English Level 8
Past and Future Olympic Games
1 LEVEL 8
1) Look at the following logo. What do you think it represents?
2) What do you think the main functions of the International Olympic Committee are? Take into account the following verbs and noun phrases to express your ideas:
3) Read the following information taken from the official website of the International Olympic Committee, and check your predictions
THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE IS THE SUPREME AUTHORITY OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT.
Acting as a catalyst for collaboration between all parties of the Olympic family, from the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), the International Sports Federations (IFs), the athletes, the Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs), to the TOP partners, broadcast partners and United Nations agencies, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) shepherds success through a wide range of programmes and projects. On this basis it ensures the regular
VERBS NOUN PHRASES
promote decide fight against ensure
support encourage oppose
celebration of the games host city
organisation and development of
discrimination in sports
participation of women in sports drugs in sport
measures protecting the health of
political/commercial abuse of sport
2 celebration of the Olympic Games, supports all affiliated member organisations of the Olympic Movement and strongly encourages, by appropriate means, the promotion of the Olympic values.
In detail the role of the IOC, according to the Olympic Charter, is:
To encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sport as well as education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned;
To encourage and support the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions; To ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games;
To cooperate with the competent public or private organisations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace;
To take action in order tostrengthen the unity and to protect the independence of the Olympic Movement; To act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement;
To encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women;
To lead the fight against doping in sport;
To encourage and support measures protecting the health of athletes; To oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes;
To encourage and support the efforts of sports organisations and public authorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes;
To encourage and support the development of sport for all;
To encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly;
To promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities and host countries; To encourage and support initiatives blending sport with culture and education;
To encourage and support the activities of the International Olympic Academy (IOA) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.
4) What do you think the following words and phrases (in bold in the text) mean? Place them under the correct heading, and match them with their correct definition.
strengthen – sustainable development – shepherd – in order to – ban – concern – blend – host city – endeavour – lead – thereby – accordingly
VERB NOUN NOUN PHRASE ADVERB CONNECTOR
1. (v) Guide or direct in a particular direction
3 LEVEL 8
3. (n. phr.) Progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
4. (v) To say that something must not be done, seen, used (= prohibit)
5. (adv) In a way that is appropriate to the particular circumstances
6. (Connector /linking word) For the purpose of doing something
7. (n. phr.) A city that provides the necessary space, equipment etc for a special event
8. (v) To combine different things in a way that produces an effective or pleasant result
9. (v) To conduct; to be in charge of
10.(n) To make something stronger
11.(connector/linking word) As a result of something mentioned previously.
12.(n) A feeling of being interested in and caring about a person, thing, or situation.
You will read sections of a report of the 2016 Evaluation Commission, which is in charge of assessing different aspects of the Candidate Cities for the Olympic Games.
Before you read, think about the following:
a. Do you know which other three cities, apart from Rio de Janeiro, were candidates for the 2016 Olympic Games? Scan the first paragraph and check your guesses. What happened with Prague, Baku, and Doha?
While you read the text, answer the following:
b. How does the IOC help candidate cities?
The IOC Evaluation Commission (the Commission) for the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in 2016 is pleased to present the results of its evaluation of the four Candidate Cities for the 2016 Olympic Games: Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid. Seven cities initially submitted applications to host the 2016 Olympic Games: the four Candidate Cities listed above, as well as Prague (Czech Republic), Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar). At its meeting on 4 June 2008 and on the basis of an assessment carried out by a Working Group, the IOC Executive Board selected Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid as Candidate Cities.
The 2016 Candidate Cities have been able to benefit from services that the IOC constantly strives to improve. These
included a seminar dedicated to the Applicant Cities, participation in the Beijing Olympic Games Observer Programme and the Official Debrief of the Beijing Games, briefings on specific topics and access to the IOC’s Olympic Games Knowledge Management Programme.
The knowledge and expertise made available by the IOC to the cities is reflected in the projects put forward by the 2016 Candidate Cities which are all of an extremely high level and demonstrate detailed planning and comprehensive strategies in technical and operational matters, as well as many other areas including sustainability, the environment, accessibility and integrated city development. It has been clearly demonstrated that investments in Olympic bids will
generate positive legacies irrespective of whether a city is awarded the 2016 Games.
