the icon of a generation weary of wars that proclaimed peace and love, and which rejected the establishment. The introductory song showed in video with subtitles in English and Spanish, had images of the festival. Then we presented the lyrics that appear in Table 2 stressing understanding of the hippie movement. Song: Woodstock (1970) Author: Joni Mitchell Written & produced by Joni Mitchell | from the album Ladies Of The Canyon (1970) I came upon a child of God He was walking along the road And I asked him: where are you going? And this he told me: I'm going on down to Yasgur's farm * I'm going to join in a rock 'n' roll band I'm going to camp out on the land I'm going to try an' get my soul free We are stardust We are golden And we've got to get ourselves Back to the garden Then can I walk beside you I have come here to lose the smog And I feel to be a cog in something turning Well maybe it is just the time of year Or maybe it's the time of man.

(37) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 37. I don't know who I am But you know life is for learning We are stardust We are golden And we've got to get ourselves Back to the garden By the time we got to Woodstock We were half a million strong And everywhere there was song and celebration And I dreamed I saw the bombers Riding shotgun in the sky And they were turning into butterflies Above our nation We are stardust Billion-year-old carbon We are golden Caught in the devil's bargain And we've got to get ourselves back to the garden Notes: * The owner of the dairy farm in Bethel, New York, at which the Woodstock Music and Art Fair was held between August 15 and August 18, 1969.. Table 2. Woodstock’s lyrics For the production part, the participants made a drawing that represented what music meant for them and completed the sentence: “Music for me is…” using the vocabulary they knew or looking up words in the dictionary. Chapter V brings the artifacts collected in this session. Lesson Plan Lessons opened with the activation of previous knowledge, the presentation of the artist, and the connection of songs with hippies and counterculture. A video, a transcription of the lyrics and learning tasks supported understanding. We showed the original video of the songs first and then the lyrics with subtitles in English and Spanish (see Table 3). Prompt questions promoted analysis, for instance: “What do you know about John Lennon?” “What do you think is the most important message that the song wants to show?” “What do you think about.

(38) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 38. materialism?” “Based on hippie’s philosophy, why do you think hippies were against materialism?” Session concluded with mind maps or students’ presentations. Table 3. Sample Lesson Session #: 2 Date: March 8th 2017 Students: Time: 1 hour Song: Imagine Artist: John Lennon Specific topic: Hippie Philosophy Objective: To identify the main aspects of Hippie Philosophy Introduction Presentation of the artist Playing the song. General/main discussion. Conclusion Homework. 2. PROCEDURE Students share information they looked up about the Hippie movement. Have you ever heard the name “John Lennon”? If so, what have you heard? The most important aspects of the artist’s life and career is presented in video. Students will be asked what they can infer from title of the song. Students will listen to the song a first time, without looking at the lyrics. They will be asked about what they understood: words and phrases. These will be written on the board. Then, they will have the lyrics of the song with some gaps. They will listen to it a second time, trying to fill them out. The song can be played a third time to give them the opportunity to completely fill the gaps. Are there unknown vocabulary or expressions? If so, these will be explained. Having vocabulary and expressions clarified, now ask about the meaning of the song. What’s the message of the song? Describe it in one sentence. -What do you think is the main topic we will discuss today about? -Regarding the Hippie movement. Students will be guided to discover that the discussion is about the Hippie philosophy. -They will be asked about the definition of “philosophy”, then it will be clarified that even when philosophy usually refers to “the study of general and fundamental problems of concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language”2, this time it will be used to denote basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group – The Hippie movement (a group) in this case. -Taking into account the message and the lyrics of the song, what do you think were the main aspects of the philosophy of the Hippie movement? -The main aspects of Hippie philosophy will be presented to the group. -Now that they have clearer ideas about the main topic, they will identify some of these precepts in the song, quoting words or phrases. -Why do you think hippies thought these things? -What do you think about these precepts? -Do you think these precepts could be or need to be applied these days? Why? What’s the most important of the Hippie movement? Students will look for information about hippie movement (ideas, perspectives, life style…). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy.

(39) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 39. For the last session, the participants selected one of seven artists and made a presentation in pairs emphasizing on the cultural rapport as well as the most representative songs. Others brought a video recording of their presentation to class. Criteria for Data Analysis We decided to base the analysis of the data on Coats (2016), who affirms that “like linguistic genres, music genres also carry implicit information shared by a discourse community”. This brought us to the idea of why music is so important in society, since it can give historical facts, can transmit a message of empowerment and can even make a group of people reflect about something in particular. The songs selected came from 1960’s; lyrics contains cultural reflections on sex and youthful rebellion, and additionally hippies believed rock and roll “to have been their movement’s most definitive cultural imprint and legacy” (Moretta, 2017, p. 83). Coats (2016) proposes five elements of analysis: . Big picture: General points of view of the song. In this part we analyzed the information obtained from the responses to questions such as: “What do you think is the meaning of this song?” “How can you relate the lyrics with the principles of this movement?” This discussion and analysis led them to discover more about the hippie movement and about their principles in life. It also helped us to discover their previous knowledge about the topic and its influence with the expression of their ideas.. . Imagery: Cultural references in the song. Based on the responses about the songs, it was possible to analyze if they were able to identify cultural aspects in the song that they could relate to their daily lives. We also wanted them to highlight differences or similarities between the world of the 60’s and the one they are living in..

