Formando alfabetizaciones en la enseñanza del inglés a través de actividades aprendizaje mixto y facebook

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(1)BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEARNING. Building EFL learners’ literacy through Blended Learning and Facebook. Nayibel Molano Arias 20132062005. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas School of Sciences and Education Masters in Applied Linguistics to TEFL Bogotá – Colombia, 2017.

(2) BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEARNING. Building EFL learners’ literacy through Blended Learning and Facebook. Nayibel Molano Arias Thesis director Esperanza Vera R.. “A thesis submitted as a requirement to obtain the degree of M.A. in Applied Linguistics to the Teaching of English”. Universidad Francisco José de Caldas School of Science and Education Master in Applied Linguistics to TEFL Bogotá-Colombia, 2017.

(3) II BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Note of acceptance. Thesis Director. _____________________________________ ESPERANZA VERA RODRÍGUEZ M.Sc.. Juror:. _____________________________________ AMPARO CLAVIJO OLARTE Ph. D.. Juror:. _____________________________________ PILAR MÉNDEZ Ph. D..

(4) III BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Acuerdo 19 de 1988 del Consejo Superior Universitario Artículo 177: “La Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas no será responsable por las ideas expuestas en esta tesis”..

(5) IV BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Acknowledgements. The result of this research project was the product of two and a half years where I had the opportunity to learn and know deeply about my profession, as an English teacher at a public school in Bogotá. Hence, firstly, I would like to thank God for the strength and wisdom He gave me for doing this research study. Furthermore, I would also like to give my acknowledgements to my advisor MA. Esperanza Vera, who supported and strengthened my research idea with her experience and knowledge about TICs and English language teaching. She helped me to improve my labor as an English teacher with her knowledge of the English language. Finally, I also want to express my gratitude to my students, group 1102, who worked with me for six years and were my inspiration for improving and innovating my teaching practices..

(6) V BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Abstract Taking into account the use of technology, especially Facebook, among youngsters in their daily life and routine, the inclusion of EFL learning through a social network site is a challenge in public schools. This research study proposes the use of different environments and interesting issues in order to engage students in their EFL learning. The research focused on knowing how eleventh graders shaped their EFL literacies through the use of blended learning and Facebook activities in collaborative tasks. The data used in this research included field notes and artifacts, which were analyzed bearing in mind the framework of this research study and the transcription of audio recordings on students’ interactions about tasks based on teenagers’ social problems. The findings of this study show that students participate in the L2 learning process in an active way when they feel that their likes are included in their learning process. Keywords: Blended Learning, Facebook, Collaborative work..

(7) VI BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Table of contents Chapter I. Introduction……………………………………….…...……………………………2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………………………6 Research question……………………………………………………………………………..12 Research objectives……………………………………………………………………………12 Rationale……………………………………………………………………………………….12 Chapter II. Literature Review……………………………………………………...…………15 Background to the study…………………………………………………………………...…15 Computer-assisted language learning (CALL)………………….………………….………..18 Blended Learning……………………………………………………………..……….……..21 Facebook……………………………………………………………………………..………23 Literacy………………………….…………………………………………………………...26 Chapter III. Research Design…………………………………….………………………...…30 Research Paradigm……………………………………………………………………………30 Research Approach……………………………………………………………………………31 Research Method…………………………………………………………………...…...…….32 Participants and Settings………………………………………………………...……………32.

(8) VII BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Role of the Researcher…………………………………………………………………..……34 Data Collection Instruments……………………………………………………………...….35 Artifacts…………………………………………………………...……………………………35 Field notes………………………………………………………………………………………36 Audio Recording……………………………………………………………..…………………37 Chapter IV. Instructional Design………………….…………………………………………39 Vision of Curriculum…………………………………………………………………………39 Vision of Language……………………………………………………………………………41 Vision of Learning…………………………………………………………………………….44 Vision of Classroom………………………………………………………………………..…46 Vision of Technology………………………………………………………………………….47 Pedagogical Intervention………………………………………………………………………48 Chapter V. Data Analysis and Findings ……………………………………..………………51 Procedures for Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….……51 Categories of Analysis………………………………………………………………………….56 Understanding readings and posts about social issues and expressing ideas about them collaboratively……………………………………………………….……...…….……………56 Using students’ linguistic, textual, personal and social knowledge to understand and write.

(9) VIII BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. about social issues collaboratively……………………………………………………………..57 Learning and organizing students’ literacy activities through collaborative work……...…63 Reading students’ world and developing their online participatory writing and presence……………………………………………………………………………………….....73 Affirming students’ values through the identification of teenagers’ social problems and proposing solutions expressed in online activities…………………………………………….73 Showing students’ online presence transcending the class work to online work.………......84 Chapter VI. Conclusions and Pedagogical Implications……………………………...…….93 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………..93 Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………………………..…….….94 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………………….....96 Further Research………………………………………………………..…………….……….97 References……………………………………………………………………………………....98 Appendices……………………..………………………………………………………………105.

(10) IX BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. List of Figures. Figure 1. Students using Facebook for communicating among themselves and with the teacher…………………………………………………………………………………7 Figure 2. An excerpt of a student’s answer to the reading comprehension activity………….….9 Figure 3. Examples of students’ writings…………………………………………………...….10 Figure 4. Excerpts of students’ free writing on their hobbies and experiences…….…………..11 Figure 5. Categories and subcategories……………………………..………………………….55 Figure 6. Lesson1_Audiorecording1_MR…………...……………………………………….….58 Figure 7. Lesson1_Audiorecording1_KM…………………...……………………………….….58 Figure 8. Lesson1_Artifact1_KM…………………………..……………………………………60 Figure 9. Lesson2_Artifact1_EG……………………...…………………………………………61 Figure 10. Lesson1_Survey1_MR……………………………………………………………….63 Figure 11. Lesson2_Survey2_C. ……………………………………………………………...…64 Figure 12. Lesson1_Survey1_KM. ………………………………………...……………………64 Figure 13. Lesson1_Artifact3_JG. ………………………………………………………………65 Figure 14. Lesson3_Artifact3_BG. ……………………………………...………………………66 Figure 15. Lesson3_Artifact3_JT. ………………………………………………………………67.