The quality of the Candidature Files and the presentations made during the visits greatly assisted the Commission in assessing each city’s proposal and preparing this report. During the visits, the Commission was very pleased to meet with the IOC members in the respective countries and with many Olympians and Paralympians. The presence and support of representatives of the highest levels of government and the private sector demonstrate the importance of the Games on a regional and national level and underline that,
even in the context of the current global economic climate, organising the Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a catalyst for change and an opportunity for social, economic and environmental development. The Commission’s task is to prepare a technical report to assist the IOC members in the important decision of electing the 2016 Host City by verifying the information provided in the Candidature File and determining whether the plans proposed are feasible.
This report reflects the unanimous opinion of the Commission and has been signed by its members. It takes into consideration all information received up until the end of the visit to each respective city.
5 LEVEL 8
You will now read extracts of the assessment of Rio de Janeiro, made by the Commission.
Before you read, answer:
1. What aspects do you think were taken into account when assessing Rio?
2. Look at the word ‘budget’ in the following sentence, and choose its correct definition. To what words correspond the remaining definitions? How do you say them in your language?
‘Rio de Janeiro proposes a balanced OCOG budget, with revenue and expenditure at approximately USD 2.82 billion’
a. The extra money that you must pay back when you borrow money.
b. The amount of money that is given to someone with a promise that it will be paid back.
c. The money that is available to an organization or person, or a plan of how it will be spent.
d. The fixed amount of money that is paid by an employer to an employee.
While you read, put the headings and subheadings in the chart in their correct place. One has already been done for you.
1A. Plans and actions
Rio de Janeiro would develop an innovative Sustainability Management Plan (SMP) for a 2016 Games, integrating economic, environmental and social elements into its “Green Games for a Blue Planet” vision. It would be closely connected to the comprehensive set of long-term programmes being implemented by the Rio City Government, supported by the State and Federal Governments.
A feature of Rio’s plans is the cleaning and regeneration of Rio’s waterways and lakes through government projects for major new water treatment and sewerage works and education campaigns.
Other Games legacies would include the reforestation of areas of the city; improved air quality standards and public transport systems; and pilot projects, including green construction technologies and materials and research projects at the Olympic Training Centre.
The SMP includes measures on renewable energy and energy conservation, including solar heating and cells and clean fuel transport, a carbon-neutral Games and green building and procurement guidelines.
There would also be a Games project to financially assist disadvantaged communities through solid waste recycling programmes, reforestation schemes (with three million trees being planted) and use of carbon credit market revenues. 100% of solid waste from the Games would be processed and recycled, with direct benefits to local communities through their direct involvement.
A comprehensive impact minimisation plan has been put in place for each Games zone, and for non-competition venues and interconnecting infrastructure.
Rio has a high level of clean energy production and use, with most electricity coming from renewable sources, most small vehicles running on ethanol, and all taxis in Rio running on natural gas. This has major benefits for air quality and in reducing carbon emissions.
With many Games-related environmental programmes linked to wider government actions, efficient delivery of these programmes would rely on close cooperation and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities between the three
SPORT AND VENUES
Air and water quality Plans and actions
Sports concept Additional comments Non-OCOG budget Venue construction status
ENVIRONMENT AND METEOROLOGY
levels of government, the OCOG, and the proposed Olympic Development Authority and its special-purpose agency the Olympic Sustainability Division.
Brazil has signed the Kyoto Protocol.
Air quality is within World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline values, with the exception of some PM (Particulate Matter) levels in the air in some areas of the city. Rio 2016 informed the Commission it was confident that before 2016, through policies requiring cleaner fuel, the levels would meet WHO guideline values.
Drinking water meets WHO standards.
Rio de Janeiro proposes a balanced OCOG budget, with revenue and expenditure at approximately USD 2.82 billion. In accordance with IOC guidelines, no capital investment is included in the OCOG budget.
The IOC contribution and TOP sponsorship income represent 31% of Rio de Janeiro’s total revenue.
