The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

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UNIVERSIDAD TÉC NIC A PARTIC ULAR DE LO JA

La Universidad Católica de Loja

ESC UELA DE C IENC IAS DE LA EDUC AC IÓ N

MENC IÓ N ING LÉS

DISTANC E SYSTEM

THE USE O F SUPPLEMENTARY MA TERIALS IN EFL C LA SSES: A

C O MPARATIVE ANA LYSIS O F PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HIG H SC HO O LS

Re se a rc h d o ne in o rd e r to a c hie ve the

Ba c he lo r´s De g re e in Te a c hing

Eng lish a s a Fo re ig n La ng ua g e

AUTHO R:

MAC AS MALDO NADO MAYRA ALEXANDRA

ADVISO R:

MG S. PINZA TAPIA ELIANA

UNIVERSITY C ENTER SANTA ISABEL

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CERTIFICATION

Mgs. Pinza Tapia Eliana

CERTIFIES THAT:

This research Work has been thoroughly revised by the graduation committee. Therefore, authorizes the presentation of this thesis, which complies with all the norms and internal requirements of the Universidad técnico Particular de Loja.

Loja, April 25th, 2011

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EL CONTRATO DE LA CESIÓN DE DERECHOS DE TESIS DE GRADO

“Yo, Macas Maldonado Mayra Alexandra, declaro ser autor del presente trabajo y eximo expresamente al Universidad técnica

Particular de Loja y sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales.

Adicionalmente declaro conocer y aceptar la disposición del Arte. 67 del Estatuto Orgánico de la Universidad técnica Particular de Loja que en su parte pertinente textualmente: “formar parte del

patrimonio de la Universidad propiedad intelectual de

investigaciones, trabajos científicos o técnicos y tesis del grado que se realicen a través, o que el apoyo de financiero, académico o

institucional (operativo) de la Universidad.

………

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AUTHORSHIP

The thoughts, ideas, opinions and the information obtained through this research are the only responsibility of the author.

April 25 th, 2011

………

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DEDICATION

All people desire to reach different goals, which are very important for our lives but it is necessary to receive the support of people who are around us in order to achieve these important goals. In this case, my goal has been to get my degree as an English teacher, which I have started five years ago and I have already finished. During all this process, I have received the unconditional support of my parents who respected and comprehended my decision; motivated me in the

difficult situations and celebrated with me each one of my

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CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION………..I CONTRATO DE DERECHOS DE TESIS DE GRADO……….II AUTHORSHIP……….……III DEDICATION………...……….IV

ABSTRACT………1

INTRODUCTION………..2

METHODOLOGY……….5

DISCUSSION………8

Literature Review………..……….8

Results………..……...…..26

Description, Analysis and Interpretation of Results……..……….38

Conclusions………..………..….69

Recommendations………...……71

REFERENCES………72

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1 ABSTRACT

Into the teaching-learning process of a foreign language are various aspects, which must be taken into account by the teachers to offer a high-quality instruction; thus, the students would achieve a meaningful learning. For this reason, this work focuses on

researching about the use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis in public and private high schools, whose purpose is to determine the type of supporting materials used in public and private high schools and compare how these materials are used during the teaching-learning process of the foreign language. Therefore, to develop this study it was necessary to choose a Public and a Private high school as a sample of this research. There were selected eighth, ninth and tenth grades to observe five classes and collect data according to the real situation of the used supplementary materials.

After choosing the sample, the data collection was developed using different techniques, instruments and resources. They were useful tools during this research because they were used to gather and register the information. Next, all this information was explored, analyzed, described and compared using the qualitative and

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2 INTRODUCTION

Teaching English as a foreign language is a process which depends on certain components such as: the socio-cultural,

bibliographical and methodological components. The socio-cultural component refers to the environment in which the language is taught and learned. The bibliographical component includes the different bibliographic resources where the teachers could find information to improve and support their teaching. The last component is

considered the most important because it refers to the different methods used, the resources applied and techniques that the

teachers use for the teaching-learning process to be effective. That is, the teachers do not work alone to reach their aims; they rely on

diverse types of aids and resources, which may help effectively to get their objectives. One of the important aids is the use of

supplementary materials, which can be a useful tool in this process because they make the classes more interesting and motivating.

There is a great variety of supplementary materials that the teachers can use such as: visuals, audiovisuals, audio, realia and on-line regarding the different students’ learning styles; thus the

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3 find out whether or not teachers use supplementary materials, and if they use them how pertinent, appropriate and qualified those

materials are. The development of this topic is interesting because through this study it is possible to identify and to know the reality of the use of the supplementary materials in EFL classes.

On the other hand, to deepen this research and to have

scientific information about the topic, it was necessary to investigate previous studies done in different Educational Institutions in the English area. These studies confirm that the use of supplementary materials is important in the teaching-learning process of a foreign language because they help the students to get an excellent

instruction and learn successfully.

For instance, a study done by Cabrera & Chamba (2007) whose objective was to determine if the used materials help the teachers to develop the class and if these materials help the students to achieve a meaningful learning. Therefore, the results demonstrated that

supplementary materials help to illustrate contents, motivate and attract the students’ attention. For this reason, these materials need to be clear, appropriate and attractive for students. Moreover, they must be used every day and teachers should use different types of materials. Thus, teachers and students will develop a good teaching-learning process.

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4 study pointed out that supplementary materials are useful because they motivate students to work inside and outside the classroom and help them to practice the four language skills. As a result, the

students will practice and learn the language effectively.

Likewise, Chuquimarca & Peña (2004) accomplished a research in order to identify what and how supplementary materials are used by teachers. The results showed that teachers usually use television, board, maps, video, projector and data show materials, but they do not use them appropriately.

