A Descriptive Analysis of Anglicisms Used in Ecuadorian Newspapers

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UNIVERSIDAD TÉCNICA PARTICULAR DE LOJA

ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN

MENCIÓN INGLÉS

MODALIDAD ABIERTA Y A DISTANCIA

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF ANGLICISMS

USED IN ECUADORIAN NEWSPAPERS

Research done in order to achieve

the Bachelor’s Degree in Teaching

English as a Foreign Language

AUTORA:

TAY LEE SUN LING

DIRECTORA:

MGS. PINZA ELIANA

(2)

CERTIFICATION

Eliana Pinza Tapia

CERTIFIES THAT:

This research study has been thoroughly revised by the graduation

committee. Therefore, authorizes the presentation of this thesis, which

complies with all the norms and internal requirements of the Universidad

Técnica Particular de Loja.

Loja, September, 2010

……….

(3)

CONTRATO DE CESIÓN DE DERECHOS

DE TESIS DE GRADO

“Yo, SUN LING TAY LEE declaro ser autora del presente trabajo y eximo

expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus

representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales.

Adicionalmente declaro conocer y aceptar la disposición del Art. 67 del

Estatuto Orgánico de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja que en su

parte pertinente textualmente dice: “formar parte del patrimonio de la

Universidad la propiedad intelectual de investigaciones, trabajos

científicos o técnicos y tesis de grado que se realicen a través, o que el

apoyo financiero, académico o institucional (operativo) de la

Universidad”.

………

(4)

AUTHORSHIP

The thoughts, ideas, opinions and the information obtained through this

research are the only responsibility of the author.

Loja, September, 2010

………..

Sun Ling Tay Lee

(5)

DEDICATION

This final study is dedicated with all my love to my family Fernando and

Daniela, both of them, my major blessings. Only with their

unconditional support, love and patience I have been able to achieve this

(6)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

To God, Great Architect of the Universe, to Universidad Técnica

Particular de Loja, its authorities and to my advisor Mgs. Eliana Pinza

Tapia, the ideal advisor, for her invaluable guidance to fulfill this

(7)

CONTENTS TABLE

Certification i

Contrato de Cesión de Derechos ii

Authorship iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgment v

Abstract 1

Introduction 3

Methodology 7

Results 11

Discussion

Theoretical Background 27

Description, Analysis and Interpretation of Results 59

Conclusions 99

Bibliography 102

(8)

Abstract

The following thesis has as theme “A descriptive analysis of

anglicisms used in Ecuadorian newspapers”.

It basically looks for understanding the variation in language

usage in newspapers regarding the expressions containing anglicisms at

the same time identifying which are the really necessary ones among

them.

It took place in Quito, based on a bibliographic method for

gathering the scientific material necessary for the theoretical

background. Then the Analytic and Descriptive methods were used in

order to fulfill the field investigation, as well as to do the descriptive and

statistical analysis, and the interpretation of the data gathered through

the field research.

The research was applied considering the sample which consisted

of three newspapers: El Comercio, Ultimas Noticias and El Extra, with

their sections: News, Ads, Reports, Social and Sports. Moreover as

techniques we used selection of written material, note-taking to collect

bibliographic information and interviews to linguists, journalists and

readers. This methodological design was completed with the use of

instruments like interview and charts forms.

This paper provides a linguistic, semantic-syntactic, morphologic

analysis of the chosen thirty anglicisms; we also add appropriate

(9)

After doing the cited analysis including comparative and

sociological ones we found that the subvariables with highest frequency

of anglicisms use do not differ from one variable to another.

Furthermore, anglicisms are well accepted by a certain group of readers

and neglected by others, who consider them unnecessary due to the

richness our language. Undoubtedly languages are dynamic and, as a

consequence, they are continuously changing. Language borrowings are

(10)

Introduction

Languages are dynamic and as a result they are continuously

changing. This phenomenon is nowadays observed in a widely

acknowledged upsurge in anglicisms.

In our country, especially in its two major cities Quito and

Guayaquil, we find a huge influence of English. This influence is clearly

observed in the more usual loan of English words in one field: their

newspapers. This upsurge is due to factors such as the arrival of workers

from English speaking countries, immigration, and subsequent economic

and political involvement, and during the last years the denomination of

Ecuador as a touristic destiny. Besides, we can not forget the cited

phenomenon of globalization spurred on by North American

commercialism, and specially the development and access to

communication media such as: cable television, and movies which are

showed almost at the same time as they are in United States, Internet,

press and magazines. All these factors have conducted to the bigger

importance anglicisms acquired everyday as part of our speech.

Sensitive to the need for a deeper linguistic analysis of anglicisms

use in Ecuadorian newspapers, which has unfortunately been an

unexplored area, the University has settled the theme “A descriptive

analysis of anglicisms used in Ecuadorian newspapers” as the final

research before obtaining our degree. In this way the University, and

specifically we, the students, have the great opportunity to present new

(11)

challenge to give to the community material that has already been

studied in other countries, but not in ours.

One important part of our work is the theoretical background

which is based on information taken from different bibliographical

sources. At this point we can mention the utility of previous studies

about our topic. However it was quite a difficult assignment to find

them. What we found were studies made in Spain, Argentina and

Venezuela about topics referred to anglicisms but not to their direct use

in newspapers, such as: economic anglicisms, anglicisms in Buenos

Aires Spanish and lastly English borrowings in Venezuelan Spanish in

their order. Nevertheless, they were not about our specific topic, they

were extremely useful for the development of our work.

Besides this limitation, we had another one when referring to the

articles to be read in order to find out anglicisms use. Fortunately it was

solved by reading almost all of the information in each newspaper.

In order to understand the importance of this research we cite its

Specific Objectives as follows:

• To identify syntactic and lexical anglicisms more commonly used in

newspaper material in Ecuador.

Through the exhaustive reading of the newspapers chosen as sample, we

could identify those anglicisms more commonly used in there. We found

more than 50 anglicisms with a total repetition of more than 500 times

(12)

• To do a deep analysis of the anglicisms found in Ecuadorian

newspapers regarding etymological, syntactic-semantic and

morphological aspects.

With the help of both dictionaries, one from the Royal Academy of

Spanish Language and Merriam’s Webster it was quite an unproblematic

objective to fulfill. Fortunately these dictionaries had the complete

information, which was very useful to do the requested analysis.

• To determine the written sections of Ecuadorian newspapers in

which anglicisms are mostly used.

With the conscious reading of the newspapers, and the clear directions

given by our teachers, to do the charts and statistic data, it was possible

to determine the sections in our newspapers in which anglicisms are

mostly used.

• To know the level of acceptance that Ecuadorians have on the use

of anglicisms in newspapers.