(40) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS . 40. Language use: The kind of language used. In this section we analyzed the type of language they used when they wrote or said something, either in English or Spanish. We wanted to know if they used basic or advanced vocabulary to express their ideas or if they had a broad knowledge related to this movement. For example, in the first session when they wrote what music meant to them, they used basic vocabulary (content words but not functional words). This showed that even though their vocabulary is limited, they make an effort to communicate their ideas with what they have at their disposal.. . Grammar: Grammar leads to understand language in a broader sense. When analyzing the data, we carefully saw what type of grammar mistakes they made, how they created sentences when expressing their comments or points of view in a written way. Through the analysis of these aspects, we noticed their grammar strengths and weaknesses. For instance, one of the most common mistakes was the wrong word order of their statements.. . Personal response: Students’ personal opinion. In all sessions, we encouraged them to make personal comments about the songs or simply to share their thoughts related to the main topic. We could realize if they were really interested and motivated on the activities, and their understanding about the hippie movement and its context. These elements “incorporate micro-level linguistic features students need for interpreting. song lyrics and macro-level comprehension that draws on students’ background knowledge and provides a context for understanding perspectives of the target culture to which the song lyrics are inextricably connected” (Coats, 2016, p. 3). These components will serve as the basis to analyze the collected data..

(41) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 41. Chapter V. Data Analysis and Findings This section shows the analysis of all the data collected in the pedagogical intervention based on the five criteria suggested by Coats (2016). It starts with the description of the method used to analyze the data, then it is presented the analysis of the data gathered during each session –two classes per feature-, and it ends with the closing session that covers all the topics worked in the previous classes. Content Analysis We guided the analysis of the data by the Content Analysis method. Content Analysis is defined by Cole (1988) as “a method of analyzing written, verbal or visual communication messages” (as cited in Elo & Kyngas, 2008, p. 107). The process of analysis may be used in either an inductive or deductive way (Elo & Kyngas, 2008. p. 109). We decided to follow the inductive way since it is applied in those cases –like ours- with no previous studies about the phenomenon. The process has three main phases: preparation, organizing, and reporting. The “preparation phase” consists on selecting a unit of analysis that can be “a letter, word, sentence, portion of pages or words …” (p. 109) containing a number of meanings. Such unit of analysis “must be representative of the universe from which it is drawn” (p. 109). In this phase, we selected the initial features of hippism as units of analysis (see Table 1): . General introduction to the Hippie movement. . Promote an ideology focused on peace, love, and personal freedom.. . Aversion to commercialism: superficial values and materialism.. . Life is not what other think you should be, love is free.. . Wrap up.

(42) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 42. As we analyzed the collected data, we distributed the information into the units of analysis we considered it fitted best, taking into account the relation of the content with each of the units. The next phase is the “organization phase”, which consists on reducing the number of categories by grouping them “into broader higher order categories” (Burnard 1991, DowneWamboldt 1992, Dey 1993 as cited in Elo & Kyngas, 2008, p. 111). Although we did not reduce the number of categories, we came up with broader terms for the units of analysis, that enclosed the data drawn and classified in the preparation phase. As a result, the categories: . Woodstock replaced General introduction to Hippie movement. . Philosophy replaced Promote an ideology focused on peace, love, and personal freedom.. . Materialism replaced Aversion to commercialism: superficial values and materialism.. . Love replaced Life is not what other think you should be. Love is free.. . Reflections and Opinions replaced Wrap up Finally, when reporting the analysis and results, it is important to give a detailed. description of the process in order “to increase the reliability of the study” (Elo & Kyngas, 2008, p. 112). This is why we included video and audio recordings’ transcriptions, students’ responses to the lyrics of the songs, and posters: “to demonstrate a link between the results and the data” (Elo & Kyngas, 2008, p. 112). Data Analysis Woodstock. The Woodstock song by Joni Mitchell introduced the topic. We asked questions such as: “Have you heard about the hippie movement?” “What do you know about their philosophy of lifestyle?” These questions served to see how familiarized participants were with the hippie movement..

(43) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 43. Figure 1. Music 1. As an initial activity, students drew a picture of what music represented to them. They also completed the sentence: "Music for me is ...” using the words or expressions they wanted. We obtained a positive response to this activity as the group showed comfortable expressing their thoughts in a personal drawing. Something to highlight is that although the participants did not have a wide vocabulary about the topic, they helped each other by looking for the translation of words in the dictionary or using internet on their phones.. Figure 2. Music 1.