Also, Kelsen (2007) developed a research with the purpose of exploring the use of You Tube in EFL class, so this research

demonstrated that You Tube is an important tool for students because there are different websites with various activities for practicing English. Moreover, the You Tube is an interesting,

relevant, beneficial and motivational tool because this website helps the students to increase their knowledge learning through practical and dynamic activities. However, the most students use You Tube to entertain rather than to study and a few students use those websites as resources to study and learn English.

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5 sample for this study did not know which websites are the most

useful and appropriate to practice and learn English.

Also, it is important to mention that as this study is focused on the use of supplementary materials in both Public and Private high schools, the principal beneficiaries will be the students and teachers from these Educational Institutions, because through it the

researcher will wake up the teachers’ interest who will take into account the importance of using supplementary materials; as a result, their classes will become more motivating and more interesting for the students.

In addition, educational authorities, future researchers and especially English teachers who will read this research review,

analyze and evaluate themselves about which materials they use and how they use those materials in the class. Moreover, this work could be useful into the entire Educational field because it contains

accurate and authentic information about how the supporting materials are used in the teaching-learning process of a foreign language in Public and Private high schools.

Finally, it is also important to mention that during the

development of this study, there were not limitations because each step was developed normally. Although there were many classes to observe, different contents to investigate, various materials to

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6 METHODOLOGY

This research consists of identifying, analyzing and comparing what supplementary materials are used by the teachers in EFL classes during the teaching-learning process. So to perform this study, it was necessary to collect data based on real situations in order to get accurate information about the use of supplementary materials. For this reason, two high schools were chosen as a sample to gather information. The first one is a Public high school, which is located in Manú from Saraguro Cantón. The other one is a Private high school, which is located in the center of Santa Isabel city. After knowing the topic and choosing the sample, it was

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7 teachers. They completed with their own information regarding the reality of the high school and their opinions about the use of

supplementary materials.

Moreover, it was also necessary to access to bibliographical sources such as books and internet, which were important because they provided main information about the topic. For instance, books and internet were used to investigate different contents and some previous studies done related to the topic.

Also, there were some instruments such as: data collection formats, observation formats and tables or charts which were used during this research to collect the field information from the two selected high schools. For example, observation formats were used in each observed class in order to register what type of supplementary materials teachers used in EFL classes.

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8 presents a synthesis about the frequency of the supplementary

materials in eighth, ninth and tenth grades between the two selected high schools.

Additionally to the qualitative and quantitative tabulation of the collected data, there is also a descriptive analysis about each one of the materials. That section contains a clear description about how the supplementary materials were used in each class in terms of pertinence, appropriateness and quality. Moreover, that description helped to determine if teachers took into account the different students’ learning styles in order to apply the best supporting materials. Finally, there is a comparative analysis about the

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9 DISCUSSION

Literature Review

The teaching-learning process is a procedure that needs the participation, and support of various factors to be successfully accomplished. For instance, the use of supplementary materials, which are considered as a crucial factor in the teaching-learning process, because it helps, supports, and facilitates the students´ learning and comprehension, but it, depends on the type of materials that teachers use in EFL classes, because teachers use materials that are not appropriate for the student´s level, understanding and style. For this reason, it is important to get information about certain contents related to this topic. So, this section will contain different assumptions about teaching a foreign language, learners, learning styles, teaching techniques, different teaching contexts, definition, importance and role of supplementary materials. Also, there are some previous studies which will show information about what, how, and how often these materials are used by the teachers in EFL classes.

As an English teacher, it is important to know clearly the meaning, implications, and importance of teaching a foreign language; therefore, Araya (2007) states that teaching a foreign language is not only a process to develop certain linguistic skills or teach a set of grammatical rules which students require to dominate, but to take into account the ideological implications related to

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10 phonology, syntax and grammar, but another different thing is to be able to use the language to develop oneself with a critical discourse and correct attitudes to communicate. Moreover, Araya affirms that there are multiple situations and several factors that students have to face in order to learn a foreign language. These factors are the diverse learning styles, students´ motivations and needs, the different teachers´ and students´ expectations about a foreign language, and the validity and appropriateness of the supporting materials used by the teachers in EFL classes.

Also, teachers must take into account that in the classroom, there are learners with different characteristics. Therefore, Saville-Troike (2006) considers that learners’ differences are related to age, sex, aptitude, motivation, cognitive style, and personality and

learning strategies. Thus, she focuses on age and affirms children are more successful when learning a foreign language because they have good brain plasticity and can simplify input better. However, they are not able to make analytical analysis and develop pragmatic skills as adult learners, because adults have a better analytical capacity, are able to develop pragmatic skills, and relate their knowledge with the real world. Also she refers to adolescent learners who are able to learn a language as adults because they have the same capacity and are able to develop the language skills in the same manner.

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11 have a good level of motivation, they will effort and sacrifice

constantly on the different stages of the learning.

On the other hand, Brown (2002) also affirms that age is an important factor into the teaching-learning process. So he considers that children are successful learners because they always exercise a great deal of cognitive and affective effort which helps them to

internalize their native language with their second language. Also, adolescent learners learn as children or as adults because they have a great deal of intellectual capacity, too. The difference is that adult learners have more of a superior cognitive ability to retain much more vocabulary, have a good level of self-esteem and abstract thinking which permit and help them to understand, learn, and comprehend better than children or adolescent learners.

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12 improvement and have better opportunities into their job. The second type is Integrative Motivation. It consists on learning because they need to integrate into other different cultures, social groups, religions and customs.

It is also important to notice that students learn in different ways; these ways are known as learning styles. Identifying such styles in the classroom and using the best strategies according to each student´s learning stylewill make this student successful. Therefore, Plasher, et al (2008) define learning styles as a manner of instruction or study that learners consider is the most effective, easy and motivating way to learn; moreover, they suggest that teachers should make a diagnosis test in order to identify the students’ learning styles and apply the best teaching strategies according to their needs.