Because the chosen linguists were specialized in Spanish language, we

could have a clear idea about the opinions this group of professionals

has around anglicisms use. It was interesting to hear their reluctance to

foreign loans and the reasons for this disapproval. On the other hand

we had readers’ opinions, who have a more opened attitude towards

anglicisms. About this point I would like to point out that my research

would be more complete and accurate if as part of the instruments I

would have applied surveys to a more extent sample. However, with the

(13)

It can be concluded that anglicisms are constantly being

incorporated to our daily speech. They are accepted by the population,

and they are not only part of specific jargons, they are starting to be

incorporated to many other fields. To be able to understand them in a

professional way it is extremely important to consider English in a global

context, which at least indirectly, influences the borrowing of one or

several words elements into other languages. This research is expected

to help its readers to have a clear view about anglicisms penetration,

(14)

Methodology

To fulfill our research, we have followed some clear and very

important steps. Noticing that the topic to be carried out is “A descriptive

analysis of anglicisms used in Ecuadorian newspapers” it was

undeniably basic to set up the information required for the further

processing, presentation, analysis, description, and interpretation of the

data that will be collected once the Field Research was done.

To gather the information in order to support the Theoretical

Background, many sources were consulted, including a variety of books,

magazines and internet pages. The amount of information for this part

was so huge that one of the most difficult assignments was to compile

this information into the scheme requested by the University, trying to

use only the most relevant and supporting opinions, facts, definitions,

specific data, etc.

After the theoretical background was presented and approved by

the group in charge of the graduation program the next step was to

present the results obtained from the field investigation.

In order to carry out this practical research the sample was

selected based on the capability to collect it. Thus, the sample consisted

in newspapers which have circulation in Quito. They were collected

through seven consecutive days, however Sunday November 29th was not

considered because that day not all the newspapers had circulation in

the city. In other words the dates went from November 24th 2009 to

(15)

The chosen sample, also considered as our variables are: El

Comercio (newspaper with national circulation), Ultimas Noticias (local

newspaper) and Extra (tabloid or sensationalist newspaper). At the same

time, the sections taken into account to fulfill the research and which are

our subvariables are: News, Ads, Social and Culture pages, Reports and

Sports.

The three cited newspapers were chosen because I consider they

are the most representative of their kind and constitute a good sample to

develop this investigation.

After collecting the newspapers, the next step consisted in a deep

and conscious reading of them in order to find out as many anglicisms as

it was possible. Once the anglicisms were located we had to continue

with their organization. To achieve this, the information was classified

day by day, and is showed through 15 charts. In each of them, the

information is presented considering the Variable, Subvariable and the

context where they appear plus the number of repetition it presents. On

the other hand, Charts 16, 17 and 18 present the frequency of

anglicisms use in the Subvariables of each newspaper. Finally Chart 19

presents the most frequent anglicisms used in our sample newspapers.

To do the charts basic statistical tools, such as frequency and

percentages were used.

One problem that could appear during the process was the

selection of the articles taken into consideration for anglicisms search,

(16)

each one. Only in this way I found enough amount of interesting

anglicisms to develop this work.

After the acceptance of the field research, the next step was the

analysis of our results. To fulfill this step the methodology applied was a

field diagnostic-descriptive investigation with the correspondent

statistical analysis. In other words, 30 anglicisms were chosen among

the three variables. After that, each anglicism was analyzed from a

linguistic view, which at the same time included etymological,

syntactic-semantic and morphologic analysis. Here we used tools like English and

Spanish Dictionaries and the opinion of linguists, readers as well our

own thoughts.

The opinions which helped to carry out the analysis were from

two linguists and two frequent newspapers readers. They were asked to

answer a short questionnaire about their opinions facing anglicisms use.

It is important to state that the two linguists are specialized in Spanish.

I chose them because I considered essential and attention-grabbing to

know the opinions from people who are not connected to English

language. Their opinions are summarized in the sociological analysis.

Also the opinion of a radio journalist was included. This section is

completed with the interviews made to five frequent readers. Two

young-middle aged readers (-25 years old), two adults (35-50 years old) a senior

adult reader (76 years old). Their opinions have constituted an important

(17)

As a summary of the followed methodology it can be said that the

most accurate and appropriate methods to do our investigation were:

bibliographic method for gathering the scientific material necessary for

the theoretical background, analytical and descriptive methods to

complete the proposal in order to perform the descriptive and statistical

analysis, and the interpretation of the data.

The techniques used were: note taking at the moment of collecting

bibliographic information, direct observation to gather newspapers data,

interviews and conversations with linguists and readers. These

techniques had the support of questionnaires and charts. The formats of

these two instruments, as well as the charts’ are included in the Annex

(18)

Results

CHART ONE

Variable: National Newspaper El Comercio Subvariable: News

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

flex Se ven restos de

espuma flex 2 Estudiantes del Montúfar no usan puente

24-11-09

LED Tecnología LED 2 Venezuela dará 5.1.

millones de focos

24-11-09

exprés Secuestro exprés 3 Pichincha registra 13

secuestros exprés

25-11-09

fuel oil Como fuel oil, nafta o bunker

2 19 proyectos eléctricos a paso lento

25-11-09

show Show de Méndez 2 Show de Méndez y de Liga 26-11-09

stand Stands de la Plaza

de las Américas 1 El chofer elegido, en vigencia

26-11-09

flogger La flogger más famosa de Argentina

1 El tema de la imagen se analizó en la Feria del Libro

26-11-09

ranking Ubicadas en ranking 1 La universidad, en la mira 26-11-09

round Un round más duro

para Uribe

2 Canciller de Colombia no llega a cita

27-11-09

laptop Una laptop por niño 6 Uruguay dice sí a una laptop por niño

27-11-09

ranking Allá no hay ranking 3 Evaluación polémica 27-11-09

notebook Que puedo hacer en mi notebook

2 Uruguay dice sí a una laptop por niño

27-11-09

off La voz en off decía 2 María Caridad, la nueva

reina de Quito

27-11-09

round En este round

Colombia pudo 3 Colombia gana un round a Venezuela

28-11-09

test Este test de

confianza 2 El estado de excepción se ampliará

28-11-09

stock Abastecer su stock 2 La huelga de ERCO

encarece llantas

30-11-09

blog Ironizó desde su

blog

3 Mujica, nuevo presidente de Uruguay

30-11-09

web Es el portal web 1 Punto de enlace 01-12-09

GPS Fuimos con mapas y

GPS

1 El ejército buscó a Solarte en Opuno

01-12-09

gay La primera pareja

gay

1 La primera boda gay se suspende

01-12-09

(19)