(44) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 44. We noticed several errors of syntax. Particularly nouns and adjectives were misplaced. As shown in figure 2, the noun "harmony" is located before the adjective "universal" when according to the syntax of English it should be the other way around: universal harmony. This can reflect either the ignorance or just the omission of the syntactic rule.. Figure 3. Music 1. In figure 3 we can observe than even though the sentence was not error/mistake free, the message was clearly conveyed and understood. The word the learner was looking for was “feelings”, instead of “sentiments”; moreover, there was a confusion with the use of the articles a/an. However, this uncertainty of the rules did not stop the learner from effectively communicate the idea. Then, they shared with classmates what music meant for them using their drawings. The majority of them stated that listening to music is one of their favorite activities and that they do it every time they can; that is why it seemed so easy for them to express the meaning of music: they based their answers on their contexts. Later, we used some questions to start up the discussion. When we asked if they had heard about the hippie movement we got answers like: - “Sí, son los que dicen paz y amor” (student statement) - “Estuvieron como por los años sesenta” (student statement) - “Creo que estaban en contra de la violencia” (student statement).

(45) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 45. - “Son los que fuman marihuana” (student statement) - “¡Nooo! Esos son los rastas” (classmates response). The answers to this question were minimal, maybe because of the lack of knowledge about the movement or maybe because they did not feel comfortable enough because it was the first session. When one of participants indicated that hippies were the ones who smoked marijuana, other classmates reacted immediately assuring that those people belonged to a different movement –Rastafari- and that he was confusing them. This showed their slight knowledge of the movement -which led to confusions-, and that such knowledge was prejudiced. We highlight that the ones who answered the question claimed to be musicians or to play a musical instrument. Philosophy. The first song, Imagine by John Lennon illustrated the philosophy of the hippie movement and awoke interest in the ninth graders. All but four of the students said that they had never listened to the song before. For this song, we approached the listening skill using a fill in the gaps activity, so that later they could analyze the content of the lyrics. The missing words were intentionally selected and removed because of their relevance in the song, and to review vocabulary they had learned in previous years according to the syllabus. Learners, like the one in Figure 4, filled in the gaps of the lyrics they had in the worksheets, using the subtitles of the video. Despite of the visual aid, there were misspellings for these words: countries, kill, hunger, say, will peace and brotherhood (“contries”, “kil”, “huger”, “sey”, “wil”, “pease and “broteuful”)..

(46) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 46. Figure 4. Imagine. Learners were able to identify the Simple Future tense –the main topic they had been working on their regular English classes- in the lyrics of the song. Approximately half of them recognized the tense, while others said that they did not remember that structure..

(47) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. 47. Figure 5. Imagine. The other song we worked on was The night they drove Old Dixie down by Joan Baez. Learners could not predict its content for they had no reference. After watching the video and reading the lyrics they claimed they saw the connection with the Hippie movement. In the worksheet, the group had to arrange the lines in logical order, by listening to the song. It was easier for them than other activities in which they had to complete the sentences with what they listened to..

(48) HIPPIE SONGS AND LYRICS FOR CULTURAL AWARENESS. Figure 6. Joan Báez worksheet 1. Figure 7. Erickson, A. (2017). 48.

Figure

Table 1 is an example of one of the observations. There, we highlight important aspects  in class as the participation and the motivation of the group towards the song and the activities

Table 1

is an example of one of the observations. There, we highlight important aspects in class as the participation and the motivation of the group towards the song and the activities p.25
Table 1. Content of the pedagogical intervention that narrowed the inquiry.  (Own  Production)

Table 1.

Content of the pedagogical intervention that narrowed the inquiry. (Own Production) p.34
Table 2. Woodstock’s lyrics

Table 2.

Woodstock’s lyrics p.37
Table 3. Sample Lesson

Table 3.

Sample Lesson p.38
Figure 1. Music 1

Figure 1.

Music 1 p.43
Figure 2. Music 1

Figure 2.

Music 1 p.43
Figure 3. Music 1

Figure 3.

Music 1 p.44
Figure 4. Imagine

Figure 4.

Imagine p.46
Figure 5. Imagine

Figure 5.

Imagine p.47
Figure 7. Erickson, A. (2017)

Figure 7.

Erickson, A. (2017) p.48
Figure 6. Joan Báez worksheet 1

Figure 6.

Joan Báez worksheet 1 p.48
Figure 8. Erickson, A. (2017)

Figure 8.

Erickson, A. (2017) p.49
Figure 9. Erickson, A. (2017)

Figure 9.

Erickson, A. (2017) p.50
Figure 10. Complete sentence activity

Figure 10.

Complete sentence activity p.50
Figure 11. Like a Rolling Stone Lyrics

Figure 11.

Like a Rolling Stone Lyrics p.53
Figure 13. Vocabulary exercise result

Figure 13.

Vocabulary exercise result p.54
Figure 12. Vocabulary exercise

Figure 12.

Vocabulary exercise p.54
Figure 14. Billboard (2014)

Figure 14.

Billboard (2014) p.56
Figure 15. Lola lyrics

Figure 15.

Lola lyrics p.57
Figure 16. Grammar mistakes

Figure 16.

Grammar mistakes p.58
Figure 17. Joan Báez poster

Figure 17.

Joan Báez poster p.59
Figure 18. Janis Joplin poster

Figure 18.

Janis Joplin poster p.60
Figure 19. Janis Joplin poster 2

Figure 19.

Janis Joplin poster 2 p.61

Referencias

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