Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

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UNIVERSIDAD TÉCNICA PARTICULAR DE LOJA

La Universidad Católica de Loja

ÁREA SOCIO HUMANÍSTICA

TITULACIÓN DE LICENCIADO EN CIENCIAS DE LA

EDUCACIÓN

MENCIÓN INGLÉS

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning

process in Ecuadorian private high schools

TRABAJO DE FIN DE TITULACIÓN

AUTORES: Ruiz Quizhpe, Catherine Maribel

Ruiz Quizhpe, Rosa Yanella

DIRECTORA: Vargas Saritama, Alba Bitalina, Mgs.

CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO LOJA

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APROBACIÓN DEL DIRECTOR DEL TRABAJO DE FIN DE TITULACIÓN

Magister.

Alba Bitalina Vargas Saritama. DOCENTE DE LA TITULACIÓN

De mi consideración:

El presente trabajo de fin de titulación: “Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools” realizado por: Ruiz Quizhpe Catherine Maribel y Ruiz Quizhpe Rosa Yanella; ha sido orientado y revisado durante su ejecución, por cuanto se aprueba la presentación del mismo.

Loja, enero 2014.

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DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS

“Nosotras, Catherine Maribel Ruiz Quizhpe y Rosa Yanella Ruiz Quizhpe declaramos ser autoras del presente trabajo de fin de titulación: “Factors that

influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high

schools”, de la Titulación de Ciencias de la Educación, siendo Alba Bitalina Vargas Saritama directora del presente trabajo; y eximimos expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certificamos que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de nuestra exclusiva responsabilidad.

Adicionalmente declaramos conocer y aceptar la disposición del Art. 67 del Estatuto Orgánico de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja que en su parte

pertinente textualmente dice: “Forman parte del patrimonio de la Universidad la propiedad intelectual de investigaciones, trabajos científicos o técnicos y tesis de grado que se realicen a través, o con el apoyo financiero, académico o institucional

(operativo) de la Universidad”.

………. ………

Catherine Maribel Ruiz Quizhpe Rosa Yanella Ruiz Quizhpe

C. I. 1103417810 C.I. 1103950422

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iv DEDICATION

I dedicate this work with all my love and affection to my parents Bolivar and Rosita, for being my support and a model to follow. To my husband Marco and my beloved children Hellen, Jair and Selena, who are the biggest blessings in my life. To my cherished sisters Gisella, Paola and Rosita, who inspire me to keep the faith in myself. To all my family, who always encourage me and help me to achieve my goals.

Catherine Maribel

I gratefully dedicate this dissertation to my family, the principal motivators in my life, especially my loving parents, Bolivar and Rosita, whose words of encouragement have always cheered me up; to my husband Pablo, who has supported me each step of the way; to my adorable children Danielito and Amandita, who have been a great source of motivation and inspiration; and to my very special sisters Catherine, Gisella, and Paola who have never left my side.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank God for His constant support and blessings. We also owe our most sincere gratitude to the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, to all its administration and educational staff, whose encouragement, guidance, and support have enabled us to develop a knowledge of the subject, and to increase our spiritual and moral understanding.

Our warm gratitude goes to Alba Vargas, M.A., for her patience, motivation, enthusiasm and immense knowledge. Her guidance has helped us throughout the research and writing of this project.

………. ………

Catherine Maribel Ruiz Quizhpe Rosa Yanella Ruiz Quizhpe

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vi CONTENTS

COVER ……….i

CERTIFICATION………..……..ii

DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS……… …...iii

DEDICATION.……….…………...iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………..v

ABSTRACT………..……….…………...1

RESUMEN……...………..………..2

INTRODUCTION ………...3

METHOD ………..………..6

DISCUSSION ………...….8

Literature Review……….………..……...8

Description, Analysis, and interpretation of Results………..……....24

Conclusions………..………...59

Recommendations………..……….…...60

REFERENCES……….………..………...61

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1 ABSTRACT

This qualitative and quantitative study is aimed at analyzing the factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools.

The focus of this research involves four main variables: The first variable includes factors concerning students’ relevant needs and English level; the second variable includes factors concerning the English teachers’ teaching methods, techniques, and level of education; the third variable includes factors concerning classrooms; the fourth variable involves factors concerning educational institutions.

The study in question was developed in the city of Loja. The samples were taken from five private high schools in which English language is taught as a foreign language. They included fifteen teachers and fifteen students. The data were

gathered using questionnaires given to the teachers and students, observation sheets used as researchers’ instruments, and personal interviews with the teachers.

The results showed that whether teachers have a qualified level of education, the use of the English language to communicate inside the classroom is crucial. It was also found out that the private secondary classrooms in question were

sufficiently spacious, and the size of the class was appropriate.

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2 RESÚMEN

Este estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo está enfocado en el análisis de los factores que influyen el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios particulares del Ecuador.

El enfoque de esta investigación se centra en cuatro variables principales: La primera variable incluye los factores concernientes a las necesidades relevantes de los estudiantes y su nivel de Inglés; la segunda variable incluye los factores

concernientes a los métodos, técnicas y nivel de educación de los maestros; la tercera variable incluye los factores concernientes a los salones de clase; y la cuarta variable incluye los factores concernientes a las instituciones educativas.

El presente estudio fue desarrollado en la ciudad de Loja. Las muestras fueron tomadas de cinco colegios privados, en donde el idioma Inglés es enseñado como lengua extranjera. Se tomaron en cuenta quince maestros y quince estudiantes. La información fue obtenida mediante el uso de cuestionarios aplicados a los maestros y a los estudiantes, hojas de observación que sirvieron de instrumento para las

investigadoras, y finalmente, entrevistas personales con los maestros.

Los resultados mostraron que aunque los maestros posean un nivel de educación competente, el uso del idioma Inglés es crucial dentro de la clase. Se descubrió también que los colegios privados en cuestión disponen de aulas con suficiente espacio y que el número de estudiantes es el apropiado.