(11) X BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Figure 16. Lesson3_Artifact3_LL. ……………………………………………..……………….68 Figure 17. Lesson3_Artifact4_CC. …………………………………………..………….………69 Figure 18. Lesson 3_Artifact4_Unscramble words……………………………………...………70 Figure 19. Lesson3_Artifact4_PR. ……………………...……………………………...…….…71 Figure 20. Lesson1_Fieldnotes2_EG. ………………………………………………...…………72 Figure 21. Lesson2_Artifact4_LM. ……………………...……………………………….……..75 Figure 22. Lesson2_Artifact5_LM. ……………………...…………………………………...…76 Figure 23. Lesson1_Artifact3_MR. ……………………...………………………………….…..77 Figure 24. Lesson1_Artifact4_MR. ……………………..……………………………..….……78 Figure 25. Lesson_Artifact7. Students’ family pictures …………………..………………...….79 Figure 26. Lesson_Artifact7. Love relationship………………………………………...……….81 Figure 27. Lesson3_Artifact7. Social relationship……………………………………...……….82 Figure 28. Lesson1_Artifact4.KM. Social relationship……………………………………...…..83 Figure 29. Lesson3_Artifact6.MR. Love relationship…………………………………………...84 Figure 30. Lesson1_Artifact4.JR……………………………………...…………………………86 Figure 31. Lesson2_Artifact6.CM…………………………………..……………………...……88 Figure 32. Students participated in online activities………………………………………...…..90.

(12) XI BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Figure 33. Lesson1_Artifact4.HO…………………………………..……………………………91. List of Appendices Appendix A: Curricular platform………………………………………………………………105 Appendix B: Interests, difficulties and proposals about English class………………………...108 Appendix C: First Instrument, the students’ artifacts……….………………………...……….112 Appendix D: Second Instrument, Field Notes…………………………………………...…….124 Appendix E: Consent form………………………..…………………………………………...127.

(13) 2 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Chapter 1 Introduction The use of technologies is changing the traditional learning environments in Colombian schools. Some years ago, technology was used only in companies for facilitating and improving the effectiveness of business. Nowadays, the use of technology has reached the academic spaces, especially in Colombia, where the ideas for improving educational quality and educational inclusion are well received by the Colombian government. According to the last report on ICT in education in Latin America and the Caribbean, issued by UNESCO-UIS (2012), ICT are tools designed for promoting and developing the economy and helping social inclusion. In Colombia, technologies are being used in some educational communities such as universities and schools to enhance students’ EFL learning. Douglas (2013) highlights the importance of ICT in English learning in Colombia, especially for promoting autonomy in learners. Some other Colombian researchers that have conducted studies using ICTs to foster literacy and language learning at universities and high schools are Clavijo, Hine & Quintero (2009), Quintero (2008), Vera & Arias (2010), López (2011), Aguirre (2010), and Bonilla (2012). In line with the above studies, this research involves technology to motivate a group of eleventh-grade students to shape their literacies using a different environment where they had the possibility and the alternative to participate with their writings before an authentic audience. My research took the case of learners with classroom modality because I work at a.

(14) 3 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. public school where education is imparted in a classroom. There, I observed my students’ preferences in terms of technology and I administered a short survey (Appendix B) about their use of ICT tools, their use of the foreign language and their favorite topics. Based on the results, I concluded that they liked to use technology and they also liked the English language. They knew about the new technology trends and their application in social contexts, but they did not use technology for academic purposes. The results of the survey also showed that students felt motivated about using the technological devices in class. Furthermore, students demonstrated interest in communicating their ideas or feelings in English, beyond the environment of the classroom. In consonance with the survey outcomes, I realized that engaging my students in the use of ICT to develop their literacy in English could become an interesting and meaningful language learning process for them. Therefore, this current research attempted to engage a group of eleventh graders in literacy practices using Blended Learning and Facebook, at Venecia School, which is located in the south of Bogotá. The teacher researcher expected students to feel motivated to learn English and use it in their current contexts to comprehend the texts they usually read in social network sites, especially in Facebook. They liked to participate in Facebook chats, they were connected to this social network site all the time and they always commented on the pictures, videos or phrases posted; but the purpose of this pedagogical intervention went beyond comments; the main pedagogical purpose was that 11th grade students shaped their reading and writing practices through Blended Learning activities and the use of Facebook to acquire the competences required by the English standards. Some authors such as Littlejohn and Pegler (2007), Graham (2006), and Bañados.

(15) 4 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. (2006) show the connection and benefits of Blended Learning in the language learning processes where students can read, write, and express their ideas to an authentic audience increasing also their knowledge of the target language. This research follows the Blended Learning principles to motivate and engage 11th grade students in shaping their literacies. By building literacy, my students could improve their knowledge of other topics or subjects too and their autonomy to express themselves, which may lead them to obtain good results in their academic and personal life. To reach this goal, I considered that it was necessary to involve technology in my students’ language learning. Bainbridge (2011) explains the influence of ICT in the literacy process when she says: “Literacy skills help students gain knowledge through reading as well as using media and technology. These skills also help students create knowledge through writing as well as developing media and technology” (p.4). Access to technology and the Internet was not difficult for my students because they had tablets, computers, smart phones, and Internet access and taking that into account, they could benefit from the innovation inside and outside of the classroom; but the most especial thing about the group of eleventh graders was their interest for participating in this English class innovation. According to that, two years ago, I did an inquiry to 30 students of tenth grade, specifically course 1002, about their English class preferences and their knowledge of technological tools; then, when they were in 1102 they continued being the participants of my research. Appendix A shows eleventh graders’ preferences regarding the English class, namely what they wanted to improve in agreement with their current language use and the use of technology..