CHART TWO

Variable: National Newspaper El Comercio Subvariable: Ads

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE Ipod,DVD,LCD El Ipod,DVD, las

pantallas LCD, las aplicaciones

1 Gran Atlas de la Ciencia 24-11-09

suite Se arrienda suite amoblada

8 Bines Raíces 24-11-09

full Se vende auto full

equipo 8 Vehículos

24-11-09

garage sale Aproveche la garage

sale 1 Mercaderías

24-11-09

estándar Con los más altos

estándares de calidad1 Nuevos Alup

25-11-09

stock Hasta agotar stock 1 DePrati promociones 25-11-09

light Parrilla light y vegetariana

1 Secretos de la parrilla 25-11-09

GPS No al GPS 1 Placer es el nuevo BMWX1 26-11-09

SAV Este poderoso SAV 1 Placer es el nuevo BMWX1 26-11-09

semifull Cabina simple

semifull 1 Mazda BT-50 2900 4x2

26-11-09

light Parrilla light y

vegetariana 1 Secretos de la parrilla

27-11-09

Email Mi Email es más fácil 3 Nokia connecting people 27-11-09 Internet dial

up Conexión a Internet dial up 2 Telecsa escogió a CANTV como socio

27-11-09

light Parrilla light y vegetariana

1 Secretos de la parrilla 27-11-09

LED Con luces LED 1 Salón de Navidad 27-11-09

VIP Arena VIP 1 Plaza de Toros Belmonte 27-11-09

stock Hasta agotar stock 2 Megamaxi promociones 28-11-09

full Volkswagen full

equipo

5 Vehículos 28-11-09

premium Marca líder de

segmento premium 2 Audi, número uno en Ecuador

30-11-09

penthouse Penthouse de venta 3 Bienes Raíces 30-11-09

stock Hasta agotar stock 1 Adriana Hoyos, super

colección

01-12-09

minisuite Minisuite amoblada 2 Bienes Raíces 01-12-09

(20)

CHART THREE

Variable: National Newspaper El Comercio Subvariable: Social and Culture Pages

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

blog ¿Se puede escribir

ficción en un blog? 2 Seis días dedicados a la cultura

24-11-09

remake Disney anunció

hará un remake

1 “High School Musical” tendrá version China

24-11-09

blog En su blog se

encuentran datos

2 “Kito kon k “es la ciudad que salió

25-11-09

film

El premio al film más taquillero

2 “El secreto de sus ojos”

gustó en Quito 24-11-09

Para tener la realización del film

1 Todos en algún momento

hacemos canalladas

26-11-09

trailers Encontrará trailers

de películas 2 Punto de enlace

27-11-09

merchan-dising

Mucha promoción y merchandising

1 Amor adolescente con sed de sangre

27-11-09

Latin jazz Ritmos hasta el latin jazz

1 IMC band de la USFQ 27-11-09

film

El film aumenta la tensión

El segundo film de la saga

2

3

“Perro come perro: la estética de la violencia”

Amor adolescente con sed de sangre

27-11-09

27-11-09

web En esta web

encontrará

1 Punto de enlace 27-11-09

best-seller Cómo hacer un best seller

2 Meyer, juega con el héroe romántico

28-11-09

rock star Digno del mayor

rock star 3 Berlusconi es el rock star del año

28-11-09

film Cuatro filmes

chilenos 2 Películas chilenas brillan

30-11-09

VIP Para arena VIP 1 Festival taurino con fines

benéficos

30-11-09

performance Performance de Marcelo Evelin

2 Un performance de

Marcelo Evelin

30-11-09

post El premio de post

producción

1 Películas chilenas brillan 30-11-09

web En la página web 3 Aurelio Valdez, reconocido

en Bolivia

01-12-09

(21)

CHART FOUR

Variable: National Newspaper El Comercio Subvariable: Reports

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

flex Se ven restos de

espuma flex 2 Los estudiantes del Montúfar no usan puente

24-11-09

LED Tecnología LED 2 Venezuela dará 5.1.

millones de focos

24-11-09

mall En el mall no hay

cortes de luz

3 Con los apagones creció la afluencia de gente en el centro comercial

25-11-09

web Nos remitamos a la

pagina web 2 Con la nueva ley será imposible la investigación

25-11-09

hit Las radios repiten

hits extranjeros 2 La producción nacional se incentivará por obligación

26-11-09

fan Tendrá fans que lo

impulsen

2 La producción nacional se incentivará por obligación

26-11-09

sachet Empaques tipo

sachet

2 41 sabores de pulpa se ofertan

26-11-09

shock Estábamos en

shock 1 El delito desborda a la reforma penal

27-11-09

DJ Prefiere bailar al

ritmo del DJ 2 Las fiestas de Quito cumplen 50 años

27-11-09

fuel oil Combustible entre

diesel y fuel oil 2 Los subsidios crecerán con apagones

27-11-09

ranking El ranking mundial de universidades

3 La investigación le dio “A” a la Espol

27-11-09

mail Y yo reenvío los

mails

2 La investigación le dio “A” a la Espol

27-11-09

check list Un check list, que

se les daba 1 La investigación le dio “A” a la Espol

27-11-09

plus La investigación es

el plus 1 La investigación le dio “A” a la Espol

27-11-09

marketing Trámites legales,

marketing 2 El emprendedor busca capacitación

28-11-09

blog A través de su blog 2 Estrellas muestran su

faceta verde

28-11-09

express El llamado

secuestro express

2 El rey de copas 30-11-09

ranking Ocupó el sexto

lugar en el ranking 2 Los emprendedores se transformaron

01-12-09

boom Este boom del

emprendimiento 2 La prensa escrita incubó a nuevos emprendedores

01-12-09

(22)