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INTRODUCTION

Throughout these years the English teaching-learning process in Ecuador has remained unnoticed. Year after year the governments in turn have disregarded this area of education without giving any relevance. This problem is evidenced on the poor Student’s English Language Level and on their low performance not just at high school but also at the university. In fact, after six years of study or more the students cannot use the language at an acceptable level. Consequently, the students are not able to access to update information which can be vital for their careers, they cannot access to international scholarships, and they are not qualified to apply for immersion programs abroad.

Therefore, the purpose of the research is to analyze the main factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in private secondary high schools in Loja.

In order to reach this goal four variables that influence on the English teaching-learning process are analyzed, the first one is related to the factors

concerning students, the second one to the factors concerning teachers, the third one to the factors concerning classrooms and the fourth one to the factors concerning educational institution.

Previous research on language teaching-learning process reveals that there are different factors that affect English learning. For instance, Khamkhien (2010), found out that motivation produces a significant effect on language learning and that additional experience in studying English has also a great influence on students’

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environment; and also that motivation in studying English could lead some benefits to learning a language.

Likewise, Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu (2006), conducted a study to examine the factors responsible for the poor quality of the teaching of English as a second language in public secondary schools in Nigeria. This study revealed the dominance of textbooks, dictionaries, chalkboards, workbooks and posters in the classroom as well as the absence of modern media such as audio and video tapes, language

laboratories, programmed texts, flash cards, computers, magazines and newspaper; it also revealed that teachers are still the chief performers and dispensers of knowledge in the classroom since they are not altering their instructional practices in spite of the coming of the new instructional technologies.

On the other hand, Rajasekaran & Iyyappan (2008), in a study aimed at determining if Language Anxiety factors affect English learning; show that female students have more positive attitudes towards learning English than male students in all the attitude categories. They state that female learners benefit from the positive attitudes, and negative attitudes affect the English learning. The findings also revealed that some female informants who have low language anxiety have performed better in English proficiency tests. Anxiety can negatively affect the language learning experience in numerous ways, thus, reducing anxiety may enhance learner’s motivation. The authors concluded that factors like motivation, attitude,

language anxiety, and gender affect students’ English learning. In other words, if the learner wants to foster linguistics skills effectively he/she needs to be highly

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Discovering the factors that affect English language teaching and learning benefits English teachers, students, educational institutions, and researchers because of the following reasons: Teachers will be conscious about the importance of incorporating new strategies into their classes; as a result, students will obtain a much better learning process.

Educational institutions will be able to identify the main problems that affect the teaching-learning process and thus provide an appropriate solution for them.

The findings gotten in this study can also be the basis for future research intended to discover what makes English teaching and learning ineffective in order to provide a better environment plus the use of appropriate techniques and strategies

that could actually meet he learners’ needs in the current context.

It is important to mention that the present research was conducted

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6 METHOD

Setting and participants

The research involved a study that was conducted in five private high schools located in the city of Loja. The sample included fifteen English classes of different ages and grades, and fifteen teachers that were observed (three teachers per school); nine women and six men. In addition, one student per class was randomly selected to fill out a questionnaire. The students’ general education ranged from the eighth year of basic education to the third year of a bachelor’s degree. The age of the students ranged between twelve and fifteen years. There were seven girls and eight boys.

Procedures

Firstly, an ample review of literature on factors that influence the process of teaching English was done in order to understand and ground the research in theory. For that, information was gathered from reliable sources such as text books, internet sites, and journals. The theoretical topics, definitions, concepts, and the analysis of five previous scientific studies were the basis that supported this research.

As a second step, authorization from five private high schools to observe three English classes in each institution was obtained. The participants of this research were fifteen teachers and fifteen students from the eighth, ninth, and tenth grade of basic general education, as well as students in their first, second, and third year working on their bachelor’s degree.

The research instruments used to gather data in this quantitative and qualitative study, were teachers’ questionnaires, students’ questionnaires,

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questions relating to the way teachers taught their classes and to the interaction that takes place between the teachers and students. In addition, a personal interview was given to each teacher using the Common European Framework (CEF) guidelines, in order to determine their English language proficiency.

Furthermore, fifteen separate classes were observed, at the end of each class, one student was randomly selected and asked to fill in a fourteen-question survey to know the students’ perceptions about the method that the teacher used to teach English and about aspects relating to the classroom and the institution.

The use of note-taking and observation techniques was useful in determining essential aspects about how teachers were teaching their classes.

The data gathered were analyzed and tabulated with an emphasis placed on the teacher’s questionnaire which contained twenty questions directly related to the four variables established in this research: Factors concerning students, their needs and their English level; factors concerning teachers, their level of education,

language proficiency, methods, and techniques used in the classroom, the percentage of English used in the classroom, lesson design, and managing learning; factors concerning classrooms, their size, their seating arrangement, teaching resources, and classroom space; and, factors concerning the institution, how it monitors the classes, lesson design, and the techniques teachers used in their classes.

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8 DISCUSSION Literature Review

English is one of the most important languages in the world. It is used as a first language in some countries and it has had a tremendous impact in society and

particularly in people’s lives. It enables people to be more successful in many fields in which they can use this language as a tool for work, study, communication, research, and others.

In spite of all of the benefits that this language offers, previous Ecuadorian governments did not give it the relevance that it deserves. It was not until the current prime minister assumed presidency of the country, that a new concept of education was brought. A curriculum reform was established and a new project was developed. This project included investigations about teachers’ performance and students’

English level.

The results gotten after this assessment conducted in 2012 by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation (SENECYT) revealed that there is no adequate knowledge of the English Language in Ecuador. Therefore, the government dedicated time and effort to discover the causes that prevent Ecuadorian students from developing English language skills effectively in order to take an action to obtain the desirable results.

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

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such a way that they can be able to develop the different skills plus grammar and vocabulary.