The domestic sponsorship programme for the Olympic and Paralympic Games is expected to total USD 570 million (20% of revenue).
Ticket sales and licensing revenues total USD 406 million (14.4% of revenue) while donations amount to USD 30 million or 1.1% of revenue.
To meet the promise of affordable tickets and to relieve the pressure on the marketing programme, public authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million to the OCOG budget (25%) in the form of subsidies. These
subsidies, which would generate a positive cash flow, could vary to balance the budget between the expected revenues and expenditures. […]
The non-OCOG capital investment budget amounts to USD 11.1 billion […]
Government officials and Rio 2016 emphasised that hosting the 2016 Games would accelerate the transformation of the city and that the Games would benefit from major infrastructure investments already planned for the longterm development of Rio and the staging of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The federal, state and city governments have guaranteed the financing and delivery of the above-mentioned infra-structure, under the ultimate responsibility of the Federal Government.
The non-OCOG operations budget items have been identified and a commitment delivered that these would be provided by the respective government agencies or institutions.
The federal, state and city governments have guaranteed to provide all security, medical, customs and immigration services and other government-related services at no cost to the OCOG, in accordance with their jurisdictional responsibilities. In addition, the three levels of government would also provide publicly owned venues free of charge to the OCOG.
The OCOG presents a balanced and guaranteed budget of USD 2.82 billion.
Although the OCOG budget does not carry any capital cost, USD 685 million (representing 24% of expenditure) would be necessary to deliver temporary venue constructions, overlay and operations, including the costs for the management of the villages for the media and technical officials (over 25,000 people).
The budget has been well prepared with a great amount of detail. Assumptions are well supported and documented.
7 LEVEL 8
The OCOG budget seems reasonable and achievable.
The Games concept is based on the use of the 2007 Pan-American Games venues, with venues in each of the city’s four major zones and development areas. This takes into account the city’s topography and growth plans and reinforces the concept of bringing the Games to the whole community. Many projects in the city’s development plan would be accelerated for a 2016 Olympic Games.
The plan involves several key criteria, including technical excellence; using existing venues and transport infrastructure, with sports or disciplines sharing venues where possible; ensuring legacy and sustainability for new venues; and showcasing the beauty of the city.
Fourteen competition venues would be within 10 minutes of the Olympic Village and seven venues within 10 to 20 minutes. The Olympic Park would be within 5 minutes of the Olympic Village. All venues would be within 50 minutes of the Olympic Village.
The four venue zones are: the Barra Zone (14 venues), the Copacabana Zone (4 venues), the Maracanã Zone (4 venues) and the Deodoro Zone (7 venues).
The heart of the Rio 2016 project is the Barra Zone where nearly 50% of athletes would compete and includes the 90 hectare Olympic Park with ten Olympic venues. There are three existing venues: Rio Olympic Arena and Maria Lenk Aquatic Centre, built for the Pan-American Games, as well as the velodrome which would be extensively upgraded to Olympic standard. In addition, by adapting and expanding permanent facilities at the Olympic Training Centre, Rio 2016 would provide a further 6 venues and one temporary venue for hockey.
To construct the Olympic Park, approximately 300 families that Rio 2016 stated were living in illegal settlements, would be relocated.
The João Havelange Stadium would host athletics, and the 90,000 seat Maracanã Stadium the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and the football finals. Both these stadia exist. The plan to provide separate venues for ceremonies and athletics would remove the challenge of having to make a very quick transition from the Opening Ceremony to athletics.
All four zones would be connected by a high performance transport ring, with a metro, suburban rail, bus rapid transit system and an Olympic lane network.
The only venues outside Rio de Janeiro are the football venues in the co-host cities of Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Salvador and São Paulo.
There would be 29 conveniently located training venues (27 existing, 1 new and 1 temporary) with less than 15 minutes travel time from the Olympic Village for 68% of athletes.
There would be 33 venues; 10 existing with no permanent work required; 8 existing with permanent work required; 7 planned and to be built irrespective of the Games; 2 new permanent additional venues to be built only if Rio de Janeiro were awarded the Olympic Games; and 6 temporary venues.
