Expresiones formales e informales que permitan iniciar, mantener y terminar diálogos y conversaciones en situaciones diversas

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(1)TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE TRUJILLO FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN Y CIENCIAS DE LA COMUNICACIÓN ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA. Expresiones formales e informales que permitan iniciar, mantener y terminar diálogos y conversaciones en situaciones diversas. TRABAJO DE SUFICIENCIA PROFESIONAL. Para optar el Título Profesional de Licenciado en Educación Secundaria, con mención en: Idiomas: inglés-francés. AUTORA BR. Quispe Reyes Arantxa Noemi. TRUJILLO - PERÚ 2018. Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(2) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. DEDICATORIA. Dedico este trabajo a Dios, quien cuidó de mí desde que era muy pequeña. Asimismo a mi abuelo Julio, quien me dio un hogar, supo encaminarme en mis estudios y ha velado por mi bienestar en todo momento. Y finalmente a mi tía Maruja, quien siempre tuvo una taza de café lista cuando estudiaba hasta muy tarde. A todos ellos, muchas gracias. Quispe Reyes Arantxa Noemí. 1 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(3) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. JURADO DICTAMINADOR. …………………………………………………………. DR. CARLOS ENRIQUE CALDERÓN CALDERÓN PRESIDENTE. …………………………………………………………. MG. ROSA UBALDINA ANTICONA SANDOVAL SECRETARIA. …………………………………………………………. MG. MARUZZELA YSABEL BELTRÁN CENTURIÓN MIEMBRO. 2 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(4) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. AGRADECIMIENTO. A quienes fueron mis profesores a lo largo de este camino, pues corrigieron cada error que notaban en mí cuando iniciaba mis primeras clases, a su vez, supieron enseñarme con empatía y comprensión en todo momento. También agradezco a mi compañera y amiga Gloria Peña, con quien estudié y trabajé estos años de carrera, porque fue ayuda oportuna cuando más lo necesité. Asimismo a Pilar Chumbi, quien creyó en mí desde que era postulante y me animó cuando quería desistir en mitad de esta carrera profesional. La Graduada.. 3 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(5) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. INDICE DEDICATORIA JURADO DICTAMINADOR AGRADECIMIENTO PRESENTACION RESUMEN ABSTRACT INTRODUCCION CAPITULO I: SESIÓN DE APRENDIZAJE I. DATOS INFORMATIVOS II. APRENDIZAJES ESPERADOS CAPITULO II: SUSTENTO TEORICO CAPITULO III: SUSTENTO PEDAGOGICO BIBLIOGRAFÍA ANEXO. i ii iii v vi vii viii 9 10 11 12 12 17 18. 4 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(6) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. PRESENTATION. The following lesson plan “Getting to know you”, has been designed for fourth grade class “A” students of “Santa Rita de Jesús” high school. Its aim is to satisfy the need of students of English to ask and give expressions in order to get to know people in formal and informal language. The goal is to help students learn the language function related to the main phrases, questions and answers in order to get to know each other better.. 5 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(7) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. RESUMEN. El trabajo de suficiencia profesional tuvo como título “Expresiones formales e informales que permitan iniciar, mantener y terminar diálogos y conversaciones en situaciones diversas”, cuyo desarrollo de sesión de aprendizaje ha sido basado en referencias bibliográficas y otras fuentes de consulta, así como la aplicación de conocimientos adquiridos durante los años académicos de mi formación y de acuerdo al trabajo realizado en los últimos años. Cuyas conclusiones indican que utilizar personajes que los estudiantes conocen, ya sean artistas, miembros de la institución educativa o sus mismos compañeros, para la producción de conversaciones formales e informales en situaciones diversas, facilitan el aprendizaje de estas, ampliando su vocabulario y la fluidez requerida para ser expresadas. Asimismo la participación activa y continúa de los estudiantes ayuda a que los que están en proceso de aprender palabras o frases nuevas pierdan el temor que les detiene para entablar una conversación en inglés. PALABRAS CLAVE: Producción, Aprendizaje, Vocabulario, Participación.. 6 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(8) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. ABSTRACT The work of professional proficiency was titled "Formal and informal expressions that let to start, keep and end dialogues and conversations in different situations"; whose development of the learning session has been based on bibliographical references and other sources and consultation, as well as application of knowledge acquired during the academic years of my training and according to the work done during the last years. Whose conclusions indicate that; using characters that students already know, as artists, school members, or even their classmates, to the production of formal and informal conversations in different situations, facilates their learning, increasing their vocabulary and fluenty required to be expressed. In addition, students’ active and continuous participation help the ones who are in process of learning new words or phrases, to lose the fear that stops them to start a conversation in English.. Key words: Production, Learning, Vocabulary, Participation. 7 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(9) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. INTRODUCCIÓN. Para alcanzar los aprendizajes esperados de un nuevo idioma no solo es necesario presentar estructuras gramaticales y nuevos vocablos a los estudiantes, sino contextualizarlos al tiempo y a la realidad que los aprendices están expuestos. Para alcanzar los objetivos y las funciones de la presente sesión de aprendizaje de la cual su principal meta es brindar a los estudiantes información de cómo utilizar saludos, preguntas y frases para que conozcas personas y a su vez, mantener y terminar diálogos en variadas situaciones, es vital tener una fuerte y significante base como punto de partida. Por ello, la siguiente sesión de aprendizaje estará basada en algunas teorías de cada aspecto teórico, asimismo aspectos psicológicos y pedagógicos.. 