Considering the different learning styles, Miller (2000) identifies four learning styles and each one has its own strategies to be applied in the EFL classes. The first one is the Visual/Verbal learning style. It refers to learning through visual presentations and written

language formats in which students learn fast and easy. The students with this learning style prefer to study alone in a quiet room. The most appropriate materials for these students are the board,

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13 vocabulary or concepts that are important to memorize, and when they have to take an exam, they make illustrative reminders with important information and stick them on visible places.

The second is the Visual/Nonverbal learning style which is similar to the first one, because they learn through visual

presentations, like to work in a quiet room, and use the same strategies to learn, too; however, they do not like written language texts. They learn and work better with films, videos, maps, charts and pictures or diagrams from the textbooks. And they usually use symbols, pictures and diagrams to translate some words and ideas. The third is the Tactile/Kinesthetic learning style where they learn better through the concrete manipulation and physical contact with the different materials. That is, they prefer hands-on activities, and like to use textbooks, flashcards, notes, highlighter pens, tables, cards, graphics and audio tapes to illustrate information because these materials allow them to remember the information easily. And sometimes, they use audio tapes to listen and memorize information while exercising.

The fourth is the Auditory/Verbal learning style; this is the ability to learn better through audio presentations, listening and speaking exchange or any other another oral language format. For this reason, they always use audio tapes, lectures, and group discussions. As a consequence, they work in groups or with a

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14 some students record their notes and textbook information in a tape recorder. Then, they listen to this information whenever they can, so they memorize certain contents easily.

As it is observed, there are different learning styles which can be identified in the foreign language classroom. For this reason, it is also important to know information about the most appropriated teaching techniques to teach adolescent learners, which must be taken into account by all the teachers in the different areas of knowledge.

Therefore, Schreiner (2009) focuses on adolescent learners and considers that they are in a stage of physical and psychological changes, so teachers must take account the learners´ capacities and limitations to use the most effective techniques. Thus, they could guarantee a meaningful teaching- learning process for the students. For this reason, he suggests the scaffolding as a useful technique because this permits teachers to support students at the beginning but then little by little withdraw this support; that is, when students have already acquired the language skills and be able to complete tasks independently.

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15 highlight students´ talents and strengths. Consequently, the author considers that adolescents work well with the following techniques; (I) individual work, which is a technique in which students work alone to complete and develop activities. (G-P) Group or pair work where they discus a topic, complete grammatical exercises, or brainstorm. Then, they share their work with the whole class. Finally, (C) whole-class discussion is a technique in which teachers asks all students to discuss about certain topics to get new ideas and interact one

another.

On the other hand, Bowman, Burkhart & Robson (1989) express that there are several teaching methods used according to the students´ need and level. Therefore, they describe some teaching methods with their best teaching techniques. For instance, the

Grammar Translation Method, which focuses primarily on the

translation of words, reading and writing, and a little on listening or speaking. For this reason, the techniques used with this method include asking questions of reading comprehension where students have to answer in oral way then in written form; thus, they deduce and learn the grammatical rules.

Unlike this method, the Direct Method does not use translation and focus on expressing or communicating directly in the target language and on speaking skill. For this reason, teachers use conversations, questions and answers, dictation, controlled

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16 and visual aids as teaching techniques to help students deduce, understand and learn grammar or new vocabulary.

On the other hand, the Audio-Lingual method centers on the development of the four language skills through a natural order of acquisition by practicing the listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. For this reason, this method uses memorizations, listening, dialogs and repetitive drills.

Also, these authors talk about the Communicative Approach, which is very useful to learn to give advice, complain, give, and ask for any information, so students learn to communicate correctly. For this reason, the techniques such as: interaction between listeners and speakers, role play, information sharing, group work and problem solving are useful to work with adolescent learners.

Furthermore, there is also the Total Physical Response, which is a coordination of speech and action. That is, students respond with physical activities according to what they listen. Thus, students focus on listening comprehension and understanding the language instead of learning to speak. Therefore, the best techniques to work with this method are mime, drawing and oral commands because through these, students can respond physically.

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17 instead of following and repeating what the instructor says. In this method, teachers usually speak little and participate only when it is necessary.

Next, there is the Competence-Based Approach that centers on teaching a language in relation to the social context in which learners use the target language. For example, in the United States, an

immigrant has to learn English because he needs to communicate with others. Thus, they could improve their lives into their social, cultural, economic, personal, and professional aspect. Also, it is important to point out that this method uses the interaction, real tasks, pair or group work, problem solving and filling gap information as practical techniques for working with the students.

In addition, another method is known as the Community Language Learning, which creates an affective setting or a friendly community, where students overcome their fears, become interested and enthusiastic to interact, exchange ideas and collaborate. Also, this method focuses on listening and speaking skills, for this reason, questioning, answering and discussion are useful techniques to work with this method.

The last method is Suggestopedia which focuses on teaching a language in a relaxed way, by reducing the learners´ anxiety and fear to failure. This method needs a quiet, clean, ordered and cozy

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18 relaxed and motivated. The best techniques to work with this method are role-pay, questions, answers, and colors.

Additionally to these methods and techniques, it is important to consider different teaching contexts. Therefore, Brown (2000, p. 115-121) identifies several types of contexts. He states, “Sociopolitical context refers how dominant are the social roles of language, interaction, negotiation, interpretation, intended meaning,

misunderstandings and pragmatics underscore those roles. When these considerations are extended into countries, religions, nations and continents, the political side of language becomes evident”. Next, there is institutional context, which refers to the type of educational institution in which we are teaching.

Moreover, Carrie (2005) identifies the social and cultural context. So he states the social context is the setting, group,

background and social condition in which students live, study and develop. Cultural context refers to the customs, habits and education level that each student has.

Following this literature review, there is another important factor that participates in the teaching-learning process. It is the use Supplementary materials. Moreover, it is the primary content of this research, so it is going to be detailed carefully.