(16) 5 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. From the participants’ answers and opinions, I found that most of them liked the English class and felt motivated in the class because they understood the explanations, the English class was fun, the teacher used different resources for teaching, and the topics were interesting for them. About eleventh graders’ interests for learning English, the most relevant answer was that English might help them in their college studies; other answers were that they needed to learn English because they wanted to travel, know other cultures and people, and get a good job. In order to achieve the objectives, students wrote that they needed to improve their writing and reading skills, because these skills were necessary in their university studies; however, some students marked the importance to improve their listening and speaking skills. In order to do that, they suggested to work in their English class topics such as movies, sports, social problems, TV programs, celebrities’ lives, and customs and cultures of different countries. About students’ technology preferences, they said that they had computers and access to the Internet at home; besides, they used their smart phones or tablets to do their homework or participate in chats. The sites more frequently used by eleventh grade students were Facebook, e-mail, and YouTube, although they also used Twitter and blogs in some occasions. A key construct in this study was the application of Blended Learning. I think that this approach was appropriate to shape my students’ reading and writing in English as a Foreign language (EFL) because Blended Learning combines the traditional face-to-face methodology with computer-mediated activities, in this case using the Social Network Site, Facebook. Teachers can use some social networks such as Facebook for pedagogical.

(17) 6 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. purposes along with a learning model like Blended Learning, as I did, to help students become engaged and put into practice their reading and writing English skills in order to improve their literacy, because this social network site is a part of their daily routine; their communicating ideas, likes, and preferences is expressed through Facebook and my intention was to use this tool in my students’ learning process. Statement of the Problem During the time I was their teacher, I observed that 11th grade students had a low level in their reading and writing skills. In previous reading and writing activities done in class, eleventh grade students did not evidence good progress in their reading comprehension and in their free writing. In their reading comprehension, many of them did not understand the texts, as they did not identify the main ideas or the author’s purpose, did not recognize the type of text and could not propose their own ideas based on the readings or argue about a topic based on the readings. About my students’ writing in English, they always had expressed that they did not have enough English vocabulary for communicating their ideas and this was the reason why they did not try to write in English. In the excerpts below, I show some examples of these eleventh graders’ written production..

(18) 7 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Figure 1. Students using Facebook for communicating among themselves and with the teacher.. Figure 1 illustrates an online conversation to try to engage my students in the use of EFL through Facebook. According to their comments, they were not able to write in English spontaneously, and they asked for the comments to be posted in Spanish; although they translated and understood the teacher’s comments, they preferred to write in Spanish. In relation to their reading comprehension, I could affirm that most of the participants understood simple adapted texts about familiar topics written in present and future tenses; in the following examples, we can observe that the answers they gave to the information questions asked were correct and generally were well written when students could copy the answers from the reading..

(19) 8 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK.

(20) 9 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Figure 2. An excerpt of a student’s answer to the reading comprehension activity. Figure 3 below illustrates the results of a short-controlled writing activity in which students were expected to write a text using some prompts. In the pictures, I could observe some mistakes in eleventh graders’ writings such as the lack of use of possessives, and problems with word order, spelling, and tense use; however, they understood the exercise and their writings were coherent..

(21) 10 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Figure 3. Examples of students’ writings Figure 4 below illustrates some examples of a free writing activity in which students had to comment about their hobbies and an experience lived this year. In this activity, some of the students could express their ideas despite their mistakes; however, others showed lack of vocabulary, coherence, and cohesion, besides an incorrect use of grammar which did not allow them to communicate their ideas successfully..

(22) 11 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Figure 4: Excerpts of students’ free writing on their hobbies and experiences In order to help my students overcome their literacy problems, I was able to take advantage of their great interest in communicating through their electronic devices during the English class, especially through Facebook posts, which they wanted to answer immediately. Nevertheless, some of my students were shy and their participation in the English class was not active since they did not ask questions or talk, and they wanted to work alone because their personality did not allow them to speak in a comfortable way with other people. They also wanted to use their electronic devices for communicating all the time. Therefore, I could use online reading and writing activities on Facebook, supported by face to face classroom activities, to help the participants improve their literacy in EFL,.

(23) 12 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. which meant following a Blended Learning approach to language learning and literacy enhancement. Based on these ideas, I could propose the following research question. Research Question ¿How do 11th grade students shape their English literacies using Blended Learning activities and Facebook? Research Objectives ● To characterize and document the 11th grade students’ English reading skills using Blended Learning and Facebook activities. ● To characterize and document the 11th grade students’ English writing skills through the use of Blended Learning and Facebook activities. Rationale The implementation of Blended Learning in this study was related to the use of two different pedagogical environments but with the same purpose: To shape 11th grade students’ English literacies. Bonk and Graham (2012) cite in their book three benefits of applying this approach, namely to improve pedagogy, to increase access and flexibility, and to increase cost-effectiveness. I could say that this methodology combines the best ideas of both learning environments, the classroom and Facebook as a virtual environment to take advantage of the benefits just mentioned. Littlejhon and Pegler (2007) include the social spaces online as a part of Blended Learning and they argue that “students can share information, comment on the ideas of others, and collaboratively generate new knowledge” (p.26). Through these online environments, I thought that Blended Learning might help to.

(24) 13 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. engage my students in their English learning, because in this learning approach, my students and I had a common interest: The use of Internet to learn and specifically the use of Facebook. Another reason for applying Blended Learning in this study was to foster the appropriate use of time out of the classroom for my students’ learning. At Venecia School there are some different reasons why students do not attend school or go to a class; one of these is that on some occasions, students do not have a class because there are meetings or academic activities and students do not go to school to study; another situation is the absence of students due to illness or personal situations; these situations are an impediment to their learning process. The use of Facebook improved communication and participation of 11th grade students out of the classroom to be updated with their academic tasks or activities when they could not come to school. So far, I have described the problem, which was the origin of this research, the pedagogical and research purposes, the research questions and the rationale for doing this research. Chapter two has the concepts, which are related to my research such as literacy, Blended Learning, collaborative work, and other topics which complement my study. In chapter three, I present the research design, qualitative action research, participants, and I describe the setting, the researcher’s role, and the data collection instruments and procedures. In chapter four, I will explain the instructional design, the pedagogical platform, the teaching approach, and the tasks proposed to enhance my students’ literacies. In chapter five, I report on the data analysis process which referred to the approach, procedures, and the description of the categories of analysis and the findings of the.