The scholarship program "Docentes de Inglés para 8º Año de EGB a 3º de Bachillerato en Establecimientos Fiscales - Enseña Inglés" offered by the

SENESCYT and the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) has been created to ensure the English teaching quality that students receive from public Ecuadorian schools; by providing intensive training of Basic and Bachelor Secondary Education teachers and also by conferring 500 scholarships to the teachers. The main objectives of this program are: to strengthen knowledge and English language proficiency of English teachers at public schools; to fine-tune teachers’ language skills through immersion programs abroad, to update their knowledge regarding English teaching

methodologies; and finally to bring their English proficiency from level B1 (minimum requirement) to B2 (upon return) based on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).

Teaching Approach and Methods

Edward Anthony (1963) recognizes three essentials terms: approach, method and techniques; he defines an approach as a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning and teaching; a method as an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach; and finally, techniques as the specific activities manifested in the classroom that are consistent with a method and therefore are in harmony with an approach as well. Some of the methods applied in the classroom are going to be mentioned below.

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considered as an approach rather than a method, it focuses on the communicative view of the language and also on language learning, its principles state that students learn a language to communicate and that the communication is the principal goal of classroom activities.

In this approach, students develop activities in which they communicate something in real conversations with a specific purpose. Its main goal is to make students be focused on the content of what they are saying or writing rather than on a particular language form, the teacher may not interfere to stop the activity. Harmer (1998) considers that what matters in these activities, is what learners want to convey and their desire to communicate something.

Likewise, another integrative method is Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) which is also known as Collaborative Learning, this is an approach that attempts to use the maximum of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom. It has been defined as a group learning activity organized in such a way that learning depends on the socially structures and the exchange of information between learners in groups; each learner is responsible for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others. (Olsen & Kagan, 1992)

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On the other hand, Harmer (1988) claims that if children learn much of their language from commands told to them to perform actions, then when they become adults will learn better in that way too. When TPR is included in the class; educators give to students some instructions and they are able to respond to the teacher’s

commands, pupils can give instructions to their classmates as well.

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) refers to an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching

(Richards & Rodgers, 2001). There are three main principles that TBLT states: First, activities which involve real communication are essential for language learning; second, activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks

promote learning; and finally, language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.

Managing Learning

Instructions are an essential aspect to be considered in the classroom since they lead to a successful learning. For this reason, teachers must address them effectively. Firstly, they must make sure that everyone is paying attention using simple and understandable language expressions. Secondly, the same instructions must be told with the same set of words, with the support of visual clues, and with the use of realia (pictures, gestures and mimes). Thirdly, if the activity requires a series of steps, instructions should be given in segments checking understanding at every step. Finally, the teacher should make sure that each instruction was understood before the activity begins (Gower, Philips, & Walters, 1995).

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errors is not necessarily an effective way of helping learners to improve their English; he also claims that during communicative activities, the teacher should not interrupt students to point out a grammatical, lexical, or pronunciation error, since to do so interrupts the communication and drags an activity back on the study of language form or precise meaning. Teacher intervention in such circumstances can raise stress levels and stop the acquisition process in its tracks.

On the other hand, feedback on written work will depend on the kind of writing activity the students have set in motion, when teachers respond to a final written product they can say what they liked, how they felt about the text, and what students might do next time if they are going to write something similar in the next classes.

In addition, a good technique to give feedback in written work is by using codes, which can be put either in the body of the writing itself, or in a corresponding margin in order to point out the corrections.

The third and last focus on managing learning is Timing, a very useful tool when teaching, since it controls every single activity teachers do in class. Timing all the different activities throughout the day, helps the teacher to avoid losing minutes through interruptions, disruptions, and late starts. The main goal of classroom management is to expand the absolute number of minutes available for learning, but it is important to take into account that just making more time for learning will not automatically lead to achievement; to be valuable, time must be used effectively (Woolfolk, 2010).

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Harmer (1991) advocates five necessary stages inside planning. First, the class description; which consist on students’ description, period of time

determination, and conditions or restrictions. Second, the entire most recent tasks that students have worked, the contents of their activities, and the language skills they have achieved. Third, the main objectives in order to make students realize what they are going to learn. Fourth; the content in which teachers provide students all the details and possible explanations about what exactly they will work in class. And finally, the additional activities that teachers may use if necessary.

Moreover, a very well structured plan makes teachers respond with creativity in the classroom, and also students learn to work appropriately because they know exactly what they are going to achieve during the process of learning. The plan formats may differ depending on the trainer and the course, but generally a plan has the same following features: details about students; topics they will learn and the ways in which they will do so; materials or aids that teachers will use; issues that might go wrong; and finally, how the lesson will fit in with the previous and the next lessons. (Harmer, 1988).

Class Size

Class Size is an important aspect that must be considered when teaching English since the number of students influences directly the Teaching-Learning process. Harmer (1998) asserts that in big classes, it is difficult for the teacher to make contact with the students at the back and it is difficult for the students to ask for and receive individual attention. He also claims that it would be impossible to

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walking around or changing pairs. Besides that, big classrooms may be quite intimidating to inexperienced teachers.

Nevertheless, the author (1998) suggests some ideas which teachers can apply in their classrooms, for instance: the use of worksheets, the use of chorus reactions, the use of group leaders, thinking about vision and acoustics, the use of size of the

group to the teacher’s advantage.

On the contrary, Snow (2006) affirms that class size of thirty to fifty students or more are usual in several countries. For listening comprehension or reading lessons, class size is not an unbeatable obstacle, but for speaking and writing lessons do present serious problems, and due to the group is really big, classroom

management will become a real problem for the teacher. The main purpose of speaking practice is to have students work in pairs and small groups rather than have dialogues with the teacher. In big classes, educators may not have the opportunity to make sure and check if students are in fact using the language while they are not near them. Concerning writing classes, correction may become a big issue for teachers, since they will have to respond to each piece of writing done by the students.

Classroom Space and Seating Arrangement

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Circle and horseshoes is a type of seating arrangement that allows teacher to create a better learning environment because there is no barrier that impedes the interaction between the students and the teacher. Likewise, working in small groups and using separate tables, turns the work environment less hierarchical than using other arrangements.