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19 the students´ knowledge. Therefore, he identifies cassettes, videos, CD- ROMS, dictionaries, grammar books, workbooks, photocopied exercises, newspapers, food package and photographs as important and useful materials for EFL classes.

Likewise, Spratt (2005) defines supplementary materials as materials used additionally to the course-books or notebooks which teachers need in the classroom for teaching a target language. Furthermore, he affirms that these materials support and improve the teaching-learning process because they help the teachers´ work, motivate students to complete more activities and develop the

language skills easier. Therefore, he suggests the following materials, newspapers, magazines, videos and articles.

Also, Araya (2007) states supplementary materials are instrumental objects, which inform students through symbolic, graphic or concrete representations. In addition, they are important because they may stimulate the learning and develop a more critical thinking so achieve the proposed goals in the teaching learning process. Also, she express that the role of supplementary materials consist on attempting to minimize the level of difficulty of students´ learning, facilitate the instructors´ teaching process and try to elicit and build pictures on students´ minds, so they may associate these imagines with what they are learning in the classroom.

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20 process. So they identify several type of materials, for this reason, they divide them into three categories.

The first category, considered as the old ones, are traditional materials that have been used many years ago to support learning. They are boards, visual aids, and textbooks.

The boards have been considered for a long time as “Teacher-centered” because only the teacher could be standing up in front of it. But now, it is considered as the “students-centered”, too because students can also stand up in front of the board and talk with the teacher. Moreover, the previous authors consider that the board must be used rational, careful and creatively. For example, the teacher should divide the board into sections, write down relevant

information, be ordered, write legible, highlight relevant information, use the board not only to write on, but to stick or project things and drawings;

The visual aids (realia, flashcards, wall charts and posters). These materials are also considered as traditional material. The realia are real objects that may be into the classroom or could be brought by the teachers and students to complement the writing and

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21 The last one materials considered as old is the textbook, which is an important material nowadays, too because it has topics,

objectives, evaluations and activities about the lesson to complete with students.

Second category, the new which include the Audio/ Visual resources, these are the electrical and electronic materials which have been acquired and implemented few years ago. The first one is the OHP (Over Head Projector) which is an audiovisual material that is used to project information onto a screen, white wall or white board, so the audience focuses attention on it; the next is the audio player, and this is used very often in the EFL classes to complete listening activities, listen to stories, songs, interviews and dialogues, so it stimulate students to work into the classroom and practice the activities at home, too; the others are video player and the video camera, these are a combination of pictures and sounds, where the language is presented in a complete and communicative situation. Thus, students are able to infer meanings according to the context. Also, it is important to know that teachers must be careful to select the best films; in other words, they must choose a film according to the students´ age, level, interest and knowledge.

Third category, the newest or the ICT (Information and

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22 of a physical setting: An ICT classroom. This is not concrete or

tangible material as flashcards, but it consists on building or improving the physical setting of the classroom through using the most modern technologies; for example, building a laboratory for teaching English with all the ICT.

Similarly, the internet is not a physical material, but it is a useful tool where teachers and students may access to search, play and practice the language because on the internet are several

activities and courses in English which are very helpful.

After detailing different opinions, definitions and importance about some contents related to the use supplementary materials, it is time to describe some previous studies, which demonstrate the

usefulness and importance of using supplementary materials in EFL Classes.

Therefore, Cabrera & Chamba (2007) developed a study at “Manuel Cabrera Lozano” high school, with the objective of determining if the didactic materials used by the teachers help

students to achieve a meaningful learning. To accomplish this study, the researchers focus on 3 English teachers and 75 students, whom researchers observed to collect data. And then the researchers

analyzed and explicated these data carefully.

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23 students and they have to be used every day. Also, it points out that the teachers use the most common materials such as: tape recorders, flashcards, laboratory, charts, books, and realia. On the contrary, the students state that teachers sometimes use didactic means, because there are some days when they don´t use any type of materials.

Finally, the authors conclude that materials do support and facilitate the students´ learning. But in this case, teachers just sometimes use them; moreover, they only use traditional materials. Consequently, the students are not receiving a meaningful teaching. For this reason, they suggest that teachers should get informative, audiovisual, illustrative and experimental means to improve the teaching-learning language.

Similarly, Tafani (2009) accomplished a research to analyze the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-Visual Media (Mass Media). For this reason, she focus on the use of radio, tape records,

newspapers, movies, books, magazines, television and internet, which are known as Mass Media. These materials are used to read and discus in groups or whole-class; moreover, teachers and

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24 she explains that these materials could be used in different ways according to the students´ needs and how creative the teachers are.

In short, Tafani affirms that Mass Media materials are

important because they provide teachers and students creative and practical ideas, entertain, motivate and encourage students to work inside and outside the classroom. Moreover, these materials help students to improve their thinking, imagination, listening, speaking and observation; so they dominate the language in an accurate and fluent way.

Likewise, Chuquimarca & Peña (2004) did a research at “Carlos Montufar School” whose objective was identifying the didactic

resources that this school has to develop the teaching-learning process and observe the way that these resources are used.

Thus, he researcher took as sample to the 5th, 6th and 7th of

basic education and 12 teachers from this school. According to the analyzed, theaters usually use television, boards, maps, video,

projector and data show materials. On the contrary, the information which were given by the students show that teachers don´t use these materials, but teachers affirm that they sometimes don´t use

materials because there is not time enough in the classroom to use materials; however, they know that, lacking of using these materials is a cause of the students´ learning difficulty.

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25 frequently. As consequence, students are not getting an excellent level of learning.

Also, there is a study accomplished by Kelsen (2009) whose purpose is exploring the use of You Tube in an EFL situation. Indeed, this study took as sample 69 students from two sophomore

conversation classes at private university in northern Taiwan, whom the researcher applied a questionnaire to collect information about if the students use You Tube as a source of entertainment, or they use You Tube to education matters.

