Operations Management and Intelligent Buildings Technology

Texto completo




Intelligent Buildings


English Level 8

Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic Games
















2016 O




1) Look at the following logo. What do you think it represents?

2) What do you think the main functions of the International Olympic Committee are? Take into account the following verbs and noun phrases to express your ideas:

3) Read the following information taken from the official website of the International Olympic Committee, and check your predictions


Acting as a catalyst for collaboration between all parties of the Olympic family, from the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), the International Sports Federations (IFs), the athletes, the Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs), to the TOP partners, broadcast partners and United Nations agencies, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) shepherds success through a wide range of programmes and projects. On this basis it ensures the regular


 promote  decide  fight against  ensure

 support  encourage  oppose

 celebration of the games  host city

 olympism

 organisation and development of

sports competitions

 discrimination in sports

 participation of women in sports  drugs in sport

 measures protecting the health of



celebration of the Olympic Games, supports all affiliated member organisations of the Olympic Movement and strongly encourages, by appropriate means, the promotion of the Olympic values.

In detail the role of the IOC, according to the Olympic Charter, is:

 To encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sport as well as education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned;

 To encourage and support the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions;

 To ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games;

 To cooperate with the competent public or private organisations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace;

 To take action in order tostrengthen the unity and to protect the independence of the Olympic Movement;

 To act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement;

 To encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women;

 To lead the fight against doping in sport;

 To encourage and support measures protecting the health of athletes;

 To oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes;

 To encourage and support the efforts of sports organisations and public authorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes;

 To encourage and support the development of sport for all;

 To encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly;

 To promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities and host countries;

 To encourage and support initiatives blending sport with culture and education;

 To encourage and support the activities of the International Olympic Academy (IOA) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.

4) What do you think the following words and phrases (in bold in the text) mean? Place them under the correct heading, and match them with their correct definition.

strengthen – sustainable development – shepherd – in order to – ban – concern – blend – host city – endeavour – lead – thereby – accordingly
















3. (n. phr.) Progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

4. (v) To say that something must not be done, seen, used (= prohibit) 5. (adv) In a way that is appropriate to the particular circumstances 6. (Connector /linking word) For the purpose of doing something

7. (n. phr.) A city that provides the necessary space, equipment etc for a special event 8. (v) To combine different things in a way that produces an effective or pleasant result 9. (v) To conduct; to be in charge of

10.(n) To make something stronger

11.(connector/linking word) As a result of something mentioned previously.

12.(n) A feeling of being interested in and caring about a person, thing, or situation.

_______________________ _______________________

You will read sections of a report of the 2016 Evaluation Commission, which is in charge of assessing different aspects of the Candidate Cities for the Olympic Games.

Before you read, think about the following:

a. Do you know which other three cities, apart from Rio de Janeiro, were candidates for the 2016 Olympic Games? Scan the first paragraph and check your guesses. What happened with Prague, Baku, and Doha?

While you read the text, answer the following:

b. How does the IOC help candidate cities?



The IOC Evaluation Commission (the Commission) for the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in 2016 is pleased to present the results of its evaluation of the four Candidate Cities for the 2016 Olympic Games: Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid. Seven cities initially submitted applications to host the 2016 Olympic Games: the four Candidate Cities listed above, as well as Prague (Czech Republic), Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar). At its meeting on 4 June 2008 and on the basis of an assessment carried out by a Working Group, the IOC Executive Board selected Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid as Candidate Cities.

The 2016 Candidate Cities have been able to benefit from services that the IOC constantly strives to improve. These included a seminar dedicated to the Applicant Cities, participation in the Beijing Olympic Games Observer Programme and the Official Debrief of the Beijing Games, briefings on specific topics and access to the IOC’s Olympic Games Knowledge Management Programme.

The knowledge and expertise made available by the IOC to the cities is reflected in the projects put forward by the 2016 Candidate Cities which are all of an extremely high level and demonstrate detailed planning and comprehensive strategies in technical and operational matters, as well as many other areas including sustainability, the environment, accessibility and integrated city development. It has been clearly demonstrated that investments in Olympic bids will generate

positive legacies irrespective of whether a city is awarded the 2016 Games.

The quality of the Candidature Files and the presentations made during the visits greatly assisted the Commission in assessing each city’s proposal and preparing this report. During the visits, the Commission was very pleased to meet with the IOC members in the respective countries and with many Olympians and Paralympians. The presence and support of representatives of the highest levels of government and the private sector demonstrate the importance of the Games on a regional and national level and underline that, even in the context of the current global economic climate, organising the Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a catalyst for change and an opportunity for social, economic and environmental development. The Commission’s task is to prepare a technical report to assist the IOC members in the important decision of electing the 2016 Host City by verifying the information provided in the Candidature File and determining whether the plans proposed are feasible.