CHART FIVE

Variable: National Newspaper El Comercio Subvariable: Sports

ANGLICISM EXAMPLES TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE ticket El ticket permitió a

los aficionados 4 Liga puso a la venta 28.000 localidades

24-11-09

set Ganó en dos sets 2 Dos equipos buscan cupo 24-11-09

pívot Actúe como pívot 2 La estrategia de Fossati 24-11-09

slogan Apeló al slogan Promociona un slogan

1

1

Solo falta esta copa

Gloria Paz, la terapeuta

25-11-09

27-11-09

boom Boom petrolero 1 Lupe de Ureña, se desvela 25-11-09

ringtone El ringtone de su

Nokia 1 Lupe de Ureña, se desvela

25-11-09

Club La directiva del

club decidió 3 Barcelona revisa 55 contratos

25-11-09

hat trik El hat trik de Edison Méndez

1 Méndez y el equipo

estuvieron prendidos

26-11-09

charter En un charter 2 Albos no usarán titulares 27-11-09

suite En la suite que

pertenece

4 Gloria Paz, la terapeuta 27-11-09

spa Empleados de su

spa a la final

3 Gloria Paz, la terapeuta 27-11-09

top five El top five de la semana

1 Gloria Paz, la terapeuta 27-11-09

club Para que el club

logre 4 Cuenca retiene a 10 campeones

28-11-09

play off Equipos que

jugarán los play off 2 Torneo de ascenso continúa en

28-11-09

chat Hin chat 2 Participa de nuestro chat 30-11-09

club Los clubes tienen

las armas 7 La sociedad anónima no es garantía

30-11-09

másters Ganó el másters de

tenis 3 Davydenko ganó el Másters de tennis

30-11-09

break Concluir sus tres bolas de break

2 Davydenko ganó el

Másters de tennis

30-11-09

set En dos sets

En dos sets

2 2

Davydenko ganó Másters Irvin destronó a Villaflora

30-11-09 30-11-09 ranking No. uno del ranking 3 Nadal en baja potencia 30-11-09

top Jugadores top 2 Nadal en baja potencia 30-11-09

look Jugaba con su look

de surfista

2 Nadal en baja potencia 30-11-09

set En el tercer set 2 Williams será suspendida 01-12-09

tour Cada tour cuesta

US$1400

3 Fluminense confía en

golear a Liga

01-12-09

chárter Saldrán los charter 2 Fluminense confía en golear a Liga

01-12-09

DVD ¿Está bien

conectado el DVD?

5 Xavier Burbano el espía digital

01-12-09

(23)

CHART SIX

Variable: Local Newspaper Ultimas Noticias Subvariable: News

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

web Mensajes recorren

la web 2 La prensa marcha contra nueva ley

24-11-09

exprés Secuestro exprés 5 Quito, ¿secuestro exprés? 25-11-09

show Era el show de la

Feria 2 Los niños cuenteros

25-11-09

broster Huele a pollo y no

es broster 1 En la Pampa están hartos de las plumas

26-11-09

show Que abrieron el

show

2 Será la reina de los niños 27-11-09

smog Túneles llenos de

smog

2 Más que unos túneles 27-11-09

test El test da confianza 1 Estado de excepción por un mes más

28-11-09

blog Participan a través

de su blog 2 Otra marcha en dos semanas

28-11-09

blog En su blog se

describe 2 Latigada por culpa de corta minifalda

30-11-09

dumping Por prácticas de dumping

2 Acusan a China de

dumping

30-11-09

ringtone El ringtone de su celular

1 Desapareció y fue hallado muerto

01-12-09

(24)

CHART SEVEN

Variable: Local Newspaper Ultimas Noticias Subvariable: Ads

ANGLICISM EXAMPLES TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

full Polo full extras 4 Vehículos 24-11-09

rent a car En V y V rent a car 2 Vehículos 24-11-09

VHS Se arreglanTV, VHS 2 Mercadería 24-11-09

cyber Se vende cyber café 2 Negocios 24-11-09

marketing Domine marketing 1 10 claves para mi negocio 24-11-09

Laptop Laptops nuevas 3 Mercadería 25-11-09

Web,WAP Chat

Correo movistar, Web, WAP y Chat

1 Movistar te regala 25-11-09

CD CD móvil 1 Negocios 26-11-09

full Daewoo full equipo 3 Vehículos 27-11-09

burguer Vendo burguer 2 Negocios 28-11-09

DJ Contrate DJ 2 Servicios 28-11-09

Laptop Laptops,

computadoras

2 Mercadería 30-11-09

Laptop Laptops nuevas 2 Mercadería 01-12-09

LCD Televisores LCD 2 Mercadería 01-12-09

full Optra full 2 Vehículos 01-12-09

Author: Sun Ling Tay Lee

CHART EIGHT

Variable: Local Newspaper Ultimas Noticias Subvariable: Social Pages

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

fans Las fans de Sandro 2 Sandro con corazón y

pulmón nuevos

24-11-09

cheerleaders Bastoneras,

cheerleaders, 2 Se prende fiesta quiteña

25-11-09

film La realización del

film 2 Todos en algún momento somos canallas

26-11-09

show Se roba el show

Un show antológico 2 5

Ríase de los desamores Metal europeo, el fuerte

27-11-09 27-11-09

rock Labrando el futuro

del rock

3 Metal europeo, el fuerte 27-11-09

heavy metal El heavy metal de Resistencia

6 La resistencia del heavy 27-11-09

web Muchas opciones

en la web 2 Opciones de farra

30-11-09

show Disfrute el show 2 Celebremos las fiestas 01-12-09

fan Las fans se

emocionaron 2 Artistas cantan a Quito

01-12-09

(25)

CHART NINE

Variable: Local Newspaper Ultimas Noticias Subvariable: Reports

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

web En la web mire una

galería de fotos 1 María Francisca Paz y Miño

24-11-09

mail Escríbanos un mail 1 Una pesadilla de película 24-11-09

web Más en la web

Me conecté a la web

1

2 Tu palabra El testimonio de aquellos días

25-11-09 25-11-09

crews Ellos les llaman

crews

2 Arte, color y cultura urbana

25-11-09

Infocus Además les presta un infocus

1 Arte, color y cultura urbana

25-11-09

jeans Aquel tipo de

pantalones jeans 2 Lo asaltaron y venció el miedo

25-11-09

CD Vendía Cds y

periódicos

1 Lo asaltaron y venció el miedo

25-11-09

hobby Rossi arte y hobby 1 Un decorativo reno 26-11-09

glitter Aplique una buena

cantidad de glitter 2 Un decorativo reno

26-11-09

rock Una banda de rock

gótico

3 Solo la prensa fue más allá en el caso Factory

27-11-09

mail Y los mails

enviados

2 Él pone de pie a los narcos 30-11-09

light Seguir una dieta

light 1 Que no se deshidrate

01-12-09

(26)