Other ways to work in class are group work and pair work. On the one hand, group work is a cooperative activity in which students participate more equally, and they are able to experiment and use the language better than students who are in a whole class arrangement. On the other hand, pair work makes students work with a partner in order to talk about something, although teacher works with the whole class; one student can talks at a time.

Finally, solo work, another way of working in the class, allows students to work in their own way, speed and time; taking into account their individual progress (Harmer, 1998).

Gower, Philliphs, & Walters (1995) conclude that the position and the organization of the students into a classroom are relevant due to the fact that it can determine students’and teacher’s attitude inside the classroom; the way they interact with each other; and the types of activities they perform. When all the students are

working together in ‘closed’ pairs, outside the teacher’s direct control, they need to be able to look at each other.

Classroom and/or Teaching Resources

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the teacher must write legibly and neatly in order to keep it as clear and easy to read as possible.

The second element is the overhead projector, an important tool that allows us to present clear pictures and also lets us save time during the lesson; for using this tool the teacher may have prepared slides in advance. Students can also take

advantage of using the projector to show results obtained from a group work activity. Visuals is the third aspect they refer to, they encourage teachers to use realia in the classroom (pictures, photographs or real objects) in order to obtain better results. Visuals are used for the following purposes: to increase the interest and have students focus attention at the beginning of a lesson, to elicit existent language, to illustrate a new vocabulary word or item, to create a need for knowing a new word that the teacher may take care of, to set the scene for a story or role-play, and finally, to encourage debate.

The fourth resource they point out are the worksheets and the workcards, which can be assigned to students as classwork or homework, they can be taken from EFL available published material or done by the teacher according to their needs.

The cassette recorder is the fifth element they mention and it is considered as a valuable resource for setting up beneficial communicative activities.

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Computers are mentioned as the seventh resource and they are considered as an elemental tool for teaching. Lastly, the photocopier may help the teacher increase

students’ practice and keep them improving in the use of language.

Regarding the same topic Jones, Thornton, & Wheeler (1983) declare that the blackboard, realia, flashcards, magazine pictures, wall charts, the tape recorder and the overhead projector are the main resources to be used in class. The blackboard is one of the most valuable aids at the time of teaching since it can be used in many different ways according to the lesson. Realia can be used at different stages of the lesson, for instance: when introducing new vocabulary; when introducing new grammatical structures; for helping students to get into character when doing a role-play and adding realism to it; and finally, when role-playing several games.

Flashcards are also beneficial in the classroom since they provide a more attractive and colorful scene when teaching new vocabulary, students feel more attracted to them rather than black and white images drawn on the blackboard; they can be prepared by the teacher at their leisure according to the topic and can also be used in a variety of activities and games to reinforce knowledge.

Magazine pictures are also valuable resources for teachers, they are easy to get, accessible to everyone and even cheap, they can also be used in a variety of individual and group work activities.

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Finally, the overhead projector constitutes a valuable resource in the classroom since explanations can be displayed clearer than in the blackboard.

Classroom Observation (institutional monitoring)

Gebhard, & Oprandy (1999) mention three crucial roles that teachers assume when they are observed by third party. The first one is known as a passive

conference role; in which the teacher listens to the supervisor, and, in the most of the cases they accept supervisor’s suggestions. Another type of role is the collaborative conference role, in which the teacher listens carefully to the supervisor’s assertions and both have the ability to communicate positively between them. Finally, there is an adversarial role, in which a clear negative reaction is evidenced. Somehow, teachers become susceptible and vulnerable just with the fact of knowing that they will be observed as well as the supervisors may feel uncomfortable playing the supervisory game.

The main purpose for monitoring and observing teachers is to corroborate their own progress and professional advance. Most of the time, teachers are not knowledgeable about whether or not the teaching methods and techniques used in the classroom are appropriate. However, the presence of an observer facilitates the effectiveness into the education since a different point of view is given to the teachers. (Wajnryb, 1992).

Learning Styles

Davis (1993, p. 10) states, “ The term of learning styles refers to individuals’

characteristic and preferred ways of gathering, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information”

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There are four phases of learning, each one of them entails different processes and abilities in acquiring new information or skill: Concrete experience (feeling): becoming fully involved in a new activity in order to understand it firsthand; Reflective observation(watching): viewing experiences impartially or from many different perspectives; Abstract conceptualization (thinking): creating concepts that integrate observations and experiences into theories and developing generalizable explanations or hypotheses; Active

experimentation (doing): using theories to make decision and solve problems and testing and elaborating generalizations in different situations.

Also, regarding the same theme, Kolb (1984, p. 187) claims:

There are four learning styles: Convergers rely on abstract conceptualization and active experimentation; they like to find concrete answers and move quickly to find solutions to

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concrete experience and active experimentation; they often use trial- and-error or intuitive strategies to solve problems; they tend to take risks and plunge into problems.

On the contrary, Snow (2006) claims that the type of learners vary regarding to learning styles since each person has different preferences. He has sorted them into four groups: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile. Visual learners are the ones who learn by seeing; auditory, by hearing; kinesthetic, by moving and doing things; and tactile by feeling and touching. The author has also set some learning-style categories according to personal types: extroverted versus introverted learners; thinking versus feeling learners; and closure-oriented and judging learners versus open and perceiving learners.

Language Aptitude

Language aptitude is another determining factor at the time of learning English due to it may lead to a successful as well as to an unsuccessful acquisition of the Language.

Gass & Schachter, (1989) state:

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knowledge of one language and a powerful system of general abstract problem-solving skills…

Additionally, lack of success is one feature that demands attention in the adult language acquisition because it is not guaranteed or generally adults do not succeed, they may fail in different degrees. On the contrary, children accomplish in a better way this learning since they have an innate domain specific language faculty (Gass & Schachter, 1989).

Harmer (1991) states that motivation, is a factor that has a strong effect on a

student’s success or failure. It may help students acquire the language or it may lead them to a frustrating experience. Language learners who really want to learn will succeed whatever the circumstances in which they study and this is what the author calls extrinsic motivation. There are two main types of extrinsic motivation:

integrative, when students are attracted by the culture of the target language community and instrumental, when it depicts circumstances in order to get a job, position or status.