(25) 14 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. research. In the last chapter, I introduce the conclusions and the limitations of the study to contribute to other studies..

(26) 15 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Chapter 2 Literature Review This research was grounded in an ICT perspective for shaping literacy in a second language, specifically through Blended Learning, including Facebook as a part of this methodology. The Social Networking Site, Facebook™ was chosen because it is the most popular Social Network Site among students of 11th grade at Venecia School afternoon shift, according to the survey done in 2016 about the social pages more used by learners. (See Chapter 1). This chapter shows some studies which involved Blended Learning in the learning and teaching of a second language, and Facebook™ as a learning and teaching tool. After that, I provide some explanations about concepts such as Blended Learning, Facebook, collaborative work, and literacy; finally, I focus on the importance of shaping the EFL learners’ literacy through Blended Learning. Background to the study The interest in developing eleventh grade students’ literacy through Blended Learning and Facebook was not only to get better results in high school but to allow students to see they could understand texts in English and express their feelings and thoughts in that foreign language too. Gupta and Haridas (2012) argue that including technology-assisted learning or standardized lessons in a syllabus can mitigate weaknesses in teaching and improve students’ test scores; furthermore, they say that using ICT in all subject matters and all grades helps to foster meaningful learning..

(27) 16 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. The implementation of technology for improving EFL learning has been included in our country in different ways, uses, and to fulfill different objectives. Many of the EFL researches have used educational platforms such as forums for communication purposes among students and blogs, as useful ICT tools for language learning; thus, writing skills have been the most addressed ones in those research studies. Quintero (2008) used blogs with university students to allow them to communicate and interact among themselves and with students from Canada to promote learning about the language and culture, but expressing their ideas through writing was the focus for the Colombian students to introduce their culture to the Canadian students. In the same way, Clavijo, Hine, & Quintero (2009) involved the use of ICT, specifically the use of a virtual forum in which students from Colombia and Canada participated exchanging information about their cultures by dealing with topics such as festivities, celebrations, among others, in writing; through this, students learned to work in a collaborative way; in addition, they learned about other cultures, participated choosing their own themes, and improved their writing skills. López (2011) also conducted a study to improve EFL students’ writing using blogs, especially related to grammar use, paragraph structure, and in different writing processes. Moreover, she highlights the importance of using blogs as a tool for engaging students in communication, as students had the opportunity to express their likes and share a part of their life experiences in EFL. The incorporation of ICT in the teaching and learning of EFL is not used only for.

(28) 17 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. schools; universities in Colombia have tried to include this tool to engage students in their EFL learning. Bonilla (2012) conducted a research study that used ICT with college students to involve them in an enquiry writing process as a way for developing their writing skill, building knowledge, and reflecting upon a social situation. In his study, the writing process was used to promote communication, express concerns, ideas, or opinions, and do research about topics of interest to students and, therefore, teaching went beyond just the forms and functions of the English language. In her study, Aguirre (2010) describes the potential of ICT for developing writing, especially for improving the quality of the text produced. In that research study, students created hyper-stories in a collaborative way, having in mind an authentic audience and their expectations to be published, read, and motivated to improve their writing skills. The examples above about the incorporation of ICT in EFL learning were not just for improving writing, but they were used to engage students with a virtual environment to express their opinions, ideas, and concerns in English. Considering these experiences, I included a virtual space to encourage my students to read and write in English, involving them in their language learning, which might help them communicate among themselves and with people from other cultures and to obtain good results on their ICFES exam, because this was one of the possibilities they had to be admitted to an official or private university (See the context in Chapter 3). Cassell (2004) refers to the importance of literacy, saying that “Verbal literacy remains paramount for success throughout life — from the beginnings of education to the future employment of adults” (p.2)..

(29) 18 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. For many years, we have heard the term literacy and we know that this term refers to knowing how to read and write, but we do not understand its importance for our lives. Davidson (2010) refers to the importance of developing literacy in students arguing that in this globalized world and with diverse student backgrounds, literacy helps children and youngsters to have access to equal education that can transform their lives and society. As I mentioned above, this was my principal motivation for conducting the current research study. This research focused on developing students’ literacy, not only for them to learn English but above all, to try to understand situations close to their realities and to express their points of view about them. To do so, Blended Learning and Facebook were used as tools. Graham (2004) defines Blended Learning as an approach which integrates two different learning environments: Virtual and face-to-face. In my case, it was used to create a more effective experience in the teaching and learning of the English language. In the following pages, I discuss the characteristics of important constructs in this research, starting by Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), which was the concept within which Blended Learning and the pedagogical use of Facebook could be framed. Computer-assisted Language Learning, (CALL) When talking about the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of languages, it was necessary to focus on CALL; Egbert and Petrie, (2005) claim that “CALL means learners learning language in any context with, through, and around computer technologies” (p. 4). According to the context where I teach, I promoted students’ literacy.