CHART TEN

Variable: Local Newspaper Ultimas Noticias Subvariable: Sports

ANGLICISM EXAMPLES TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

Tour Hay tours privados 3 AKD, fin de la chirez 24-11-09

charter Charteando

aviones 1 AKD, fin de la chirez

24-11-09

master Se coronó campeón

master 2 Etica Profesional se llevó título

24-11-09

fitness Fitness: si le gusta

estar bien 1 ¿Pie plano? El ejercicio ayuda

24-11-09

off side Reclamó por un off side

2 Liga, un carnaval que hizo delirar

26-11-09

Club El club brasilero 3 No se puede pedir más 26-11-09

Tour Organizando varios

tours

4 Los tours se alistan a viajar

27-11-09

club Directivos de otros clubes

2 Ya están en la Copa 27-11-09

play off primera parte de los play off

2 Liga va al Guayas sin Méndez

27-11-09

deficit Déficit económico 2 Hay en quien apoyarse 27-11-09

ranking Dentro del ranking de la COSAT

2 Mañana arrancará la

quinta Copa

27-11-09

blog Todo está en el blog 2 Flu salió del descenso 30-11-09

Ranking En el ranking de la

COSAT 3 Se inició Quito Junior Open

30-11-09

software Software, matriz o

lo que sea 2 Nueva dirigencia, nuevos cerebros

30-11-09

set Ganó en dos sets

6-2 y 6-6-2 2 Se inició el Quito Junior Open

30-11-09

Charter El charter de Tame 3 Las peripecias en Río 01-12-09

mail A través del mail se

comunican 1 Los chullas no están confiados

01-12-09

(27)

CHART ELEVEN

Variable: Tabloid Extra Subvariable: News

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE pick up Conducía una pick

up Nissan 2 Aplastados por el cajón de su camioneta

24-11-09

ranking el ranking mundial 7 Ranking de la corrupción 26-11-09

laptop Encontraron

laptops en su poder 2 Asaltaban en carros robados

27-11-09

web En el portal web 2 Compañía maneja portal

web

27-11-09

on line Plataforma on line 2 Más firmas recurren a titularizacón

28-11-09

mail Se comunicaban

con mails

2 Estafaban vendiendo

carros robados

30-11-09

tour Este brutal tour 2 Chofer loco embistió a diez

personas

30-11-09

mail El envío de mails 2 Quito, enorme bodega de

droga

01-12-09

Author: Sun Ling Tay Lee

CHART TWELVE

Variable: Tabloid Extra Subvariable: Ads

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

suite suites amobladas 3 Bienes Raíces 24-11-09

full Vitara full equipo 4 Vehículos 24-11-09

van repuestos para

autos, vans, buses

1 Star Motors: La Casa

Mercedes Benz

25-11-09

full Esteem full equipo 5 Vehículos 25-11-09

VIP Salas VIP 2 Cartelera 25-11-09

chat Chat en vivo 5 Servicios 26-11-09

call center Call center medio

tiempo 2 Trabajos

26-11-09

hot Hot! 5 Servicios 27-11-09

chat Chat en vivo 4 Servicios 27-11-09

laptop Laptop toshiba 6 Mercaderías 27-11-09

Ítems 30% descuento en

items

1 Grifine Ceramics 28-11-09

full Megane full equipo 5 Vehículos 28-11-09

chat Participa en el chat 3 Servicios 30-11-09

Open house Gran open house 1 Central Park Club 30-11-09

web Visita nuestra

página web

2 Corín Tellado y Extra 01-12-09

call center Trabaje en call

center 1 Trabajos

01-12-09

(28)

CHART THIRTEEN Variable: Tabloid Extra Subvariable: Social Pages

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE

show En cada uno de

sus shows

Como teloneros del show

4

2

Yolanda López: voy a las pasarelas

Wisin Yandel: exquisito en Ambato

24-11-09

24-11-09

club Hasta con un club

de fans 2 Fernando Lara: todo un fenómeno

24-11-09

fans Gracias al apoyo de

su fans

2 Fernando Lara: todo un fenómeno

24-11-09

staff El staff de “Los Extraterrestres”

3 Wisin Yandel: exquisito en Ambato

24-11-09

marketing Haber creado todo un marketing

1 Karen Minda: la diosa soy yo

25-11-09

rock El grupo de rock 4 Voy a dar un gran

concierto

26-11-09

shopping De shopping 2 Voy a dar un gran

concierto

26-11-09

Show El montaje del

show empezó

4 Voy ad ar un gran

concierto

26-11-09

feeling Todavía hay feeling 1 Carolina: enamorada como la primera vez

27-11-09

mall La encontramos en

el mall

2 Paola infraganti 28-11-09

staff Participa en el staff del programa

2 Paola infraganti 28-11-09

CD Su sexto Cd 3 Casi Ángeles: no nos

vamos a separar

30-11-09

record Ha batido records

con su 4to.CD 2 Casi Ángeles: no nos vamos a separar

30-11-09

fast track Ultima competencia fast track

1 Ecuador en reñida

competencia

30-11-09

sexy Es sexy hasta en la

mirada

3 Magali, la roquera sexy 30-11-09

reality show Además de los realitys de Gama

2 Dora West, la bella morena

01-12-09

Show En el show

participan 3 Hoy Quito tiene show para largo

01-12-09

(29)

CHART FOURTEEN Variable: Tabloid Extra Subvariable: Reports

ANGLICISM EXAMPLES TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE fashion Le dará un toque

fashion 1 Escogiendo el juego de dormitorio

24-11-09

jeans Con jeans

ajustados

1 De Cali es Quito la sucursal

25-11-09

DJ La música del DJ 2 De Cali es Quito la

sucursal

25-11-09

CD Ha grabado 5 Cd’s 4 Máximo León, sigue

rugiendo

26-11-09

breaker Tener un bipolar o breaker

4 Recomendaciones para

evitar tragedias

27-11-09

DVD Nuestras series

favoritas en DVD 2 Perdidos en la repetición

28-11-09

boom Furon el boom en

otras épocas

1 Perdidos en la repetición 28-11-09

baby shower Participaron en el baby shower

2 Belleza celebra baby shower

30-11-09

hit Fue un verdadero

hit

2 “La niñera” que todos queremos

30-11-09

tips Difundió tips de

cocina

2 Difusión cultural a través de radio

01-12-09

remake El remake de 60’s 1 Otra de terror 01-12-09

Author: Sun Ling Tay Lee

CHART FIFTEEN

Variable: Tabloid Extra Subvariable: Sports

ANGLICISM EXAMPLE TIMES TITLE OF THE ARTICLE DATE Champions revelación de la

Champions

3 Rubín Kazán quiere pasar a octavos

24-11-09

club El club se

concentró

2 Flu no tiene miedo a la altura

24-11-09

penalti Quien atajó tres penaltis

2 Se vuelven a ver las caras 25-11-09

suite Reunidos en la

suite presencial

1 Hasta los empleados en Barcelona

25-11-09

debut Año de debut 2 Méndez, culpable 27-11-09

club El club de la 3 Dos estilos se enfrentan 28-11-09

corner Cobró el corner 2 Chullas con medio título 30-11-09

off side Cobró el off side 2 Chullas con medio título 30-11-09 charter Luego al charter

que salió desde 2 Sarita, la hincha más chiquita

01-12-09

set En el tercer set

perdió el control 4 Final de infarto

01-12-09

(30)