On the other hand, there is the intrinsic motivation; which plays an essential role in most students learning process. The author states that this type of motivation can be provoked by good physical conditions; an appropriate method or technique, or by positive attitude of the teacher.

Besides all these relevant topics mentioned before, it is very crucial to highlight some previous studies some researchers have conducted in order to investigate similar issues that affect the acquisition of the English language.

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schools in Nigeria, the sample included 3,000 senior secondary public schools randomly selected. The researcher used observation schedules and a questionnaire which was designed by generating a list of items soliciting students' responses on teaching strategies, instructional resources/media used by the teachers and the teaching/learning environment. The findings show that public secondary schools in Nigeria are far behind time in offering multiple pathways to the teaching and learning English as a second language. Besides that, the researcher noticed

that secondary school students face a lot of problems when they enter the University; in other words, they are at disadvantage due to poor background and preparation in language education.

On the other hand, Khamkhien (2010) aimed a study to determine: how gender, motivation and experience in studying English affect the choices of language learning strategies; and, to compare the roles of these factors and the pattern of language learning strategy used by Thai and Vietnamese students. For this study two groups of university students were selected from two public universities in Thailand and Vietnam. The 80-item Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL)

developed by Oxford (1990) and a background questionnaire were employed in this study. The author concluded that motivation in studying English could lead some benefits to learning a language.

On the other hand, Narayanan, Rajasekaran, & Iyyappan (2008) conducted a study in which they analyzed three different factors: motivation, attitude and

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second one claims that female students have higher and more positive motivation towards the learning of English than male students.

Attitude hypothesis says that attitude factors affect English learning. And finally Language anxiety hypothesis is divided into two statements: first, Language Anxiety factors affect English learning; and second, students (female) with less language anxiety are better in English learning than that of the high language anxiety towards learning English learners (male).

For this study the researchers have taken four hundred and eight (138 female and 270 male) first year engineering and technology students from five engineering colleges in and around Chennai, India.

In this study questionnaires were used for gathering results; the data was collected in written modes and also the quantitative analysis was applied in this study. Regarding motivation; results indicate that female students have scored higher mean average in all motivational categories such as integrative, instrumental,

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13%

67% 7%

13% High School Diploma

English Bachelor's Degree

English Master's Degree

Others

Description, Analysis, and Interpretation of Results

For the description, analysis and interpretation of results, a quantitative analysis was conducted in the research, which is based on factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high school.

The analysis is organized considering the twenty questions from the

teachers’ questionnaire; the results are represented in statistical graphs, each question

is analyzed and interpreted in detail in this section. The four variables of this investigation are factors concerning teachers, students, classrooms and institutions.

Factors Concerning Teachers

Which level of education do teachers have?

Graph 1

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

Graph 1 illustrates the education level that the teachers have. As it can be observed in the graph, ten of fifteen researched teachers have an English Bachelor´s Degree; this is 67% of the sample. On the contrary, just one of the teachers which

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Two of the fifteen observed teachers, that represent the 13% the percentage of the participants, answered that they have a High School Diploma. And there is a similarity, because two of the researched teachers which also represent the 13% have other education levels such us the First Certificate in English (FCE); Test of English as Foreign Language (TOFEL), Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and Certificate in English Language –teaching to Adults (CELTA).

It is necessary to mention that teachers were interviewed based on the Common European Framework, (CFE) to determine their English language

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Which of the following methods was used in this class?

Graph 2

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

The information in Graph 2 illustrates the methods that teachers use in the EFL classes. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the most common method used by the 27% of the teachers (four teachers). Richard & Rogers (2001) suggest that the primary function of language is to allow interaction and communication. In the direct observation it was noticeable that teachers use the Communicative Language Teaching method to encourage students to communicate in the target language. Classroom activities, instructions and tasks were dynamic and interactive, students felt comfortable.

Graph 2 also shows that four teachers, which correspond to the 20% of the participants that were interviewed, use Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT), a method based on the use of tasks activities to produce language trough topics and

27% 13% 13% 20% 20% 0% 7%

0% 0% 0% Communicative Language Teaching

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93% 7%

YES NO

themes. Finally, there is a minor percentage of educators who use the Content Based Instruction method (CBI), they represent the 20% of the teachers.

Two teachers pointed out that they use the Natural Approach (13%) and two others (another 13%) affirmed that they use the Cooperative Language Learning (CLL), also known as Collaborative Learning: it focuses on the use of cooperative activities in which students work in pair or into small groups. In addition, just one teacher answered that he uses the Total Physical Response (TPR)¸which is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action. (Richard & Rogers, 2011)

The data obtained from the observations reveal that the majority of educators do not have a clear idea about what does each method consist on and which one is the most appropriate to use in the class

Do teachers use whole- group activities to teach their lessons?

Graph 3

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As it is illustrated in the graph above, the 93% of the sample (fourteen teachers) use whole-group activities to teach their lessons in large classes. Harmer (1998) mentions that it is much easier for students to share an emotion such as happiness or amusement in a whole- class setting. In the same way, teachers think that students can become more productive and get easily involved in the teaching process if they work in groups; since sharing their own ideas in a group can help them to come up with their own conclusions. Likewise, students claimed that whole group activities allow them to interact with their classmates and to obtain productive lessons because the activities are enjoyable and varied; they like to participate in the classroom and they also enjoy developing the activities proposed by the teacher.

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Do teachers use individual activities to teach their lessons?

Graph 4

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire.

Regarding this question, the 93% of the researched teachers (fourteen teachers) answered that they use individual activities as the graph 4 illustrates. The strong tendency to use individual activities is because it allows teachers to evaluate students, and it also allows students to focus in a specific task. They can work in their own manner and reflect their individual progress (Harmer, 1998). During the

observation, teachers proved students’ knowledge by evaluating them individually

creating in this ways, a feeling of responsibility.

Only one teacher from the group of researched participants; that represents the 7%, considers that it is better to work with students as a whole group rather than with individual activities. Besides his assertion, he also recognizes that there are specific activities in which students need to work individually: when they develop speaking and writing skills and also when they are taking a test.