This report reflects the unanimous opinion of the Commission and has been signed by its members. It takes into consideration all information received up until the end of the visit to each respective city.


You will now read extracts of the assessment of Rio de Janeiro, made by the Commission.

Before you read, answer:

1. What aspects do you think were taken into account when assessing Rio?

2. Look at the word ‘budget’ in the following sentence, and choose its correct definition. To what words correspond the remaining definitions? How do you say them in your language?

‘Rio de Janeiro proposes a balanced OCOG budget, with revenue and expenditure at approximately USD 2.82 billion’

a. The extra money that you must pay back when you borrow money.

b. The amount of money that is given to someone with a promise that it will be paid back.

c. The money that is available to an organization or person, or a plan of how it will be spent.

d. The fixed amount of money that is paid by an employer to an employee.

While you read, put the headings and subheadings in the chart in their correct place. One has already been done for you.


1A. Plans and actions

Rio de Janeiro would develop an innovative Sustainability Management Plan (SMP) for a 2016 Games, integrating economic, environmental and social elements into its “Green Games for a Blue Planet” vision. It would be closely connected to the comprehensive set of long-term programmes being implemented by the Rio City Government, supported by the State and Federal Governments.

A feature of Rio’s plans is the cleaning and regeneration of Rio’s waterways and lakes through government projects for major new water treatment and sewerage works and education campaigns.

Other Games legacies would include the reforestation of areas of the city; improved air quality standards and public transport systems; and pilot projects, including green construction technologies and materials and research projects at the Olympic Training Centre.

The SMP includes measures on renewable energy and energy conservation, including solar heating and cells and clean fuel transport, a carbon-neutral Games and green building and procurement guidelines.

There would also be a Games project to financially assist disadvantaged communities through solid waste recycling programmes, reforestation schemes (with three million trees being planted) and use of carbon credit market revenues. 100% of solid waste from the Games would be processed and recycled, with direct benefits to local communities through their direct involvement.

A comprehensive impact minimisation plan has been put in place for each Games zone, and for non-competition venues and interconnecting infrastructure.

Sports experience


Air and water quality Plans and actions

Sports concept Additional comments Non-OCOG budget Venue construction status


Financial guarantees


Rio has a high level of clean energy production and use, with most electricity coming from renewable sources, most small vehicles running on ethanol, and all taxis in Rio running on natural gas. This has major benefits for air quality and in reducing carbon emissions.

With many Games-related environmental programmes linked to wider government actions, efficient delivery of these programmes would rely on close cooperation and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities between the three levels of government, the OCOG, and the proposed Olympic Development Authority and its special-purpose agency the Olympic Sustainability Division.

Brazil has signed the Kyoto Protocol.


Air quality is within World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline values, with the exception of some PM (Particulate Matter) levels in the air in some areas of the city. Rio 2016 informed the Commission it was confident that before 2016, through policies requiring cleaner fuel, the levels would meet WHO guideline values.

Drinking water meets WHO standards.



Rio de Janeiro proposes a balanced OCOG budget, with revenue and expenditure at approximately USD 2.82 billion. In accordance with IOC guidelines, no capital investment is included in the OCOG budget.

The IOC contribution and TOP sponsorship income represent 31% of Rio de Janeiro’s total revenue.

The domestic sponsorship programme for the Olympic and Paralympic Games is expected to total USD 570 million (20% of revenue).

Ticket sales and licensing revenues total USD 406 million (14.4% of revenue) while donations amount to USD 30 million or 1.1% of revenue.

To meet the promise of affordable tickets and to relieve the pressure on the marketing programme, public authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million to the OCOG budget (25%) in the form of subsidies. These

subsidies, which would generate a positive cash flow, could vary to balance the budget between the expected revenues and expenditures. […]


The non-OCOG capital investment budget amounts to USD 11.1 billion […]

Government officials and Rio 2016 emphasised that hosting the 2016 Games would accelerate the transformation of the city and that the Games would benefit from major infrastructure investments already planned for the longterm development of Rio and the staging of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The federal, state and city governments have guaranteed the financing and delivery of the above-mentioned infra-structure, under the ultimate responsibility of the Federal Government.

The non-OCOG operations budget items have been identified and a commitment delivered that these would be provided by the respective government agencies or institutions.


The federal, state and city governments have guaranteed to provide all security, medical, customs and immigration services and other government-related services at no cost to the OCOG, in accordance with their jurisdictional responsibilities. In addition, the three levels of government would also provide publicly owned venues free of charge to the OCOG.