Therefore, the results indicate that 32.25 % of the students use You Tube as a tool for studying English and the 80. 64 % of them use this source for entertainment. However, students consider that You Tube is interesting, relevant, beneficial, and a motivating

supplementary material to be used in the class through interesting and creative activities.

Finally, Kung & Chuo (2002) developed a research whose objective was investigate the effectiveness of ESL/EFL websites from the internet as means, which help students learn English and how students perceive learning English through these websites. In fact, researchers have taken as a sample forty-nine students who

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26 to help students speak fluently through the conversational topics and to write carefully, too.

Consequently, the results pointed out that the most of students had computers at home and they visited the websites from six to seven days between one or two hours to complete the given asks. However, some students do not know the different websites; for this reason, they can´t use them correctly, so they need the teachers´ instruction.

According to how students perceive the learning by using these materials, the results illustrate that students consider them as

effective, useful and interesting ways for learning English because these materials facilitate their comprehension and help them to dominate the language skills successfully.

In brief, the authors conclude that internet websites are useful tools to supplement in-class instruction, but some students do not use them for educational matters; therefore, teachers should instruct students about where the best websites are.

As a general conclusion about some previous studies that have been done in different educational institutions and various

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27 RESULTS

Qualitative tabulation

Chart one: Type of Supplementary material used in Public high school

Variable Indicators Yes No

Visual Flash cards 

Power point presentations Maps

Pictures 

Charts

Handouts 

Posters

Word cards 

White/black board 

Audio Songs Dialogues

Stories

Tales

Audiovisual Videos Movies

Documentaries

Realia Objects (toys, plants, fruits) 

Online Websites Author: Mayra Macas

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28 Chart two: Type of Supplementary material used in Private high

school

Variable Indicators Yes No

Visual Flash cards 

Power point presentations Maps

Pictures 

Charts

Handouts 

Posters 

Word cards 

White/black board 

Audio Songs 

Dialogues 

Stories Tales

Audiovisual Videos Movies

Documentaries

Realia Objects (toys, plants, fruits) Online Websites

Author: Mayra Macas

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29 Chart three: Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary materials used in public high school

Author: Mayra Macas Source: 8th grade

Variable Indicators 1st. Class 2nd. Class 3rd. Class 4th. Class 5th. Class

Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp.

Visual

flash cards.

power point

presentations

maps

pictures

charts

handouts

posters

word cards

white / black

board

Audio

songs

dialogues

stories

tales

Audiovisual

videos

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

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30 Author: Mayra Macas

Source: 9th grade

Chart four: Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary materials used in public high school.

Variable Indicators 1st. Class 2nd. Class 3rd. Class 4th. Class 5th. Class

Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp.

Visual

Flash cards.

x power point

presentations

maps

pictures

charts

handouts

posters

word cards

white / black

board

Audio

songs

dialogues

stories

tales

Audiovisual

videos

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)    

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31 Chart five: Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary

materials used in public high school.

Variable Indicators 1st. Class 2nd. Class 3rd. Class 4th. Class 5th. Class

Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp.

Visual

flash cards.

power point

presentations

maps

pictures    

charts

handouts

posters

word cards

white / black

board

Audio

songs

dialogues

stories

tales

Audiovisual videos

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

Online websites

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32 Chart six: Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary materials used in private high school.

Variable Indicators 1st. Class 2nd. Class 3rd. Class 4th. Class 5th. Class

Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp.

Visual

flash cards. x

power point

presentations

maps

pictures

charts

handouts

posters

word cards    

white / black

board

Audio

songs

dialogues

stories

tales

Audiovisual

videos

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

Online websites

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33 Chart seven: Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary materials used in private high school.

Variable Indicators 1st. Class 2nd. Class 3rd. Class 4th. Class 5th. Class

Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp.

Visual

Flash cards.

power point

presentations

maps

pictures X

charts

handouts

posters

word cards

white / black

board x x

Audio

songs

dialogues

stories

tales

Audiovisual

videos

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

Online websites

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34 Chart eight: Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary materials used in private high school.

Variable

Indicators 1st. Class 2nd. Class 3rd. Class 4th. Class 5th. Class

Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp. Pert. Approp.

Flash cards

Power point

presentations

maps

pictures  

charts

handouts

posters

word cards

white / black

board x

X

Audio

songs

dialogues

stories

tales

Audiovisual

videos

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

Online websites

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35

Quantitative tabulation

Chart nine: Frequency of use of supplementary material in 8 th grade

Variable Indicators

Public Private

f % f %

Visual

Flash cards. 1 20,00 2 28,57

power point

presentations - - - -

Maps - - - -

Pictures 1 20,00 1 14,29

Charts - - -

Handouts - - - -

Posters - - - -

word cards 1 20,00 2 28,57

white / black board 2 40,00 1 14,29

- - - -

Audio

Songs - - -

Dialogues - 1 14,29

Stories - - - -

Tales - - - -

- - - -

Audiovisual

Videos - - - -

Movies - - - -

Documentaries - - - -

- - - -

Realia objects (toys, plants,

fruits) - - - -

Online Websites - - - -

TOTAL 5 100,00 7 100,00

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36 Chart ten: Frequency of use of supplementary material in 9 th grade

Variable Indicators Public Private

f % f %

Visual

Flash cards. 2 40,00 1 20,00

power point

presentations - - - -

Maps - - - -

Pictures 1 20,00 1 20,00

Charts - - - -

Handouts - - 1 20,00

Posters - - 1 20,00

word cards - - - -

white / black board - - 1 20,00

Audio

Songs - - - -

Dialogues - - -

Stories - - - -

Tales - - - -

- - - -

Audiovisual

Videos - - - -

Movies - - - -

Documentaries - - - -

- - - -

Realia objects (toys, plants,

fruits) 20,00 40,00 - -

Online Websites - - - -

TOTAL 5 100,00 5 100,00

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37 Chart eleven: Frequency of use of supplementary material in 10th grade

Variable Indicators Public Private f % f %

Visual

Flash cards. - - 1 20,00

power point

presentations - - - -

Maps - - - -

Pictures 2 400,00 1 20,00

Charts - - - -

Handouts 1 20,00 - -

Posters - - - -

word cards 1 20,00 - -

white / black board 1 20,00 1 20,00

Audio

Songs - - - -

Dialogues - - 1 20,00

Stories - - - -

Tales - - - -

- - - -

Audiovisual

Videos - - - -

Movies - - - -

Documentaries - - - -

- - - -

Realia objects (toys, plants,

fruits) - - - -

Online Websites - - - -

TOTAL 5 100,00 4 80,00

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38 Chart twelve: Synthesis about the frequencies.