93% 7%

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93% 7%

YES NO

According to the surveys, some teachers assert that the individual participation in the classroom contributes to provide feedback for them, when students ask questions they can immediately realize where students understood or not.

It is important to mention that students who were questioned confirmed that they like to interact with all of their classmates, but occasionally feel afraid of making mistakes. Although teachers were really friendly with their students; some students were not very attentive in the class, they did not participate dynamically in the activities proposed by the teacher. Sometimes they did not feel confident to work individually. Nevertheless, teachers were constantly encouraging students to participate in each activity; they asserted that by doing so, students will become more confident to work on their own during the learning process.

Do teachers use group work activities to teach their lessons?

Graph 5

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz. Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

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lesson. Some of them concluded that these activities allow them to share their ideas with their classmates and interact with others. Harmer (1991) considers that where there are students of different levels and interests in a class, different groups can be formed. The use of group work activities in the EFL classes (pairwork and

groupwork) often concedes to shiny or quite students to feel much comfortable and more participative. They can avoid any difficulty that could be present during the interaction because the students can help each other.

Nevertheless, it was observed that some teachers did not include group work activities in their lesson plans, students worked individually even though there is enough space in the classrooms.

Teaching a lesson is not always the same, the activities should be diverse since students that do not feel confident with themselves, working inside a group have the opportunity to practice their knowledge. Consequently, students become more independent due to they recognize the importance of acquiring the necessary knowledge in order to success in the learning process.

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87% 13%

YES NO

Do teachers use English most of the time in their classes?

Graph 6

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

Graph 6 shows that 87% of the teachers (thirteen teachers) use the English language when they teach the lesson inside the classroom. They also use the language outside the classroom in order to communicate with their co-workers and students, if they meet students in any other place of the school they address to them in English so that they can use the language in real context; this allows them to improve oral skills, reinforce their ability to understand commands, common phrases, and useful expressions as well.

The 13% of the sample (two teachers) claimed that they do not use the English language in their lessons, because the level of students is low and they think that students will not be able to understand all of their instructions.

During the observation teachers considered students’ English level; they were able to convey English language input using gestures, mimes and pictures; for

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93% 7%

YES NO

the teacher talked in the mother tongue, because there were meanings that were impossible to explain without using translation.

Indeed, the students’ surveys support the information obtained from the

teacher questionnaire; they claimed that teachers use the English language all the time in the class; but it was observed that a few students with lower lever did not understand some of the words that the teacher said.

According to Harmer (1991) as teachers we will try and insist on the use of English in language study and oral production activities, but be more relaxed about it in other pedagogic situations, though we have to continue to encourage students to try to use it as often as possible. The use of English in the class is important for motivating students; teachers should focus on English skills and should have a strict use of English language inside and outside classroom; just in this way, an effective learning environment can be created.

Do teachers plan their lessons?

Graph 7

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Graph seven shows that the 93% of the researched teachers, plan their lessons before teaching them. Nevertheless, it was evident that the participants do not use any planning format; they just followed the instructions included in their textbooks. Teachers will have to work out the best ways to use their book; they should never let the textbook use them. (Harmer, 1991).

During the observations, the teachers’ performance inside class was effective;

teachers were well prepared to teach their lessons. Moreover, it was evident that teachers consider in their class some aspects such us: time, lesson topic, objectives, warm – up activities and they demonstrate well organized lessons.

In addition, they claim that the institutions review their lesson plan at least once a week because they need to know beforehand what they will teach in their lessons. Some of the teachers consider that planning is the best way to achieve their goals and save time during classes; others mentioned that they need a model to follow as a guide to organize the activities, their goals and objectives.

On the other hand; only one participant that represents the 3% of the

interviewed teachers, indicates that the best planning is when teacher improvises in the precise instant that they interact with their students.

Regard to this topic, Harmer (1991) considers five principal steps in a planning; the first one is the description of the class, and also the description of students, the time and conditions. Second, the contents of activities and tasks that students accomplish. Third, the objectives that students will achieve. Forth, details

and explanations about students’ work. And finally, additional activities for students.

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100% 0%

YES NO

It is highly recommended that teachers improve their lesson plans using variety and flexibility. Variety means involving students in a number of different types of activities, so that learning is interesting and never monotonous for them. Flexibility comes when teachers deal with some changes in each particular situation inside the class. (Harmer, 1991).

Do teachers consider aspects such as discipline, timing, feedback, and instruction to

teach their lessons?

Graph 8

Author: Author: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

Graph eight shows that the 100% of the interviewed teachers (fifteen

participants of the sample) consider aspects such us discipline, timing, feedback and instructions to teach their lessons. Teachers claimed that controlling discipline problems in the classrooms helps them to achieve better results in the teaching process.

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behave well inside classroom. Teachers and students had a good rapport and they work in a relaxed atmosphere.

In addition, the surveys applied to students indicate that teachers’ instructions

are clear; teacher always controls the discipline and assigns determined time to develop each task in an organized manner. Students who were interviewed also affirm that teachers maintain absolutely control of those aspects and never waste time. Besides this, it is important to mention that time for learning will not automatically lead to achievement; to be valuable, time must be used effectively (Woolfolk, 2010).

As a matter of fact, the use of clear instructions inside classroom is crucial. For giving effective instructions; teachers first must make sure that everyone is listening and watching; second, they have to use simple and understandable language expressions; third, they need to use the same instructions with the same set of words; fourth, they need to use of visual or written clues with the use of pictures, gesture and mime; and finally, they need to give a demonstration or an example, orally or writing on the board. If the activity requires a series of steps, instructions should be given in segments checking understanding at every step. Finally, teachers must be sure that each instruction was understood before the activity begins (Gower, Philips, & Walters, 1995).

Feedback is another essential factor in the teaching process when oral and written work is developed inside the class. Regarding oral tasks, Harmer (1988) states that it is not necessary to make continuous correction of the errors; by the contrary; a way of helping students to improve their English input during

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100% 0%

YES NO

or pronunciation error. On the other hand, feedback on written work will depend on the kind of writing activity the students have set in motion, when teachers respond to a final written product they can say what they liked, how they felt about the lesson conveyed, and what students might do next time if they are going to write something similar in the next classes.