(30) 19 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. beyond the classroom using Facebook as a tool that involved a computer and network technology in order to change the traditional teaching and learning context and engage eleventh graders in their language learning. The importance of CALL in language acquisition was based on tasks where computer and web-based mediated social interaction was relevant for learners. Chapelle (2001) recommends six criteria for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tasks based on Second Language Acquisition (SLA): (1) language learning potential, (2) appropriate to learner’s linguistic ability level, (3) meaning focus, (4) authenticity, (5) positive impact which results beyond language learning potential, and (6) practicality. The inclusion of CALL in language teaching and learning could transform the traditional learning into a motivating learning experience and meaningful learning. Espitia & Clavijo (2011) argue the importance of ICT tools in the motivation and acquisition of an L2, when stating that “computer and Internet based tools are thought to be useful in language classes due to their potential to enhance communication, literacy, and other language skills. They can be used to help students interact with different people, facilitate knowledge acquisition, and increase motivation toward language learning” (p. 31). Considering this quote, I could say that the use of social networks such as Facebook, might be pertinent and motivating for developing literacy skills in learners both inside and outside the classroom because of the authenticity of communication they could promote. The effectiveness of CALL could be argued considering that CALL research has noted positive results from its use, indicating that CALL “permitted students to control the.

(31) 20 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. pace of their learning and their interaction with others, and encouraged them to become better writers because they had an authentic audience and a purpose for writing” (Pennington, 1996; Pennington & Stevens, 1992; Warschauer, 1995; Yates, 1996, p.9). “The use of CALL and distance learning activities was found to create classroom discourse communities and encouraged shy students to participate more fully” (Palloff & Pratt, 1990; Warschauer, 1996b, p.9). Students also reported that CALL activities helped them develop their ideas and promoted learning from their classmates. In addition, developing expertise in using computers gave students a feeling of pride and achievement and greatly encouraged their autonomy as learners; thus, CALL has been shown to produce several favorable learning outcomes. Technology has a potential impact for youngsters. The use of electronic devices and the Internet is a part of students’ personal routines. The Fred Rogers Center (2012) research shows how technology has been growing during the last years and how it has become a resource in family daily activities, especially, involving children and youngsters. According to this research, “the prevalence of electronic media in the lives of young children means that they are spending an increasing number of hours per week in front of different electronic gadgets and engage with screens of all kinds, including televisions, computers, smartphones, tablets, handheld game devices, and game consoles” (p. 2). The idea was to integrate the use of ICT in the academic students’ learning activities. The students wanted to relate to their friends, family or teachers through the Internet; but this tool was not only for communicative purposes, it was also important for students to acquire knowledge about their likes or preferences. Kolb (2008) states that “life and student.

(32) 21 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. experiences in school believe that if the home culture of students is integrated into their classroom learning, they are more likely to be academically successful” (p.4). Thus, the use of ICT, especially the Internet on computers, smart phones or tablets was a pedagogical resource in EFL learning to take advantage of students’ previous knowledge and experiences. Blended Learning (BL) to foster EFL literacy This approach was created as an alternative to the difficulties embraced by elearning. For Littlejohn and Pegler (2007), “The term Blended Learning describes a hybrid model of e-learning that allows coexistence of conventional face-to-face teaching methods and newer e-learning activities and resources in a single course” (p. 26). Also, Graham (2006) states that “Blended Learning systems combine face-to-face instruction with computer-mediated instruction” (p. 5). Both definitions involve the mix of two different settings of learning and methods of teaching; one of them refers to the classroom learning that the authors describe as face-to-face teaching; the other one refers to the virtual space created using technology where interactive learning activities can be designed, they call it e-learning and computer-mediated instruction. Considering these characteristics, the use of BL in my research was appropriate for my students to read and write in EFL because it involved the two principal settings in which my students and I developed the teaching and learning activities, that could complement each other. Another definition of BL is given by Bañados (2006), who describes it as a “combination of technology and classroom instruction in a flexible approach to learning.

(33) 22 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. that recognizes the benefits of delivering some training and assessment online but also uses other modes to make up a complete training program which can improve learning outcomes and/or save costs” (p. 534). Graham (2004) argues that “BL is part of the ongoing convergence of two archetypal learning environments. On the one hand, we have the traditional F2F learning environment that has been around for centuries. On the other hand, we have distributed learning environments that have begun to grow and expand in exponential ways, as new technologies have expanded the possibilities for distributed communication and interaction” (p. 4). Regarding the last definitions, I consider that BL was the most appropriate approach with which students were more comfortable to participate, interact, and develop their literacy in EFL in and out of the classroom. Because the use of technology was an attractive way for enhancing students’ English learning, it was necessary to bear in mind, that the implementation of this learning tool had to include a pedagogical aim. Bañados (2006) argues three reasons for including Blended Learning as a pedagogical tool for teaching and learning in EFL students; one of these reasons is that students prefer traditional classes to online classes because they have more opportunity for face-to-face teacher and peer interaction; another reason is that students have the possibility to use technology tools to practice and interact using EFL, and the last reason is that students not only learn English but they also achieve a mastery on the use of ICTs. For the author, BL in learning and teaching of an L2 involve different aspects such as autonomy, responsibility, learning of L2, and mastery of ICT. It made BL approach suitable for influencing EFL students’ literacy..

(34) 23 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Dennis, Bichelmeyer, Henry, Cakir, Korkmaz, Watson & Bunnage, (2006) quoting Osguthorpe and Graham (2003) about the benefits of applying BL environments, mention pedagogical richness, access to knowledge, social interaction, personal agency, costeffectiveness, and ease of revision; all of them are used to engage students in learning in an autonomous and collaborative way. Taking this into account, the incorporation of Blended Learning in my research helped to increase my students’ motivation to build knowledge, to participate, to keep working in the English class to improve their literacy and their social interaction. Facebook Facebook is a “social network site as web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system” (Boyd & Ellison, 2007, p.211). This tool has been useful for academic purposes too; especially for language learning in order to build literacy. Anderson (2009) claims that “digital text provides affordances that readers and writers do not have with more traditional literacy tools. When used effectively, the capacity of digital text to be modified and enhanced can be used to develop digital learning environments that support and enhance the learning process” (p.129). Facebook is a collaborative and organizational tool where students can develop personal characteristics such as self-esteem, self- efficacy, collaboration, communication, and motivation. Dennis et al (2006) refer to Facebook as:.