CHART SIXTEEN

Variable: National Newspaper El Comercio

SECTION f %

News 42 18

Ads 48 21

ANGLICISMS Social Pages 32 14

Sports 37 16

Reports 71 31

Total 230 100

Author: Sun Ling Tay Lee

CHART SEVENTEEN

Variable: Local Newspaper Ultimas Noticias

SECTION f %

News 22 16

Ads 32 23

ANGLICISMS Social Pages 28 20

Sports 20 14

Reports 37 27

Total 139 100

(31)

CHART EIGHTEEN Variable: Tabloid Extra

SECTION f %

News 21 13

Ads 50 31

ANGLICISMS Social Pages 43 27

Sports 22 14

Reports 23 15

Total 159 100

Author: Sun Ling Tay Lee

CHART NINETEEN

The Most and the Least frequent anglicisms (in all variables)

ANGLICISMS WORD REPETITION NUMBER

full 36

ranking 27

club 26

show 26

web 20

laptop 17

suite 16

chat 14

set 14

mail 13

blog 12

film 12

tour 12

charter 10

exprés 10

rock 10

cd 9

(32)

ANGLICISMS REPETITION TIMES OF

DVD 7

dj 6

flex 6

heavy metal 6

stock 6

hot 5

led 5

mall 5

round 5

boom 4

breaker 4

fuel oil 4

hit 4

light 4

marketing 4

master 4

off side 4

play off 4

ticket 4

call center 3

champions 3

email 3

jeans 3

penthouse 3

performance 3

rock star 3

sexy 3

spa 3

test 3

top 3

baby shower 2

best seller 2

break 2

burger 2

cheerleader 2

corner 2

crew 2

debut 2

deficit 2

dumping 2

glitter 2

GPS 2

internet 2

items 2

Latin jazz 2

(33)

ANGLICISMS REPETITION TIMES OF

look 2

notebook 2

off 2

on line 2

penalti 2

pick up 2

pivot 2

premium 2

reality show 2

record 2

remake 2

rent a car 2

Ring tone 2

sachet 2

shopping 2

slogan 2

smog 2

software 2

staff 2

tips 2

trailers 2

VHS 2

VIP 2

broster 1

check list 1

estándar 1

fashion 1

fast track 1

feeling 1

fitness 1

flogger 1

garage 1

gay 1

hobby 1

infocus 1

ipod 1

market 1

open house 1

plus 1

SAV 1

semifull 1

shock 1

stand 1

van 1

(34)

DISCUSSION

The following section contains the theoretical background which

supports this research. Definition and explanation of important

linguistic terms, historical information and previous studies about the

topic are some of the items included.

After this theoretical setting three kinds of analysis will be

developed. They are: linguistic, comparative and sociological. They will

be the base for the final conclusions, with which this section is

completed.

Theoretical Background

Language

Language seems to be as old as our species. Yule (1996) says

that we do not know how language was originated, but what we know is

that spoken language developed before written language. What is

unquestionably certain is language is the expression of human

personality in words, whether written or spoken. It is the universal

medium for conveying the common facts and feelings of everyday life.

Along time, many definitions of language have been proposed.

Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and scholar, stated: “Language is

the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words.

Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that

(35)

The American linguists Bernard Bloch and George L. Trager

formulated the following definition: “A language is a system of arbitrary

vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates.” Besides

these definitions, according to The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2007),

language is a system of conventional spoken or written symbols used by

people in a shared culture to communicate with each other. Thus,

language reflects and affects a culture’s way of thinking, and changes in

a culture influence the development of its language.

Language, as described, is species-specific to human beings.

Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate,

through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important features

characterizing human language, are its infinite productivity and

creativity. As Todd (1987) says “nothing in the animal kingdom even

approximates to human language for flexibility, complexity, precision,

and quantity. Humans have learnt to make infinite use of finite means”.

At this point it is possible to convey that language interacts with

every aspect of human life in society, and it can be understood only if it

is considered in relation to society.

Linguistics

The science of language is known as Linguistics. Todd (1987) gives

a clear and concise definition; Linguistics is defined as “the scientific

study of language”. When a linguist is said to be scientific it means that

(36)

physics. It means observing language use, forming hypotheses about it,

testing these hypotheses and then refining them on the basis of the

evidence collected. As Linguistics traditionally has been well known as

the study of the nature and structure of language, we can find in the

Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2006) a short compilation

about its history. According to this publication Greek philosophers in

the 5th century B.C., who debated the origins of human language, were

the first in the West to be concerned with linguistic theory. The first

complete Greek grammar, written by Dionysus Thrax in the 1st century

B.C., was a model for Roman grammarians, whose work led to the

medieval and Renaissance vernacular grammars. With the rise of

historical linguistics in the 19th century, linguistics became a science. In

the late 19th and early 20th centuries Ferdinand de Saussure

established the structuralist school of linguistics, which analyzed actual

speech to learn about the underlying structure of language. In the 1950s

Noam Chomsky challenged the structuralist program, arguing that

linguistics should study native speakers’ unconscious knowledge of their

language (competence), not the language they actually produce

(performance). His general approach, known as transformational

generative grammar, was extensively revised in subsequent decades as

the extended standard theory. Other grammatical theories developed

from the 1960s were: generalized phrase structure grammar,

lexical-functional grammar, relational grammar, and cognitive grammar.

(37)

development of disciplines like psycholinguistics and neurolinguistics.

The goal of theoretical linguistics is the construction of a general theory

of the structure of language or of a general theoretical framework for the

description of languages; the aim of applied linguistics is the application

of the findings and techniques of the scientific study of language to

practical tasks, especially to the elaboration of improved methods of

language teaching.

Branches of Linguistics

Linguistics has been traditionally divided language into the

following five components for purposes of description and analysis even

though in actual use all levels must interact and function

simultaneously. It traditionally encompasses phonology, morphology,

semantics, syntax, and pragmatics.

a. Phonology

In “Introduction to Linguistics”, Todd (1997) says that Phonology

as the branch of linguistics focused on the speech sounds according to

their production, composition, distribution and function within language,

involves two studies. The first one is the study of the production,

transmission and reception of speech sounds, a discipline known as

Phonetics, and the other is the study of the sound patterns of a specific

language known as Phonemics. Speech sounds considered as units of

(38)

convention, are represented by enclosing the appropriate alphabetic

symbol in square brackets. Thus [p] will refer to a p sound. A phonetic

transcription may be relatively broad (omitting much of the acoustic

detail) or relatively narrow (putting in rather more of the detail),

according to the purpose for which it is intended.