The João Havelange Stadium (athletics) would be permanently expanded from 45,000 to 60,000 spectators.
There are strong sports legacy benefits for Brazil based on the following initiatives: athlete scholarships, Olympic Training Centre scholarships, new training facilities and national technical officials’ training. There would also be innovative youth-oriented legacy projects at the X Park (new venues for mountain bike, BMX and canoe kayak-slalom).
In the past decade, Rio de Janeiro has organised international events for 18 out of the 26 Olympic summer sports, and Brazil 22.
Rio de Janeiro has hosted large multisport competitions (two continental Games) and will organise the 2011 CISM Military World Games and the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
After you have read the text, carry out the following activity.
e.g. A. Rio has a high level of clean energy production.
B. The level of ____________________________ in Rio.
1. A. Rio de Janeiro would develop an innovative Sustainability Management Plan.
B. An innovative Sustainability Management Plan ___________________________________ by Rio de Janeiro
2. A. 100% of solid waste would be processed and recycled, with direct benefits to local communities
B. In ___________________________________ communities, 100% of solid waste would be processed and
3. A. Through policies requiring cleaner fuel, the levels of PM would meet WHO guideline values.
B. Policies requiring ___________________________________ appropriate levels of PM.
4. A. Before 2016 the levels of PM would meet WHO guideline values.
B. The levels of PM ___________________________________ WHO guideline values by 2016.
5. A. Air quality is within WHO guideline values, with the exception of some PM levels in the air in some cities.
B. There are some PM levels in the air in some ___________________________________ within WHO guideline
6. A. Authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million to meet the promise of affordable tickets.
B. There will be a contribution of USD 692 million ___________________________________ affordable tickets is
7. A. Authorities have decided to contribute USD 692 million to meet the promise of affordable tickets.
B. In ___________________________________ promise of affordable tickets, authorities have decided to
contribute USD 692 million.
8. A. The city and the Games would benefit from major infrastructure investments already planned.
B. Major infrastructure investments ___________________________________ to benefit the city and the
9. A. The three levels of government would provide publicly owned venues free of charge to the OCOG.
B. The OCOG ___________________________________ any money in publicly owned venues.
10. A. Fourteen competition venues would be within 10 minutes of the Olympic Village.
B. From the Olympic Village, it ________________________________ to arrive to fourteen competition venues.
9 LEVEL 8
11. A. The only venues outside Rio de Janeiro are the football venues in the co-host cities
B. The football ___________________________________ co-host cities, are the only ones outside Rio.
12. A. There would be 2 new permanent additional venues to be built only if Rio de Janeiro were awarded the Olympic Games.
B. Two additional venues will be ________________________________________ awarded the Olympic Games.
13. A. In the past decade, Rio de Janeiro has organised international events
B. International events ______________________________________ in the past decade.
As a Host City, Rio has had both, successes and failures.
1. Go over the headings and subheadings of the report and tell your classmates if you know about something related to those topics that has gone wrong.
2. Search the web to find a newspaper article about one/some of the failures, and tell your classmates and your teacher what the article says about it.
CURRENT AND FUTURE OLYMPIC SPORTS
Look at the following images and try to recognize the sport being played. Use modals of deduction (
) to talk about them and to respond to your classmates’ comments, and account for what you
A: Picture “0” might be basketball.
Two of the above sports were added for the Rio 2016 edition of the Olympic Games. Can you say which
ones they are?
11 LEVEL 8
Five of the above sports were not included in Rio 2016, but they will appear in the Tokyo 2020 Olympics.
Do you know which ones they are?
Predict: What do you think the text is going to say about the decision of including new sports?