(35) 24 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Another informal system equipped with tools designed for social interaction that students are re-appropriating for academic uses. Students are using Facebook as an informal communication platform through which students conduct various organizing activities such as sharing information about their classroom activities and collaborating with peers on assignments (p. 330). The use of Facebook in language learning has helped both students and teachers to build, develop or improve literacies; also, when students were working with these ICT tools, they could develop the other personal skills listed above. Reid (2011) describes how teachers can use Facebook for different academic purposes; especially for encouraging interaction and participation for discussing important aspects of debates to develop critical awareness in students. About the relationships that originated between students and / or teachers while working in a social network site, Selami (2014), in her research, demonstrated that the interactions student-teacher through Facebook are very common and pleasurable for students because they read about their teacher’s life, work and education; but on some occasions learners posted on the teachers’ walls in order to give their opinion or suggestions using the foreign language, which was the principal objective for shaping my students’ literacy. The researcher found that gender was an important factor in studentteacher’s interactions, especially for women who demonstrated interest in the teacher’s status updates in her Facebook. Selami (2014) found that EFL students showed positive behavior through the messages sent to their teachers and concluded that students felt more comfortable writing on Facebook because they could express their ideas without the stress.

(36) 25 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. of time or the fear of being ridiculed by their classmates. Kitsis (2008) in her research with high school students engaged in their homework through a Social Networking; she reports that homework has been viewed as an individual work, which students do not feel comfortable with because they do not have the possibility to ask or to receive feedback. Considering the importance of technology in students’ lives, the researcher used it to improve literacy skills; she began with e-mails, then with Facebook, but finally she chose blogs because they promoted collaborative work in an easy way, where students could share their writings in an immediate way, obtaining feedback to shape their literacy skills. According to the interviews conducted by the researcher, students gave more importance to the comments made by their peers about their writings, than to the grades given for the homework done. They changed their thoughts about tasks and enjoyed doing them outside of the school. Students improved their literacy and critical skills; they worked in a collaborative way to improve their academic results and to establish new relationships outside the school. Although social networks are tools used by youngsters, it is necessary to understand the importance they have in language learning. Blattner and Fiori (2009) argue that Facebook has allowed synchronous and asynchronous tools to extend their communicative purpose to a different audience; not only for a teacher, where communication may be developed in a dynamic way either in delayed or real time. McBride (2009) also expresses the importance of the Social Network Sites (SNS) such as Facebook in the learning of a.

(37) 26 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. foreign language, when she states that the use of a SNS encourages students to learn a second language, because this tool allows people to do self-expression and social interaction which are important in language learning. The author mentions that the SNS activities ought to contain a pedagogically useful design in order to engage students in their foreign language tasks. Considering the pedagogical dimension, I implemented the BL methodology where classroom activities to develop reading and writing skills intended to prepare students for expressing themselves, analyzing social issues, interacting with their classmates and the teacher, and putting their knowledge on Facebook into practice. Finally, it is important to highlight the influence that technology and the Internet have in a sociocultural context because the Social Network Site is a setting and a tool where students can develop their EFL literacy through online interaction and with the support of face-to-face supporting activities, they had the possibility to know other cultures and I could say that one future purpose in the use of Facebook and according to Lampe & Wohn & Vitak & Ellison & Wash (2011) is to obtain higher levels of self-efficacy, such as the use of the language as the tool to apply knowledge in a larger set of contexts. Literacy Most literacy practices of current students come from technology, but these skills are given by a topic or context of interest to young people. This technological boom has generated a greater influence on youngsters to be connected and to participate in different chats where they can give their opinion. This online participation involves students to read, understand, and write; these skills are all a part of literacy..

(38) 27 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. The necessity to express thoughts, ideas or feelings using technology, and the Internet indicates that these practices are inseparable for today’s people, especially for the youngest. Barrette (2001) defines computer literacy as “computer skills and the ability to use computers and other technology to improve learning, productivity, and performance” (p.6). The purpose of including technology to promote the development of reading and writing skills in English is to engage students in their language learning process. Baynham (1995) defines literacy “as the uses of reading and writing to achieve social purposes in contexts of use” (p.2) and this was the aim in my research; the use of literacy for communicating ideas, opinions, and feelings, through specific contexts such as the classroom and Facebook, as a way to engage my students in literacy processes. Developing literacy is not an individual activity, it requires interaction and socialization among people in order to communicate and understand thoughts and meanings. Keefe and Copeland (2011) propose five core definitional principles for literacy: 1. All people are capable of acquiring literacy. 2. Literacy is a human right and is a fundamental part of the human experience. 3. Literacy is not a trait that resides solely in the individual person. It requires and creates a connection (relationship) with others. 4. Literacy includes communication, contact, and the expectation that interaction is possible for all individuals; literacy has the potential to lead to empowerment. 5. Literacy is the collective responsibility of every individual in the community; that is, to develop meaning making with all the human modes of communication to transmit and receive information” (p. 97)..

(39) 28 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Therefore, interaction is very important in order to construct, understand, and make meaning. Hence, different elements take part in the construction of meaning. As I highlighted before, one of these elements was the development of literacy taking into account society and context. As stated by Davidson (2010), literacy is developed when children understand and explore their cultural, social, and historical contexts. Another element for shaping literacy was the way reading and writing were incorporated into a context where interaction within a society is important to improve these two skills; Perez (in Davidson, 2010) argues that “being literate means being able to read and write in a culturally appropriate way, that the skills are not only in the individual’s head, but that literacy is an interactive process that is modified according to the sociocultural environment” (p. 5). Considering the above definitions of literacy, my research focused on how eleventh grade students shaped their literacy through different environments such as the classroom and Facebook. These contexts gave them the opportunity to interact among themselves and with the teacher in relation to interesting topics to express their opinions, ideas, feelings, etc. by using EFL in a correct way. This chapter focused on the use of CALL and specifically the implementation of BL as an approach for shaping EFL literacy in eleventh graders at Venecia school, for engaging my students in their English learning through the BL activities, where the youngsters had the opportunity to participate actively in order to learn new vocabulary, put grammar into practice, read, and write in English..