Although the OCOG budget does not carry any capital cost, USD 685 million (representing 24% of expenditure) would be necessary to deliver temporary venue constructions, overlay and operations, including the costs for the management of the villages for the media and technical officials (over 25,000 people).

The budget has been well prepared with a great amount of detail. Assumptions are well supported and documented.

The Commission is confident that the growing Brazilian economy would be able to support the necessary infrastructure development needed for the delivery of the 2016 Games.

The OCOG budget seems reasonable and achievable.



The Games concept is based on the use of the 2007 Pan-American Games venues, with venues in each of the city’s four major zones and development areas. This takes into account the city’s topography and growth plans and reinforces the concept of bringing the Games to the whole community. Many projects in the city’s development plan would be accelerated for a 2016 Olympic Games.

The plan involves several key criteria, including technical excellence; using existing venues and transport infrastructure, with sports or disciplines sharing venues where possible; ensuring legacy and sustainability for new venues; and showcasing the beauty of the city.

Fourteen competition venues would be within 10 minutes of the Olympic Village and seven venues within 10 to 20 minutes. The Olympic Park would be within 5 minutes of the Olympic Village. All venues would be within 50 minutes of the Olympic Village.

The four venue zones are: the Barra Zone (14 venues), the Copacabana Zone (4 venues), the Maracanã Zone (4 venues) and the De odoro Zone (7 venues).

The heart of the Rio 2016 project is the Barra Zone where nearly 50% of athletes would compete and includes the 90 hectare Olympic Park with ten Olympic venues. There are three existing venues: Rio Olympic Arena and Maria Lenk Aquatic Centre, built for the Pan-American Games, as well as the velodrome which would be extensively upgraded to Olympic standard. In addition, by adapting and expanding permanent facilities at the Olympic Training Centre, Rio 2016 would provide a further 6 venues and one temporary venue for hockey.

To construct the Olympic Park, approximately 300 families that Rio 2016 stated were living in illegal settlements, would be relocated.

The João Havelange Stadium would host athletics, and the 90,000 seat Maracanã Stadium the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and the football finals. Both these stadia exist. The plan to provide separate venues for ceremonies and athletics would remove the challenge of having to make a very quick transition from the Opening Ceremony to athletics.

All four zones would be connected by a high performance transport ring, with a metro, suburban rail, bus rapid transit system and an Olympic lane network.

The only venues outside Rio de Janeiro are the football venues in the co-host cities of Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Salvador and São Paulo.

There would be 29 conveniently located training venues (27 existing, 1 new and 1 temporary) with less than 15 minutes travel time from the Olympic Village for 68% of athletes.


There would be 33 venues; 10 existing with no permanent work required; 8 existing with permanent work required; 7 planned and to be built irrespective of the Games; 2 new permanent additional venues to be built only if Rio de Janeiro were awarded the Olympic Games; and 6 temporary venues. The João Havelange Stadium (athletics) would be permanently expanded from 45,000 to 60,000 spectators.


There are strong sports legacy benefits for Brazil based on the following initiatives: athlete scholarships, Olympic Training Centre scholarships, new training facilities and national technical officials’ training. There would also be innovative youth-oriented legacy projects at the X Park (new venues for mountain bike, BMX and canoe kayak-slalom).


In the past decade, Rio de Janeiro has organised international events for 18 out of the 26 Olympic summer sports, and Brazil 22.


After you have read the text, carry out the following activity.

Key Word Transformation: In each pair, re-write the second sentence using the word in bold so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. You can modify punctuation, but you cannot change the word given in any way. You have to use between 2 and 5 words in each gap.

e.g. A. Rio has a high level of clean energy production. is

B. The level of ____________________________ in Rio.

1. A. Rio de Janeiro would develop an innovative Sustainability Management Plan. be

B. An innovative Sustainability Management Plan ___________________________________ by Rio de Janeiro

2. A. 100% of solid waste would be processed and recycled, with direct benefits to local communities order

B. In ___________________________________ communities, 100% of solid waste would be processed and recycled.

3. A. Through policies requiring cleaner fuel, the levels of PM would meet WHO guideline values. lead to

B. Policies requiring ___________________________________ appropriate levels of PM.

4. A. Before 2016 the levels of PM would meet WHO guideline values. met

B. The levels of PM ___________________________________ WHO guideline values by 2016.

5. A. Air quality is within WHO guideline values, with the exception of some PM levels in the air in some cities. although

B. There are some PM levels in the air in some ___________________________________ within WHO guideline values.

6. A. Authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million to meet the promise of affordable tickets. so that

B. There will be a contribution of USD 692 million ___________________________________ affordable tickets is met.

7. A. Authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million to meet the promise of affordable tickets. endeavour

B. In ___________________________________ promise of affordable tickets, authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million.