The observed teachers gave feedback to their students and they could notice their errors in the activities proposed by the teacher. Likewise, Gower, Philips, & Walters (1995) suggest that giving feedback; one of the most important

responsibilities of a teacher is helping students to evaluate their success and progress.

Factors Concerning Students

Do teachers consider Students’ needs to teach English successfully?

Graph 9

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

As it is illustrated in the graph 9, 100% of the teachers (fifteen teachers)

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Teachers’ answers reveal that the age of the students influence in the teaching process since young students learn differently from old students; it was observed that teachers are more dynamic when working with pupils from 8th, 9th and 10th grade. The topics were short, the instructions were easy to follow, the activities included engaging games, and the use of extra materials was more evident.

On the other hand, teachers who work with older students from first, second and third of bachelor had a demanding attitude; activities were more controlled, teachers encouraged students to participate actively in the oral language production stage. Educators know their students and address to them by using their names; they recognize students that work better and also those who need extra explanations of an activity or instruction.

Likewise, students agree with the teacher performance inside the class; they say that when they get bored, teacher changes the activity and the class becomes more interesting; this attitude makes students be more motivated and become more confident at the time of learning. Each student has an individual ability to learn English according to their intelligence, experience and personality; there are students that need more training in pronunciation; others in grammar, and others in listening. Therefore teachers as language facilitators should find the best way to cover each

student’s need. Teachers also agree with the fact that motivating students is one of

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93% 7%

YES NO

Do teachers considered student´s level to teach English successfully?

Graph 10

Authors: Catherine Ruiz and Rosa Ruiz Source: Teacher´s Questionnaire

The information on graph 10 depicts that 97% from the sample of fifteen teachers indicates that they consider the level of students. Whereas, only one teacher that corresponds to the 7% of the researched participants, thinks that it is not

necessary to consider the level of students to teach English successful because he thinks that learning is a process, and no matter which English level the student has, they are always going to learn something.

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27%

46% 20%

7%

BASIC

INTERMEDIATE HIGH INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED

Which is the level of the students?

Graph 11

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

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the teachers and students could be corroborated with the observations conducted in the classrooms.

On the other hand, 27% of students have a basic level. This represents a problem for teachers since students signal some troubles at the time of understanding straightforward instructions and also when communicating to their classmates using the English language. Regarding this situation, some teachers affirm that they tend to translate mostly everything they say, so that students can understand clearly.

On the contrary, other teachers believe that although pupils do not understand certain instructions and cannot communicate some ideas, it is important to continue using the language in the classroom. There are other ways to reach deep inside the students; according to Gower, Philips, & Walters (1995) it is important to attract

students’ attention and make sure everyone is listening and watching; also teachers

should use language at a lower level and use the same set of words for the same instructions all the time until they get familiar with them.

There is a minimum variation in the percentage of the high intermediate level, since the 20% percent of teachers handle with students that belong to this level. Teachers consider this level as an important learning stage, since it is here where students build up more vocabulary and receive more input to be ready for reaching the advanced level. Both teachers and students feel at ease because instructions are completely understood, activities are easy to develop and no problems emerge during the learning process.

Finally, a seven percent of teachers state that their students’ level is advanced. Teachers are glad with the fact that all of the explanations and instructions are

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communication, they perfectly understand one another without any problems; and as a result, the mother tongue is almost never used with these students.

Factors Concerning Classroom

How many students do teachers have in their class?

Graph 12

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

Regarding the number of students in the class, graph 12 shows that 53% of the teachers have classes in which the number of students range between sixteen and twenty-five. This fact makes some teachers and students feel uncomfortable;

teachers, for instance, claim that they cannot give individual assessment to the students since there is not enough time for checking all the individual and group work activities; making individual contact with the students is another aspect that cannot be done because of the amount of students as well. As a result, these teachers feel frustrated; they believe they need to be more specific with the students than they actually are; they need to pay more individual attention to them and a big class does not allow them to provide appropriate and individual feedback.

47% 53%

0% 0%

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According to Harmer (1998) in big classes, it is difficult for the teacher to make contact with the students at the back of the classroom and it is difficult for the students to ask for and receive individual attention; it also may seem impossible to organize dynamic and creative teaching and learning sessions. In the same way, students claim that teachers have to limit the number of participations in the class; moreover, when students take the oral quizzes or present their projects to the class, they take more than two days of the week, so this makes the teacher overdue with the planning.

Nevertheless, there is another group of teachers who feel absolutely happy with this number of students. They claim that having large classes does not represent a problem for them; sometimes, they have to work harder than normally but they perfectly deal with the class and are always trying to take advantage of this situation. Regarding this matter, Harmer (1998) claims that big classes can be quite

intimidating for inexperienced teachers, and, based on the observations; this theory can be asserted. It was observed that teachers who perfectly handle with the amount of students given in each class (sixteen to twenty-five), are the ones who have much more experience; and those who showed a little discomfort with the number of students seemed to have lack of experience.

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80% 20%

YES NO

each student has understood the instructions and is working in the expected way. Moreover, teachers have more direct contact with each student; they are closer to them and can immediately notice any problem that may emerge in the teaching-learning process. Simultaneously, students feel really happy with the classroom size since they feel that the teacher has enough time to check all the activities they do in class, listen to every single question they have, and is able to clarify all of their doubts.

Do teachers feel comfortable working with this number of students?

Graph 13

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

A great deal of teachers which represent the 80%, feel comfortable with the number of students they work with. They consider that if the group is small, they get better results; principally because of the following reasons: they have enough time to interact with each student, individual assessment can be provided according to the

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On the contrary, twenty percent of teachers do not feel comfortable with the number of students they have. They state that not all of the students can participate in the classroom due to they are forced to shorten the participations; they must be very strict with the time otherwise, they may overdue with the planning. Another reason that makes teachers feel uncomfortable is that they cannot give special attention to each student and this gives them the idea that students not learning appropriately, most of the time teachers cannot answer all of the questions that emerge during the class and cannot check all of the tasks that students do.