Grades Public (f) Private(f)

8th 5 7

9th 5 5

10th 5 4

TOTAL 15 16

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8th 9th 10th

Public (f)

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39 Description, Analysis and Interpretation of Results

After observing five English classes in eighth, ninth and tenth grades at public and private high schools, it is time to make a

descriptive analysis about the materials which were identified during each observed class. Therefore, this section is very important because through this description, it is possible to determine the materials’ characteristics in terms of pertinence, appropriateness and quality. Also, this section contains a comparative analysis in relation to the frequency of using these supplementary materials in eight, ninth and tenth grades between public and private high schools.

Descriptive Analysis

Public high school

8 th Grade

Flash cards

Flash cards were used in the third class whose topic was “special occasions”. In this class, the objective was to make students express ideas about special occasions using prepositions and

cardinal numbers correctly. The teacher started the class with these visual presentations which contained pictures related to special occasions such as: Birthdays, Fathers’ Day, and Mothers’ Day,

Christmas and Happy New Year, which people usually celebrate. The teacher presented the flashcards to students pronouncing them clearly. The students looked at the flash cards, listened to the

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40 they heard. Thus, the students could memorize the new words. Once the students knew new information and understood the topic, the teacher asked them to complete the task in the workbooks, which was easily completed. These materials were useful tools for students because they permitted them to understand better the topic and easily memorize the new information about the topic of the lesson. As consequence, the students developed their language skills and

learned successfully.

Also, these materials were appropriate to students’ level, age and understanding because these visual presentations contained simple, appropriate and clear information about the topic. Moreover, the students already had this information in their first language so they internalized that information with the second language, which facilitated their comprehension and learning; thus, they learned in a real and creative manner. Also, the quality of these materials was very good because they had different colors, seemed very striking and they were sufficiently big. Consequently, the students were motivated and interested to learn.

Pictures

Pictures were used in the first class to talk about

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41 they heard. Next, the teacher pointed out the pictures and the

students looked at them and pronounced aloud. Then, some volunteer students placed the pictures on the board, and other students wrote a description under each picture using new

vocabulary and the correct grammatical structures. Once students acquired knowledge, the teacher asked them to complete activities in the workbooks to practice what they learned in class. So I consider these materials were pertinent because they contained clear

information about the different peoples’ occupations which helped the students to achieve the objective of the class effectively.

Moreover, these materials were appropriate for the students because they showed information about the most common

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42

Word cards

These materials were used in the fifth class whose topic was “my school”. Here, the teacher and the students talked about the different places of the school using the word cards, which contained vocabulary about the topic. Also, it is important to say that in this class, the teacher and students worked inside and outside of the classroom. The teacher presented the word cards to students, who observed the materials and listened to their teacher. Then, students took the word cards, pronounced them and explained where is

located the place that the word card indicated. After that, the teacher and the students went out, sat down on the playground and formed a circle. The teacher passed out the materials to each student and they pronounced those words aloud. Next, they took the materials and glued each word card in the correct places around the school. Finally, the students went back to the classroom to complete the activities in their English books. The use of these materials was important

because they contained information related to the topic. So these materials were useful to support to the class’ development. The students comprehended better the topic, practiced the language through a creative and dynamic manner. They learnt how to give information about specific school places.

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43 were related to the students’ context and knowledge. The students liked the materials because they contained information about what the students already knew in their first language. The students were motivated and their interest to learn was awakened because the class was about their school reality. In addition, all those word cards were eye-catching because they were big and clear. The teacher used different colors to write the letters.

White/black board

The white/ black board is different to other materials such as flash cards, pictures, handouts, etc… because it always stays in the classroom and it is not created, bought or brought by the teachers or the students. However, it is very important and useful in the

classroom. Many teachers use it daily. Therefore, it is also important to describe it in terms of pertinence, appropriateness and quality just like the other types of materials. For this reason, it will be described according to how teachers use it in each class.

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44 This material was also used in the fourth class, whose topic was “birthdays”. Here the students learned to give and ask for information about peoples’ birthdays using the months of the year and cardinal numbers correctly. The teacher drew a chart on the board and divided it into twelve parts. Next, each student wrote the months of the year in each box of the chart. Then the teacher asked questions to the students about their birthdays. The students wrote their answers under the correct month. After that, the students completed some activities in the workbook. I consider that the board was important because it permitted the students to practice

vocabulary about the months of the year and grammar by writing clear examples about themselves and other peoples’ birthdays.

After describing all the materials according to how they were used in each class it is important to mention that in this grade the teacher chose the supplementary materials considering the

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45 teacher use other materials such as songs, movies, real objects,

stories, handouts, videos, charts, and websites because they are more striking and motivating. The teacher mentioned that she always finds the best materials according to the students’ learning styles because the supporting materials help the students to understand the topic better, learn new vocabulary, guess meanings and interact in class. However, she says that sometimes it is difficult to use the most appropriate materials because the school does not have other materials available. For example, she would like to have an English laboratory.

9th Grade

Flash cards

These materials were used in two classes in this grade, so they will be described according to each class.

In the first class, the teacher introduced a new topic using flash cards to talk about “English signs”. First, the teacher asked students to imagine they are visiting different public places such as:

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46 them to work in workbook activities. These materials were pertinent because they contained information related to the topic, thus they helped to develop the class better and the students achieved the objectives.