On the other hand, considered as phonological units—i.e., from

the point of view of their function in the language—sounds are described

as phonemes and are distinguished from phones by enclosing their

appropriate symbol between two slash marks. Thus /p/ refers to a

phoneme that may be realized on different occasions of utterance or in

different contexts by a variety of more or less different phones.

b. Morphology

Simon (1990) in his book “An International Handbook on

Inflection and Word-Formation” says the term Morphology has been used

in Linguistics for over a hundred years as a general description for

phenomena of accidence and word formation. The term was borrowed

from the biological sciences and reflects consciously or unconsciously,

the view of language as an organism characterized by systems

susceptible to synchronic or diachronic analysis. For this author,

Morphology is the study of morphemes (smallest significant units or

grammar). As word structure study it is focused on the formation and

(39)

combination and description of morphemes by using a set of

word-combination principles.

If a morpheme in English is posited with the function of

accounting for the grammatical difference between singular and plural

nouns, it may be symbolized by enclosing the term plural within brace

brackets. Now the morpheme [plural] is represented in a number of

different ways. Most plural nouns in English differ from the

corresponding singular forms in that they have an additional final

segment. In the written forms of these words, it is either -s or -es (e.g.,

“cat”: “cats”; “dog”: “dogs”; “fish”: “fishes”). The word segments written -s

or -es are morphs.

c. Semantics

As said by the New Encyclopedia Britannica, Semantics is the

study of meaning in natural human languages. Therefore it focuses on

what natural expressions (words, phrases and sentences) are about, and

how this can be discovered and described. As a branch of linguistics, it

has to do with the study of signs, symbols and structures of meaning. In

Ladusaw (1988), we find the two most important developments in recent

work in semantics are: first, the application of the structural approach to

the study of meaning and, second, a better appreciation of the

relationship between grammar and semantics, as

(40)

The first, structural semantics, goes back to the period preceding

World War II and is exemplified in a large number of publications, mainly

by German scholars—Jost Trier, Leo Weisgerber, and their collaborators.

According to this approach the meaning of each word in the language is

described independently of the meaning of all other words. On the other

hand we have the Transformational-generative grammar. According to

Burneo (2008), it was proposed by Chomsky in 1957, and “had the

purpose of providing structural descriptions necessary to generate all the

grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences in a

particular language”. It includes a syntactic component which collects a

set of phrase structure rules which creates a limited number of base

structures. This element is closely tied to the semantic component which

determines the meaning of a sentence.

d. Syntax

British linguists often use the term “grammar” for the same level

of language that is referred to as “syntax” by many Americans. In

accordance with Burneo (2008), Syntax is a subfield of linguistics that

studies the principles and rules that govern the way words are joined

together to form phrases, clauses and sentences. As defined by the

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics, “Syntax is the study of the

grammatical relations between words and other unit within a sentence”.

Similarly, Syntax, for Bloomfield, was the study of free forms that were

(41)

other theory rose by Halliday in the 1960’s, it was Systemic Functional

Grammar which links precise grammar patterns descriptions with their

function in a particular situation. This approach has been taken on by

many grammarians. As previously was mentioned, Bloomfield

determined a theory of syntax with the notions of form classes and

constituent structure. In Encyclopedia of Language Education (1997),

Bloomfield defines form classes, in terms of some common “recognizable

phonetic or grammatical feature” shared by all the members. He adds

that the smaller forms into which a larger form may be analyzed are its

constituents, and the larger form is a construction. For example, the

phrase “poor John” is a construction analyzable into, or composed of, the

constituents “poor” and “John.” Similarly, the phrase “lost his watch” is

composed of three word forms—“lost,” “his,” and “watch”—all of which

may be described as constituents of the construction.

e. Pragmatics

At New Encyclopedia Britannica we find that “Pragmatics is

defined as the study of the use of natural language in communication” or

the study of the relations between languages and their users. Pragmatics

is then the study of how both literal and nonliteral aspects of

communicated linguistic meaning are determined by principles that refer

to the physical or social context in which language is used. It analyzes

the relationship between utterances and the social context in which they

(42)

meaning with the speaker’s meaning. The distinction between sentences

and speaker’s meaning is basic for semantics and pragmatics.

Morphological Procedures

As we previously saw, Morphology is focused on the formation

and structure of words, based on the identification, analysis,

combination and description of morphemes by using a set of

word-combination principles. The most widespread morphological

constructions in terms of processes, from Encyclopedia of Language and

Linguistics are inflection, derivation and parasynthesis.

a. Inflection

From the same preceding source, Inflection is the change in the

form of a word (usually the addition of endings) to mark distinctions as

tense, person, number, gender, mood, voice, and case. It indicates noun

plural (cat, cats), noun case (girl, girl’s, girls’), third person singular

present tense (he buys), past tense (we walked), aspect (I’m calling), and

comparatives (bigger, biggest). Changes in the stem are another type of

inflection, as in sing, sang, sung and goose, geese.

b. Derivation

Derivation is the formation of new words from existing words;

e.g., “singer” from “sing” and “acceptable” from “accept.” Derived words

(43)

and suffixes (e.g., in-, -tion) to form new words (e.g., inform, deletion),

which can then take inflections. Inflection differs from derivation in that

it does not change the part of speech.

c. Composition

Bauer (2006) defines a compound as a word made up of two

other words. For example, compounds such as cloverleaf, gentleman, and

already show the collocation of two free forms. In describing the

structure of compounds it is necessary to take into account the relation

of components to each other and the relation of the whole compound to

its components. In the Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (2006) we

find that these relations diverge widely in, for example, the words,

cloverleaf, icebreaker, breakwater, blackbird, peace-loving, and

paperback. In cloverleaf the first component noun is attributive and

modifies the second. Icebreaker, is a compound made of noun object plus

noun, consisting of verb plus agent suffix. The next type consists of verb

plus object. The blackbird type, consists of attributive adjective plus

noun. The next type, peace-loving composed of object noun and a present

participle.

d. Parasynthesis

In the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary we find that

parasynthesis is: “The formation of words by adding a derivative ending

(44)

(do, undo; way, subway), and those which follow the word, are suffixes

(do, doer; way, wayward). They may be native (overdo, waywardness),

Greek (hyperbole, thesis), or Latin (supersede, pediment). Modern

technologists greatly favor the neo-Hellenic prefixes macro-“long, large,”

micro- “small,” para- “alongside,” poly- “many,” and the Latin mini

-“small,” with its antonym maxi-. The Internet era has popularized

cyber-“of computers or computer networks” and mega- “vast.”

Historical Linguistics

From a practical point of view, historical linguistics maps the

world’s languages, determines their relationships, and with the use of

written documentation, fit extinct languages. For a better understanding

we have made a compilation from The Linguistics Encyclopedia, taking

information since Antiquity to our current days.