(40) 29 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. The implementation of BL provided different language learning environments where the students were able to use technology and the Internet to abbreviate their learning process and add the motivational element, because technology makes a part of learner’s reality, making them feel identified and motivated to do their tasks in and out of the classroom. Engaging students in BL activities demonstrated the possibilities and facilities that youngsters had to learn English in an autonomous way to know as well as understand different cultures and contexts around the world and their own. Students investigated about their interests using English, because they had the knowledge to comprehend the readings offered in English. During the implementation of these tools along the process of language teaching and learning, it was necessary to consider some issues such as Blended Learning, literacy, the personal and academic effectiveness of Facebook, the role of different theories which supported the implementation of the tools, and the approach..

(41) 30 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Chapter 3 Research Design This chapter presents the research methodology that supports this study. It includes the research paradigm, research approach, and research type. It also describes the setting, the participants and the researcher’s role. Last, it describes the data collection instruments that were used during the pedagogical intervention. Research Paradigm This research focused on constructivism, because the constructivist researcher is interested in co-constructing with the participants the subjective reality that is under investigation (Hatch, 2004); that is, in how human beings construct their own meanings or social realities through the interaction with others. This meaning and social realities were supported by my students’ experiences or previous knowledge in specific contexts and settings. In this study, the classroom and Facebook were the contexts where students developed their literacy in EFL to construct and improve their English learning through reading and writing activities and the interaction with their classmates and the teacher. Creswell (2003) affirms that: “the participants can construct the meaning of a situation, a meaning typically forged in discussions or interactions with other people” (p.8). Considering the importance of the context for shaping literacy, I think that Facebook was a Social Network Site where students constructed new ideas or concepts based on their previous or current knowledge acquired in different settings such as their classroom, their.

(42) 31 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. family, their friends, etc. and that knowledge was interpreted in different ways but always trying to understand and structure the new knowledge. Research Approach Constructivism is the paradigm that frames my qualitative research, it addressed my inquiry to carry out analysis and interpretation of the data collected along my pedagogical intervention. This approach was very useful for my inquiry, thanks to its special characteristics (Creswell, 2003). One of these characteristics was the natural context. The classroom and Facebook were the specific natural settings where students developed their literacy. I also acted as a data gathering instrument; I was the only one responsible for gathering data about how students responded to Blended Learning (BL) activities and how that shaped their literacy through Facebook and different activities developed in the classroom, using different sources to collect data such as field notes, surveys, and artifacts. Another characteristic of qualitative research was the participants’ perspectives through their voices. Also, the teacher – researcher tried to understand the meanings that participants constructed to participate in their social lives; those meanings were developed through the participation and interaction with other human beings like their classmates and the teacher. For Hoepfel (1997) qualitative research has an interpretive character and is used for knowing the phenomena in specific settings to discover and understand the meaning of people’s actions in context and achieving interpretations of those meanings by the.

(43) 32 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. researcher. From this perspective, the decision to use qualitative research in my investigation was appropriate because it helped me identify the processes followed by eleventh graders in their literacy development and allowed me to discover and understand the meaning of their actions in the two aforementioned specific and different settings, using inductive data analysis. Research Method This study was framed around Action Research, understood as “an inquiry undertaken, with rigor and understanding so as to constantly refine practice; the emerging evidence-based outcomes will then contribute to the researching practitioner’s continuing professional development” (Koshy, 2005, p.2). In line with this definition, one of the reasons for using Action Research in my study was the necessity to change my traditional classes in order to improve my teaching practice and have the possibility to try a different teaching methodology, as to engage my students in their English learning. The other reason for working with action research was to tackle an identified problem in the classroom: The low levels of reading comprehension and writing in my students. According to Griffee (2012), Action Research is a small-case investigation, in which teachers could solve classroom problems, by following the steps of observing, reflecting, and acting in a cyclical way. Participants and Setting I did my research with 11th graders, specifically with group 1102. They were a group of 36 students, 19 boys and 17 girls who were between 15 and 18 years old. They.

(44) 33 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. were a homogeneous group, because most of them had similar characteristics like the age, the interest to improve their English language, and they liked to use Facebook. I chose this group for different reasons; one of them was because I was their homeroom teacher and I had the possibility to stay with them more time; considering this fact, at this stage I did a convenient sampling because I had some advantages for it and for collecting data in a fast and easy way. The other reason was the interest I shared with my students to change the traditional English classes, and based on that, I did a purposive sampling. Ritchie, Lewis, and Elam (2003) say that in this kind of sampling we have “to ensure that all the key constituents of relevance to the subject matter are covered and to ensure that, within the key criteria, some diversity is included so that the impact of the characteristic concerned can be explored” (p.79). Following the sampling objectives exposed above by Ritchie, Lewis, and Elam about the criteria and diversity, I chose students who represented the typical or average 11th grade student and that had the attitude and tools for developing my inquiry. On the other hand, I considered that their thoughts and learning were different and, therefore, they could bring different perspectives to the study. This research was developed at a public school in Venecia neighborhood, named Venecia School IED. This school is in the sixth zone at the south of Bogotá. Venecia is known for being one of the most important commercial neighborhoods of Bogotá. Venecia area is broad and it has a large population from different parts of Colombia; Venecia School IED is the biggest public school in the zone, with two branches: One of them located in Muzú neighborhood, it is only for elementary school students and the other one, located in Venecia neighborhood, is the principal branch and it holds 1140 high school.