Moreover, the teacher considered the students’ level, age and understanding because the flash cards contained information about English signs which the students had already seen in different places. In the class, the teacher explained the signs meaning and use. In other words, these materials were appropriate to students because they had previous knowledge about the topic and they helped the students to reinforce their knowledge and practice the language expressing ideas correctly and using new vocabulary. Also, it is important to say that the teacher worked hard to create these flashcards; as a consequence, the materials were multi-colored, big,

new, clean and attractive for the

students

.

The second time, flashcards were used in the fifth class to talk about “food and health” using vocabulary and grammar correctly. The teacher started the class with visual presentations, which contained pictures about healthy/unhealthy food. First, the teacher showed the students each flash card and the students looked, listened and

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47 sentences using can/can’t correctly and glued the material on the pyramid according to the group of food that each word belonged. For example, the student chose a flash card with the word “carrot”; he glued it on vegetables group, so on. Thus, the students formed sentences to talk about food people can/can’t eat to be healthy. I consider these materials were important tools in this class, because they contained specific information about the topic.

However, it is important to mention that these materials were not much appropriated to students’ level, age and understanding because the most materials contained information about the

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48

Pictures

These materials are useful to work with the visual/verbal learning style, because students who have this learning style learn better with visual presentations. Moreover, these materials could be used to describe and discuss with their partners in the class. So the teacher used them in the first class to talk about “Occupations”. Here the teacher used pictures to present the new topic. These materials had information about the different peoples’ occupations. First, the teacher showed the pictures to the students, described them using grammatical structures correctly while students were looking at the pictures and listening carefully. Next, the teacher asked questions about the pictures and the students described them correctly. After knowing and understanding the topic, the students completed the activities in their workbooks. I can say that these materials were important in this class, because they contained information very related to the topic, which helped the students to memorize the new words and facilitated their learning.

These visual materials were useful and appropriate for the students, because they showed information easy to understand. The students guessed the meaning of the words according to the context of the information and they were motivated to learn. The class

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49 understanding because they showed information about the most common occupations such as: teacher, secretary, farmer, policeman, driver, etc… Also, these materials had good quality because they were multicolored, attractive, and big. The students worked creatively and enjoyed these materials.

Realia (objects)

The teacher used this type of materials in the third class to talk about “labels on products”. Here, the teacher asked students to bring labels of different products. First, the teacher took the labels and described them in front of the students, who looked, listened and took notes carefully. Next, students glued the labels on a big

pasteboard and described each label using grammatical structures correctly. The teacher corrected students’ mistakes regarding grammar and pronunciation. After that, the students worked with their workbooks to complete some activities which were easily completed because the students were already familiarized with the labels. These materials are considered important tools for this class because they contained clear and relevant information about the topic. As a result, they helped the students to comprehend the topic better and learn to express ideas appropriately.

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50 products in their home, stores or in the markets. So in this class, they learned to read the labels and describe them in a foreign

language using grammar correctly. Most of these materials were full-size, understandable, new and colorful, but some of them were very small because the students did not know how to choose the best labels. However, this situation did not obstruct students´

understanding and learning because the students developed the language skills, achieved the objectives and learned successfully.

Finally, these realia materials were used in the fourth class whose topic was “a scrapbook”. In this case, the teacher used the same labels from the third class but with a different activity. Here the teacher did a review of the last class to check the students´ learning. She pointed out the pictures and the students remembered and pronounced the words aloud. Next, the teacher explained the

students how to make a scrapbook and the students discussed the process. Finally, all the students took the pictures and glued them on their notebooks to make their own scrapbook. The use of these

materials was important because they helped the students to practice what they had learned before.

Since these materials were the same as the third class, they were appropriate for students because the labels showed information about the products that the students usually buy or observe in

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51 this class, the materials helped the students to remember vocabulary and express their ideas correctly. In spite of some materials were small, the students worked actively, interacted in class and practiced the language successfully.

In this grade, the teacher considered some of the learning styles but not all of them because she only used visual and realia materials in the five classes. The teacher did not use other different materials such as Audio/Audiovisual or Online materials, which are useful to work with the Auditory/Learning because with this style the students learn better through audio presentations and listening and speaking activities. The teacher did not take into account that students have their own and different ways to learn; for this reason, they need different types of supporting materials to learn better. Even the students said that they would like their teacher to use different

materials everyday such as videos, songs, graphic organizers, posters and handouts. However, the teacher mentioned that she uses good materials but sometimes it is not possible to work with audiovisual materials because the other teachers use the TV or the radio. Also, she mentioned that there is not enough time to use additional

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52

10 th Grade

Pictures

These materials were used in two classes but in different ways, so they will be described according to how they were used in each class. In the first class the teacher used the pictures to teach a class about “natural disasters”. The teacher started the class with pictures which contained information about an earthquake in Chile. First, she showed the pictures and talked about them with the students. Then, the students asked questions and exchanged ideas with their

classmates and their teacher. After that, the students completed the activities in the English books, those activities were easy to complete because the students had already acquired knowledge through the pictures. So these materials were essential in this class because they contained clear and relevant information about the topic.

Furthermore, these materials motivated the students and woke up their interest and curiosity to talk about this topic. In other

words, these materials were perfect for the students´ level, age and understanding because these materials contained information that the students had already watched, read and listened on the different Medias; that is, the students had previous knowledge about the topic. Therefore, these materials helped them to guess and deduce the

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53 students´ needs. She chose the best pictures from different

newspapers, magazines and the internet to create the materials. As a result, these pictures were big, clear, multicolored and attractive for students.