Antiquity, Middle Ages and The Renaissance

The foundations for historical studies in the West were laid down

by the ancient Greeks. In etymology- in the ancient Greek sense “the

true meaning of the word-, they also discussed the nature of language in

terms of a pattern (analogy) or its absence (anomaly), and formulated

statements concerning the various part of speech. The initiated science of

language was passed on to the Romans, whose linguistics studies were in

general application of Greek thought, controversies, grammatical

(45)

grammar were studied during the Middle Ages from a pedagogical point

of view. With the Renaissance, language studies underwent a change as

both local and non-Indo-European languages came under linguistic

scrutiny. Once vernacular languages were considered and the world’s

diversity in structures was recognized, language studies turned to

universal linguistic concepts and to the idea of universal grammar

18th, 19th and 20th Centuries

An important trend in the 17th century was the effort to compare

and classify languages in accordance to their resemblances. Early in the

18th century, comparative and historical linguistics gained more

consistency. The greatest achievement in the latter part of this century

came with the discovery that the Sanskrit language of ancient India was

related to the languages of Europe and to Latin and Greek, forming the

first period in the growth of historical linguistics and setting comparative

linguistics on a firm basis.

During the 19th century with scholars such as Dane, Rask, Boop

and Grimm, the comparative-historical linguistic studies of

Indo-European languages had a definitive beginning. It depends upon the

principle of regular sound change—a principle that, as explained above,

met with violent opposition when it was introduced into linguistics by the

Neogrammarians in the 1870s but by the end of the century had become

part of what might be described as the orthodox approach to historical

(46)

In the mid-19th century, August Schleicher introduced into

comparative linguistics the model of the “family tree.” For this author,

there is no point in time at which it can be said that new languages are

“born” of a common parent language. This assumption is built into the

comparative method as it is traditionally applied. And yet there are many

clear cases of convergence in the development of well-documented

languages. For example, the dialects of England are disappearing and are

far more similar in grammar and vocabulary today than they were even a

generation ago. The same phenomenon, the replacement of nonstandard

or less prestigious forms with forms borrowed from standard language

has taken place in different places at different times.

In 1872 Johannes Schmidt criticized the family-tree theory and

proposed instead what is referred to as the wave theory, according to

which different linguistic changes will spread, like waves, from an

important centre along the main lines of communication, but successive

innovations will not necessarily cover exactly the same area.

Consequently, there will be no sharp distinction between contiguous

dialects, but, the further apart two speech communities are, the more

linguistic features there will be that distinguish them.

The most recent development in the field of historical and

comparative linguistics is the theory of generative grammar. If the

grammar and phonology of a language are described as an integrated

(47)

differences between two closely related languages, or dialects can be

described in terms of the similarities and differences.

Language change

Every language has a history, and, as in the rest of human

culture, changes are constantly taking place in the course of the learned

transmission of a language from one generation to another. Languages

change in all their aspects, in their pronunciation, word forms, syntax,

and word meanings (semantic change). These changes are mostly very

gradual, becoming noticeable over the course of several generations.

According to McMahon (1994) in “Understanding Language

Change”, in some areas of vocabulary, particular words closely related to

rapid cultural change are subject to equally rapid and therefore

noticeable changes within a generation or even within a decade. In the

20th century the vocabulary of science and technology was an

outstanding example. The same is also true of those parts of vocabulary

that are involved in fashionable slangs and jargons.

Robins and Crystal (1998) add that in the structural aspects of

language, their pronunciation and grammar, and in vocabulary less

closely involved in rapid cultural movement, the processes of linguistic

change are best observed by comparing written records of a language

over extended periods. This is most readily seen by English speakers

through setting side by side present-day English texts with 18th-century

(48)

varieties of Old English (Anglo-Saxon) that survive in written form.

Noticeably, as one goes back in time, the effort required in understanding

increases, for the most part Old English texts are unintelligible to

modern English. The differences include meanings, grammar, and, so far

as this can be reconstructed, pronunciation. Silher (2000) mentions

examples of changes in the branches of Linguistics:

• Changes in Phonology

Old English Modern English

hús house

nama name

wulfas wolves

• Changes in Morphology

(tó) climban (ne) to climb

gé climbap you climb

híe clumbon they climbed

• Changes in the verb system. Involve two separate but interrelated

matters, the subject pronouns and the form of the verbs

themselves. The second person singular has been lost in Standard

English: you for thou. One change in the verb forms is the past

tense. In Old English, there were two different forms one just for

the first and third persons singular indicative, and a different one

(49)

• Changes in nouns. So much has changed in the structure of

English nouns that it could be misleading to try to compare the

morphology of Old and Modern English.

• Changes in English Syntax. Until a few hundred years ago the

English syntax for questions and denials in sentences were What

says she? And He gave not his reasons. This syntax was replaced

by structures containing a form of the verb do.

• Changes in meaning. Semantic changes are so present that hardly

a word in a dictionary lacks earlier meanings. For example:

Sacrilege in Early Modern English meant “stealing from a church”,

but now it means “any serious affront to religious teaching or

sensibility”.

• Changes in English lexicon. Changes in lexicon are common in

languages generally, but are abundant in the recent history of

English. Many of them including most of those lost in modern

English, appear to have been poetical words in any case. It is also

noticeable that the items which survive formally have usually

undergone considerable changes in sense. Other items are

maintained in current lexicon but only in very narrow use.

Language change may be considered in terms of changes

introduced into the underlying system of phonological and grammatical

rules (including the addition, loss, or reordering of rules) during the

process of language acquisition. As we can notice present-day conditions

(50)

spoken by relatively few people. In a way, languages must be seen, to be

properly understood: as products of a continuous historical process and

also as self-sufficient systems of communication in any period. Both as a

component of cultural history and as a central part of culture, language

is able to reveal, more than any other human activity and achievement,

what is involved in humanity’s development.

Language Vice

According to Fernández (2005) language vice can be defined as

construction or use forms of inappropriate vocabulary which can lead to

a speech or text misunderstanding.

Burton (2009) has done a complete and wide research about

vices. This author says “the terms for vices do not strictly denote changes

of meaning or arrangement as do most terms for rhetorical figures;

rather, these are qualitative labels whose accuracy will always be relative

to the context and purpose”. Every dimension or aspect of style has vices

associated with it, and every vice has a corresponding virtue.

However, it is helpful to understand that language alters the

normal meaning or arrangement of words to some degree. When

figurative language is apt for a given context and purpose, it is eloquent

and effective (exemplifies one or more of virtues of style); when figurative

language is not apt for a given context and purpose, ineloquent and

Figure

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Referencias

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