Place the sports you have chosen in point 4 in the blanks at the beginning of the text, and then check your
guesses going to
The following terms appear in the text. Try to guess the meaning from the context and then look for the
COMPREHENSIVE SUBMIT FULFIL AFFORD QUOTA
IOC APPROVES FIVE NEW SPORTS FOR OLYMPIC
GAMES TOKYO 2020
THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE (IOC) TODAY AGREED TO
ADD _________/_________, _________, _________, _________ AND
_________TO THE SPORTS PROGRAMME FOR THE OLYMPIC GAMES
The decision by the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro was the most comprehensive evolution of the Olympic programme
in modern history. Plans call for staging the skateboarding and sports climbing events in temporary venues installed in
urban settings, marking a historic step in bringing the Games to young people and reflecting the trend of urbanisation of
The Organising Committee for the Tokyo 2020 Games proposed the five new sports in response to the new flexibility
provided by Olympic Agenda 2020.
Today’s vote was the culmination of a two-year process that began with the unanimous approval of the IOC’s strategic
roadmap in 2014. The recommendation to give Organising Committees the flexibility to propose new sports for their edition
of the Games was intended to put even more focus on innovation, flexibility and youth in the development Olympic
IOC President Thomas Bach said, “We want to take sport to the youth. With the many options that young people have, we
cannot expect any more that they will come automatically to us. We have to go to them. Tokyo 2020’s balanced proposal
fulfils all of the goals of the Olympic Agenda 2020 recommendation that allowed it. Taken together, the five sports are an
innovative combination of established and emerging, youth-focused events that are popular in Japan and will add to the
legacy of the Tokyo Games.”
Tokyo 2020 President Yoshiro Mori said, “The inclusion of the package of new sports will afford young athletes the chance
of a lifetime to realise their dreams of competing in the Olympic Games – the world's greatest sporting stage – and inspire
them to achieve their best, both in sport and in life.”
The additional sports in Tokyo will not impact the athlete or event quotas of existing Olympic sports or be binding on future
host cities. The current athlete and event quotas are unaffected.
The IOC considered a variety of factors when assessing the proposal, including the impact on gender equality, the youth
appeal of the sports and the legacy value of adding them to the Tokyo Games.
The inclusion of the new sports will add 18 events and 474 athletes, with equal numbers of women and men for all sports
except baseball/softball, which will have the same number of teams but different player totals, because softball teams have
whilst baseball teams have 24. Tokyo 2020 will rely heavily on existing and temporary venues to stage the
Discussions on the event programme in the existing 28 Olympic sports for the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 are ongoing,
and will be finalised by the IOC Executive Board in mid-2017.
What is your opinion as regards these changes? Are they positive? Account for your answer.
How will this impact on gender equality?
Look at the underlined words and phrases in the text. What do they have in common? Why are they
repeated throughout the text?
Look at the connector
(in bold in the text).
4.1. What kind of logical relationship is it showing? Underline the correct option:
Rephrase the idea using other two connectors that express the same relationship.
13 LEVEL 8
Tokyo Olympics: 5 new sports to make a debut in
Why did the IOC propose baseball and softball?
How is karate connected with the Japanese culture? Find the part in the video that explains so.
What is the situation of roller hockey, speed skating, and artistic skating?
Is sports climbing a men-only discipline? Where does it say so?
What was the main reason for including surfing?
Why do you think these sports were not included in the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games?
Think about one reason for each sport. Use different modals of deduction in the past and provide
some facts that would support your speculations.
Baseball is mainly popular in North America, so the IOC must have thought that European
countries wouldn’t be so interested in it.
Which person provided the most likely reason?
Watch the following video and listen to the athletes’ opinion:
IOC approves five new sports for Tokyo 2020 Games
Watch again and carry out the following activities.
Complete the athletes and the voice-over’s comments:
… Ayumi Uekusa, how would people benefit from watching karate?
…Masatoshi Ono, what does the inclusion of surfing mean for the sport?
…the voice-over, why has the decision of including skateboarding been questioned?
Work in group:
Design a new Olympic programme.
Decide: sports in and out of the programme.
Account for your choices.
Evaluate the inclusion of Rugby-7 and golf in Rio 2016.
Decide: advantages and disadvantages.
What criteria did you use in this assessment?
Ayumi Uekusa: “I’ve __________________ the Games on television
ever since __________________.”
Masatoshi Ono: “We want to __________________, to make the
Tokyo Olympics a __________________.”
Voice-over: “Climbing __________________ even more popular in
15 LEVEL 8