The second time the pictures were used in the fifth class, whose was “crime”. The teacher and the students brought various pictures about the different types of crime which are affecting to the society. First, the teacher took the pictures and placed them on the board and the students looked at them and described using the present and past tense. Then the teacher corrected their mistakes regarding

grammar and pronunciation. Finally, they worked in their notebooks to describe crime which they have seen on the TV or listened to on the radio. This activity was easy for the students because they had practiced beforehand describing the pictures. These materials were useful tools for this class because they helped the students to acquire the information better.

These materials were perfect for the students´ level, age and understanding because they showed information what the students usually look at in the newspapers or watch on the TV. They

understood the information and learned the new words according to the context in which the teacher presented the language;

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54 internet or in newspapers. Some of the materials were neither big nor colorful, but that did not affect the development of the class and students´ learning.

Handouts

Handouts were used in the second class in which the topic was “natural disasters”. The primary objective was to learn how to give and ask for information using the present and past tense. The teacher used two articles from the internet. The first article was about an earthquake in Chile and the other one was about the

Tungurahua volcano. While the teacher was reading each article, the students listened and took notes about unknown words. Next they wrote the words on the board and deduced the words’ meaning according to the context of the reading. Then the students discussed the content of the articles applying the present and past tenses with questions and answers. The handouts were very important because they helped the students to acquire knowledge about the topic and understand the new vocabulary.

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55 they contained clear and important information, known words, and the letters were big enough.

Word cards

Word cards were used in the first class whose topic was “eating out”. The teacher created word cards with the new vocabulary related to the class. First, she presented each word card to the students, and then she placed the materials on the board and pronounced the words aloud. The students listened carefully and repeated the words until memorize each one. Then, the teacher put together all the pictures in a box. The students chose a word card and explained how to prepare the food indicated by the word card. The teacher

monitored the students to ensure correct vocabulary and grammar usage.

Also these materials were perfect for students’ level, age and understanding because the students of this level have the capacity of read words correctly and understands their meaning. These materials permitted the students to know how to write and pronounce those words correctly. These materials were created by the teacher

according to the vocabulary of the topic and students’ needs. She used different colored markers, big pasteboards and big letters so that students could visualize and memorized the words easily.

White/black board

As mentioned before, the board is different from other

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56 to how the teacher used it. The board was used in the fourth class whose topic was “flood”. The teacher only used this material to

develop the class. First, the teacher asked the students to remember the vocabulary learned before and then she wrote the words on the board. Next, some volunteer students wrote sentences on the board using the vocabulary and correct grammar. Then the teacher and the students corrected grammar mistakes and re-wrote the examples. Finally, the students completed some activities in the workbooks to practice what they learned in class.

In this grade, the teacher considered the visual/ verbal

learning style because she only used visual materials. In other words, she did not take into account the other learning styles such as the Tactile/Kinesthetic and the Auditory/ verbal. She did not apply other kinds of supplementary materials which can be more motivating and entertaining. The students said they like the materials used by their teacher, but they need other materials such as charts, songs,

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57 was not motivating and attractive as the other type of supporting materials such as: audio, audiovisual and realia.

Private High School

8th Grade

Flashcards

Flashcards were used two times in this grade; therefore, they will be described according to how the teacher used them in each class. In the first class the topic was “Occupations”. The teacher used flash cards to introduce the topic. First, the teacher presented the flash cards to the students pronouncing them and the students

looked at them and listened carefully to the teacher. Then the teacher placed the flashcards on the board and the students made

descriptions about the information illustrated in the materials. Next, the students gave and asked for information about occupations with their classmates pointing out the flash cards which were on the board. The use of flashcards was important because they contained relevant information about the topic. The students familiarized easily with the new topic. As a result, they learned to express different ideas about people´s occupations and both students and teacher achieved the objective of the class successfully.

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58 These materials are considered important and appropriate to the students´ level, age and understanding because they contained simple information about common occupations such as: teacher, student, singer, actor, secretary, etc…. The students of this grade are beginners; therefore, they need information that is easy to

understand. These materials awoke the students´ interest and facilitated their comprehension and learning. They practiced and developed their language skills successfully.

As for the quality of these materials, they were designed by the teacher considering the students´ level and needs. The teacher

created the supplementary materials regarding what students knew in their first language and what they needed to learn better. So the teacher created visual presentations with different pictures which were taken from the internet and glued on pieces of pasteboard. As a result, these materials were big, colorful, interesting, attractive and funny. The students enjoyed the class, worked and learned better.

The second class was “special occasions”, where the teacher used flashcards to introduce the new topic. The teacher presented the flashcards which contained pictures related to the topic of the class such as: Valentine´s Day, Christmas, Halloween, Thanksgiving Day, Mother´s and Father´s Day, etc. Once the students observed, heard and practiced the new vocabulary and learned grammatical

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59 information about the topic. However, they were not useful enough because they did not fulfill all the students´ requirements and needs.

These materials were not appropriate to students´ level, age and understanding because the information of the materials was complex and difficult to understand. The students could not deduce the meaning of the words because they contained information about special occasions which are celebrated in foreign countries rather than Ecuador. The students could not identify and guess the words´ meaning easily, they needed information according to their context, culture, customs and a more simple vocabulary. As a result, they could neither comprehend the topic well nor learn to express the ideas using the new words and grammar. It would have been better if the teacher had taught information about Ecuadorian’ celebrations; thus, the students would have been motivated and interested to learn.

However, as in the first class, these flashcards were created by the teacher, who used good materials such as different colors,

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60

Pictures

Pictures were used in the second class in this grade, whose topic was “where do they work”. The teacher presented various pictures about different places of peoples’ work. These pictures were closely related to the topic. First, the teacher asked for a volunteer student to give an example using the pictures while the other students were looking and listening carefully. Next, the students imagined that they were workers to describe their place of work orally. Then, the teacher explained the grammatical structures to build sentences using the new vocabulary. Finally, the students worked in pairs to complete activities in the English book. Therefore, these materials were important because they helped the students to infer meaning according to the context. As a result, the students learned to give and ask for information about occupations and places of work.

Figure

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