(45) 34 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. students. This branch has three shifts: Morning, afternoon, and evening. The inquiry was developed in the principal branch, with students from the afternoon shift. Implementing Blended Learning in the English class helped to support the emphasis of my school, since it is characterized for using technology in the classes, because its emphasis is on technology; but the use of this technology is limited to the use the computer and the video beam to make presentations. The technological tools did not have a methodological purpose so that was one of the reasons for including the implementation of ICT in my research. Role of the Researcher Guest, Namey, and Mitchell (2013) give importance to the human being and the context for developing research; they suggest that the researcher is a participant observer who through his or her participation and immersion into the inquiry can know and understand the human behavior, but taking into account the specific context where the study was developed. Since I started helping my students develop their EFL literacy, I was a participant observer, because I was involved in all the classroom and online activities proposed as a teacher-researcher. For developing my inquiry as a participant observer, I focused on one of the techniques exposed by Guest, Namey, and Mitchell (2013), the observation of students participating in the two different contexts (Facebook and classroom), regarding what my students understood when they read and what they communicated through their writings for developing their literacy..

(46) 35 BUILDING EFL LEARNERS’ LITERACY THROUGH BLENDED LEANING AND FACEBOOK. Data Collection Instruments I used four instruments to collect data for the study: Student’s artifacts, field notes supported by audio recordings, and surveys. Hendricks (2008) states that if the action research is focused on students’ achievements, the most suitable method for data collections are artifacts because they provide different sources for arguing the study. Artifacts provided data related to the progress, achievements, and difficulties of my students regarding their reading and writing skills. The artifacts produced by the students were: Writing and reading assignments, pictures or comments on Facebook related to the topic, performances, self-assessment, peer, and group review. Hence, my first instrument for collecting data was the students’ artifacts (Appendix B). Goetz and LeCompte (1984) highlight the importance of the researcher for knowing people’s interest through the artifacts, which are activities proposed in lesson plans. These artifacts were students’ reading comprehensions, vocabulary identification, written productions, postcards, reading images, posts, and comments on Facebook. As I mentioned before, these activities were developed in three lesson plans; each lesson plan (Appendix C) followed the same frame; but each one of them was different in terms of the amount and complexity of the activities. The artifacts were gathered for seven months and there were more of these produced in the classroom than on Facebook. Classroom artifacts were gathered in each class; some of them were easy to produce, while in other cases, it was necessary for the teacher-researcher to give them back to students for correction. The.

Figure

Figure 1. Students using Facebook for communicating among themselves and with the

Figure 1.

Students using Facebook for communicating among themselves and with the p.18
Figure 2.  An excerpt of a student’s answer to the reading comprehension activity.

Figure 2.

An excerpt of a student’s answer to the reading comprehension activity. p.20
Figure 3.  Examples of students’ writings

Figure 3.

Examples of students’ writings p.21
Figure 4:  Excerpts of students’ free writing on their hobbies and experiences

Figure 4:

Excerpts of students’ free writing on their hobbies and experiences p.22
Figure 5.  Categories and subcategories.

Figure 5.

Categories and subcategories. p.66
Figure 7. Lesson1_Audiorecording1_KM.

Figure 7.

Lesson1_Audiorecording1_KM. p.71
Figure 9. Lesson3_Artifact4_LT.

Figure 9.

Lesson3_Artifact4_LT. p.74
Figure 10. Lesson1_Survey1_MR.

Figure 10.

Lesson1_Survey1_MR. p.75
Figure 12. Lesson1_Survey1_KM.

Figure 12.

Lesson1_Survey1_KM. p.76
Figure 11. Lesson2_Survey2_CM.

Figure 11.

Lesson2_Survey2_CM. p.76
Figure 13. Lesson1_Artifact3_JG.

Figure 13.

Lesson1_Artifact3_JG. p.77
Figure 14. Lesson3_Artifact3_BG.

Figure 14.

Lesson3_Artifact3_BG. p.78
Figure 15. Lesson3_Artifact3_JT.

Figure 15.

Lesson3_Artifact3_JT. p.79
Figure 16. Lesson3_Artifact3_LL.

Figure 16.

Lesson3_Artifact3_LL. p.80
Figure 17. Lesson3_Artifact4_CC.

Figure 17.

Lesson3_Artifact4_CC. p.81
Figure 19. Lesson3_Artifact4_PR.

Figure 19.

Lesson3_Artifact4_PR. p.83
Figure 20. Lesson1_Fieldnotes2_EG.

Figure 20.

Lesson1_Fieldnotes2_EG. p.84
Figure 21. Lesson2_Artifact4_LM.

Figure 21.

Lesson2_Artifact4_LM. p.87
Figure 22. Lesson2_Artifact5_LM.

Figure 22.

Lesson2_Artifact5_LM. p.88
Figure 23. Lesson1_Artifact3_MR.

Figure 23.

Lesson1_Artifact3_MR. p.89
Figure 24. Lesson1_Artifact4_MR.

Figure 24.

Lesson1_Artifact4_MR. p.90
Figure 25. Lesson_Artifact7. Students’ Family pictures

Figure 25.

Lesson_Artifact7. Students’ Family pictures p.92
Figure 26. Lesson_Artifact7. Love relationship

Figure 26.

Lesson_Artifact7. Love relationship p.93
Figure 27. Lesson3_Artifact7. Social relationship

Figure 27.

Lesson3_Artifact7. Social relationship p.94
Figure 28. Lesson1_Artifact4.KM. Social relationship

Figure 28.

Lesson1_Artifact4.KM. Social relationship p.95
Figure 29. Lesson3_Artifact6.MR. Love relationship

Figure 29.

Lesson3_Artifact6.MR. Love relationship p.96
Figure 30. Lesson1_Artifact4.JR.

Figure 30.

Lesson1_Artifact4.JR. p.99
Figure 31. Lesson2_Artifact6.CM.

Figure 31.

Lesson2_Artifact6.CM. p.100
Figure 32. Students participated in online activities

Figure 32.

Students participated in online activities p.102
Figure 33. Lesson1_Artifact4.HO.

Figure 33.

Lesson1_Artifact4.HO. p.104

Referencias

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