In regard to this topic, Harmer (1998) states that there some techniques that can be applied with large classes: the use of worksheets; the use of chorus reaction since it becomes difficult to use a lot of individual repetition and controlled practice in a big group, it may be more appropriate to use students in chorus or the use of group leaders since they can be used to hand out copies, check that everyone in their group (or row or half) has understood a task, or collect work and give feedback. Besides, discipline is another topic that turns into a problem when teachers deal with big classes.

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Some of the problems that teachers manifest could not be seen during the observations; both teachers and students were warned about the researchers’ visit and

this fact could have intimidated their usual behavior.

Do teachers have enough space to work with this group of students?

Graph 14

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

Graph 14 depicts that the 80% of teachers have enough space to work with students. They state that they do not have troubles when developing an activity in which they require to move or walk around the classroom. They believe that this is an advantage for students since they can develop several dynamic and entertaining activities; when teachers notice that learners are feeling tired or bored, they need to find a different activity in which students can run, jump or simply shift from one place to another.

In the same way, students feel happy with the classroom space because at the time of playing a game, or making a role-play, the classroom space does not become a problem. They claim that they love these types of activities because they are more

80% 20%

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motivating than the usual ones that teachers propose. When developing these type of games, students do not have to concern about space, they feel free to go everywhere without disturbing other groups in the classroom. Equally important, based on the observation, it can be asserted that most teachers and students feel comfortable with the space since all the activities were done without any interruption.

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Do teachers arrange students’ seats in relation to the activity for their classes?

Graph 15

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

In this graph it can observed that 80% of the teachers do arrange the seats according to the planned class because by doing so, they can optimize the space in the classroom and have a clear view of all the students. It is very important for teachers to arrange seats appropriately since this may guarantee the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process; if the activity conducted by teacher does not have the required seating arrangement it would be a waste of time. According to Harmer (1998) teachers need to see all of the students and keep eye contact with them, if there are aisles in the classroom, the teacher can easily walk up and down making more personal contact with individual students and watch what they are doing. If there is a lot of reading or writing involved, or in a test, it may be worth considering turning students away from one another to give them the freedom to concentrate, and stop them if they are cheating on a test.

80% 20%

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Likewise, teachers state that the seating arrangement is crucial in order to control and monitor every single activity that is done in the classroom, for instance: if students are going to have conversations, it is more suitable for them to be sat in organized groups, so the teacher can easily check if they are really working. Another example would be in tests, students must be sat in a way such as teacher can keep the eye on them. During the observations it was seen that teachers did organize the students in an appropriate way.

On the contrary, 20% of teachers do not arrange the seats according to the lesson plan because the class is not big enough; so, no matter which position students are in, they do not do any changes in the seating arrangement. This fact is worrying; according to Gower, Philips, & Walters (1995) where the students sit in a classroom can determine the following aspects: their attitude to each other and to the teacher;

teacher’s attitude to them; how they interact; and finally, the types of activity they

can do. Nevertheless, it is very important to consider that when students are going to be placed into group works; teachers need to take into account the classroom size, the groups size, the kind of desks, and the activity that is going to be done. So, if

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93% 7%

0% 0%

10 - 15 16 - 25 26 - 30 31 - more

How many students do teachers think is the appropriate number to teach English?

Graph 16

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

Graph 16 shows that 93% of teachers believe that the appropriate number of students fluctuates between ten and fifteen. Having a small amount of students, allows teachers to feel free to develop any activity they want without worrying about space or time, and also gives them the opportunity to conduct dynamic and creative lessons that will guarantee an effective teaching-leaning process. It was observed, that classes with that number of students were conducted without any problem; students had enough time to participate and ask questions as well as the teacher could clarify all the doubts students had.

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YES NO

Harmer (1998) states some of the principal learning skills that may be affected by a large number of students; even though for listening comprehension or reading lessons, class size is not a real obstacle, for speaking and writing lessons do present serious problems because teachers do not have enough time to check all of the activities, and due to the group is really big, classroom management will become a real problem for the teacher, especially if it is an inexperienced teacher. Regarding this topic Snow (2006) also states that the main purpose of speaking practice is to have students work in pairs and small groups rather than having dialogues with the teacher and in big classes; they may not have the opportunity to make sure and check if students are in fact using the language while they are not near them. He also claims that concerning writing classes, correction may become a big issue for teachers, since they will have to respond to each piece of writing done by the students.

Do teachers use teaching resources?

Graph 17

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

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teaching. Some of the resources they mention are: the Cd recorder, the computer, the projector, and of course, books. Even though the projector was mentioned as a used tool in the classroom, this information could not be observed and confirmed since no teachers used it in the observed classes. Regard to this topic, Hubbard, Jones,

Thornton, & Wheeler (1983) states that the projector is very useful with large classes as the teachers can face the class as he writes. The writing position is better than writing on a blackboard, as teachers are writing on a horizontal surface.

As a complement of the projector there comes the computer or laptop, which according to Gower, Philips, & Walters (1995) they constitute a main source of visual material since it would be easier for the teacher to teach new vocabulary by showing some pictures to the students.

In addition, the cd player is another important element that was mentioned by the teachers, they consider that this tool is really helpful in classes because of two main reasons: it prevents teachers from being speaking all the time and it also helps students to get familiar with the different accents. Likewise, the authors mentioned before claim that the cd player has come to be an invaluable aid to the language learner and teacher, and after the blackboard, is probably one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment in the classroom, they also state that the position of the cd player is really important, teachers always have to check which is the best position to place it and also check that all students can hear.

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93% 7%

YES NO

they can determine if such activities are effective or not in order to achieve the acquisition of the language.

Do teachers consider appropriate the resources they have in class?

Graph 18

Authors: Catherine Ruiz y Rosa Ruiz

Source: Teacher’s Questionnaire

Figure

Actualización...