8. A. The city and the Games would benefit from major infrastructure investments already planned. been

B. Major infrastructure investments ___________________________________ to benefit the city and the Games.

9. A. The three levels of government would provide publicly owned venues free of charge to the OCOG. spend


B. The OCOG ___________________________________ any money in publicly owned venues.

10. A. Fourteen competition venues would be within 10 minutes of the Olympic Village. take

B. From the Olympic Village, it ________________________________ to arrive to fourteen competition venues.

11. A. The only venues outside Rio de Janeiro are the football venues in the co-host cities which

B. The football ___________________________________ co-host cities, are the only ones outside Rio.

12. A. There would be 2 new permanent additional venues to be built only if Rio de Janeiro were awarded the Olympic Games.


B. Two additional venues will be ________________________________________ awarded the Olympic Games.

13. A. In the past decade, Rio de Janeiro has organised international events by

B. International events ______________________________________ in the past decade.

_______________________ _______________________

















2016 O




As a Host City, Rio has had both, successes and failures.

1. Go over the headings and subheadings of the report and tell your classmates if you know about something related to those topics that has gone wrong.

2. Search the web to find a newspaper article about one/some of the failures, and tell your classmates and your teacher what the article says about it.










BEFORE YOU WATCH the video, carry out the following activities:


Discuss as a group the main issues that the Olympics were facing just before the event started (e.g. public

safety deficiencies, Brazil’s financial emergency, the emergence of Zika virus, etc). Which were, in your

opinion, the most important three?


Vocabulary: The following words and expressions all appear in the video. Find their definitions below

and then use them to complete a brief summary about each issue.














_________________ (adj) rich; affluent


_________________ (adj) unhealthy; tending to harbor or spread disease


_________________ (n) any feature that provides comfort, convenience, or pleasure


_________________ (n) food and


(= a temporary place to stay)


_________________ (n) a great flowing or overflowing of water


_________________ (n) an unintended hole, crack, or the like, through which liquid, gas, light, etc.,

enters or escapes


_________________ (n) the remains of something broken down or destroyed; ruins


_________________ (n) any small container for powder, liquid, or gas, made for ready insertion into

some device or mechanism


_________________ (n) a soft substance that grows on the surface of damp or rotting things


________________ (n) waste material (such as human urine and feces) that is carried away from homes

and other buildings in a system of pipes


________________ (n) a structure like a wall built outdoors usually of wood or metal that separates two

areas or prevents people or animals from entering or leaving


________________ (n. ph.) the mixture of gases produced by an engine


Watch the video (from 03:40 to 06:47) and check the

ideas discussed in point 1.

Were they mentioned in the briefing?



How can you label each issue?


#3 ISSUE: ________________________________________________________________


What do these figures refer to?

3604____________________ 18.000 _________________ 10.000 ________________


According to the information in the video, complete the following chart (you will need words from

exercise 4). What logical connector does the anchorperson use to show contrast between both parts?













20 % fall in the housing market


#2 ISSUE: ________________________________________________________________


Complete the chart with information about the state of the water and the air in Rio.




- Evidence:

- 2009

- 15% of sewage was being treated

- 50%

- Problems:

- Situation: Rio has consistently fallen short of

World Health Organisation standards

- Cause:



a) What kind of message was carried by the opening ceremony?

b) How was the message conveyed?

#1 ISSUE: ________________________________________________________________


Complete the chart. What logical connector is used to introduce an opposing view?




- the athletes’ forest


- polluted water / rivers


Part 1:

You will read sections of a report on Sustainability in Rio 2016 from 2014.


BEFORE YOU READ, think about the quotation above.

a. Have you heard anything about the importance of sustainability in RIO 2016? How do you think sustainability may have been incorporated in the agenda? What areas may Nunman have been referring to? Scan the items in text A below and check your ideas.

b. How does sustainability and building relate? Scan text B to check your ideas.

WHILE YOU READ TEXT A, answer the following questions:

a. What does this short section focus on?

b. How does the guideline ensure a minimal impact on the environment?

c. What was Rio 2016 responsible at the stage of the project?

WHILE YOU READ TEXT B, answer the following questions:

a. What are the advantages of the construction method used in Rio 2016 headquarters?

b. How is energy managed efficiently in the headquarters? c. How is sustainability connected to accessibility?

A. Sustainable Construction

Rio 2016 recognises that sustainable construction is a key part of the agenda of any major event such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Sustainability Management Plan established guidelines to ensure that the Games infrastructure has a minimal impact on the environment, through the maximisation of the use of existing venues, the careful design and construction planning for new venues and adherence to high environmental standards during design and construction. Although Rio 2016 was not responsible for any construction work during the reporting period, we have engaged with the delivery partners responsible for construction works, in particular the Municipal Olympic Company (EOM) and the developers of the Olympic Golf Course, to collaborate with their sustainable construction activities. We did so by:

 Participating in weekly meetings concerning the master plan and the sustainability strategy for the Olympic Park.

 Collaborating with EOM to develop the sustainability strategy and goals for temporary arenas on the following themes: water, energy, materials and waste.

 Participating in design meetings to define the strategies to be adopted for LEED certification of permanent venues at the Olympic Park.

 Reviewing design plans and sustainability reports during all project phases and deliverables.

 Monitoring and registering the construction activities on site, initially biweekly and later monthly, to check compliance with the requirements of LEED and GEO certification as well as legislation and best practices on site management.

Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities.


B. Sustainability at the Rio 2016 headquarters

The Rio 2016 headquarters reflect the Games’ commitment to sustainability and concern for the legacy. Preassembled steel structures arrived ready to use on-site and came together through a simple mechanism of assembly consisting of slots. With this method, construction work was three times faster than usual, with minimal disposal of rubble. Up to 80 per cent of the modular material will be reused in future installations. The entire building has been designed in order to keep pace with the growth of our team, with the suitable structure and space for each working step of the Organising Committee.

The use of glasses with a high coefficient of heat reflectivity and high transmission of light ensures the energy efficiency of the building. The office uses LED bulbs, which consume up to 70 per cent less energy than a compact fluorescent light. The air conditioning system compressors are equipped with electromagnetic components that reduce the consumption of energy and make them more efficient and quiet than the conventional technologies.

Moreover, the heat generated by these compressors is used for the hot water system, which supplies the gym and kitchens. On cold days, solar power plates help heat the water without the need to drive the air conditioning compressors. The Rio 2016 headquarters have a system to recycle rainwater for irrigation of gardens. All furniture used in the head offices is made from certified wood, which means they are produced by companies that do not degrade the environment and contribute to the social and economic development of forest communities.

Finally, employees with disabilities work with autonomy and independence. In order to value and respect diversity, the Rio 2016 HQ has ramps, signage in Braille, elevators and tactile floor for guidance, among other adaptations that enhance the quality of life for our entire team.

AFTER YOU HAVE READ both texts, answer the following:

a. Find examples of Logical Connectors and explain their function.

b. Find examples of Passive Voice and explain their use in the context.

c. What does the word which (in bold in the text) refer to in each case?

d. Prepositions: complete the chart.

part use consumption disposal development participate

engaged keep pace equipped adherence impact

concern planning responsible commitment site produced

Part 2:

You will watch a video about the Athletes’ Village.


a. What do you remember about the accommodations for the athletes? What have you heard? What have we seen so far? What was the planned future for the village? What may have happened to those apartments?

b. Look at the logo. Have you seen it before? What does it represent? Check below.

The athlete`s village is the first phase of a larger mixed use development, called Ilha Pura. Ilha Pura is a joint venture between Odebrecht and Carvalho Hosken S/A. For the year 2016, Ilha Pura will exist as the Olympic Village with temporary facilities and furnishings for the summer games. Afterwards, Ilha Pura will work to retrofit the condominiums and commercially develop the area by 2017 into a region ready for 50,000 residents within 10 years. http://glcm.cee.illinois.edu/

WHILE YOU WATCH the video, prepare a list with the advantages and disadvantages of this project:

Rio's Olympic village: a green housing dream, but a gentrification nightmare

a. Are there more positive or negative issues regarding the whole project of Ilha Pura?

b. What would you have done differently? Discuss and share your ideas, then write 2 sentences using If only… c. Use Modal Verbs in the Past to fill in the following sentences, then watch again to check:




1) (3:17) The other credit that was notably missing from Ilha Pura’s application for LEED was around community consultation. With favelas nearby and the environment around this area, lots of different stakeholders ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ (consult).

2) (4:20) The Olympic Village __________ __________ __________ (represent), it __________ __________ __________ __________ (use) as a model for a new housing approach for Rio […]

3) These __________ __________ __________ (be) incredible legacies, they __________ __________ __________ them __________ (show off) at the Olympic Games.

AFTER YOU HAVE WATCHED the video, run an Internet search and check what the present situation of the apartments is.