8 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(10) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. DISEÑO DE SESIÓN. Br. Quispe Reyes Arantxa. 9 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(11) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. LESSON PLAN. I. BASIC INFORMATION: 1.1. SCHOOL 1.1.1. School: I.E.P. “Santa Rita de Jesús” 1.1.2. Level: High School 1.1.3. Area: English 1.1.4. Grade: 4TH grade class “A” 1.1.5. Teacher: Quispe Reyes Arantxa Noemi. 1.2. LEARNING SESSION 1.2.1. Session topic: “Getting to know you” 1.2.2. Didactic Support: Communicative approach. 1.2.3. Date and Time: December, Thursday 13th, 2018 1.2.4. Time: 11:15 a.m. 1.2.5. Class duration:. 45 minutes. II. CAPACITIES GENERAL CAPACITIES. SPECIFIC CAPACITIES. Text comprehension. Identify expressions to give and ask personal information.. Text production. Ask and answer questions about personal information.. 10 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(12) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. III. LEARNING STRATEGIES. SPECIFIC CAPACITIES. Identify expressions to give and ask personal information.. CONTENTS Communication. Linguistic. Function. Oral expressions. - Asking and giving personal information. Notion. Ask and answer questions about personal information.. TECHNIQUES. - Personal information. Hello, hi, how are you? What’s up? Where do do you live? What do yo do?. - Body language - Showing pictures. -Asking questions. - Giving instructions. - Working individually - Students participation.. Topic. “Getting to know you!”. 11 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(13) TSP UNITRU. IV.. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. LEARNING ACTIVITIES For the teacher For the students. STEPS M  O 1.Greeting  T. Asks for the date and writes it on the board.. A. . Greet the teacher.. . Teacher’s voice..  . Say the date. Answer question.. . board. . marker. the. 2`. S. Presents a conversation on the board (Appendix 1). E. V. . Asks volunteers to read the conversation.. S. A. . Asks students about what the people in the pictures are. I. O. DEVELOPMENT. doing. . Asks for the topic.. . Introduces the new knowledge using the conversation and pictures (Appendix 2).. Read the conversation aloud.. . . Answer the question. . . Say the topic. . Teacher’s voice pictures. 8’. S. M. E . Identify new phrases in the conversation and in the pictures..  . Teacher’s voice. students ‘voice. 12. N 4. Controlled Practice.. S. . T. 2. Describing the new knowledge. and. TIME. I INTRODUCTION. 2. Introducing the new knowledge. Greets the class introduces herself.. RESOURCES. N. T . Teacher´s voice. 8’ 6. Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(14) TSP UNITRU. . Makes students practice the new knowledge orally and on the board.. . Checks the answers together with the students and corrects if necessary..  5 .Classroom transfer. .  FAREWELL. 6. Extension, consolidation. . Shows two pictures (Appendix 3) to the class and asks students to write 5 questions that they would ask each one of them in order to get to know them..   . . . Listen Biblioteca to de the  y Ciencias Students Educación de la Comunicación – UNT teacher’s ‘voice instruction.  Worksheet. Ask the teacher if they need help. Write the answers on the board.. Work individually.. . Teacher’s voice.. . Students’ voice.. . Pictures. . Teacher’s voice Students’ voice.. 12’. Checks answers.. Asks students if they have some doubts. Says goodbye and thanks for paying attention..  . Listen to teacher. Say goodbye.. the. . 3’. 7 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(15) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. V. CHART OF VALUES VALUES. ATTITUDES. Respect. Respect the teacher’s rules and students’ ideas.. Responsibility. Do the activities and homework in a given time.. Tolerance. Accept his/her classmates´ opinions.. VI. EVALUATION EXPECTED LEARNING. ACHIEVEMENT INDICATOR. TOOLS - Voice. - Students use expressions to ask about - Board. - Students use expressions to ask and give personal. personal information.. -Students use expressions to talk about their -Markers personal information.. information.. - Conversation - Pictures. - Students use the new vocabulary.. ATTITUDES - Participate in class actively.. INDICATORS. INSTRUMENTS. - Ask and answer questions. - Respect their classmates’ about personal information. opinions. -. Follow. instructions.. - Listen to their classmates the. teacher’s while they are talking. - Raise their hands before. Attitude guide.. talking. - Go through the required assignments. 8 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(16) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. VII. SPECIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.1. FOR THE TEACHER: Time Zones 1A– National Geographic Learning - Cengage 1.2. FOR THE STUDENT: . All the material will be provided by the teacher.. 9 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(17) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. SOPORTE TEÓRICO. I.. INTRODUCTION In order to fulfill the objectives and functions of the present lesson plan whose main function is to give students the information on how. to use. greetings, questions and phrases in order to getting to know people , it is vital to have a strong and meaningful basis as a standpoint. That is, the lesson plan development will be based on some theories of each theoretical aspect, either psychological aspect or pedagogical. II.. DISCUSSION OF CONTENT “GETTING TO KNOW YOU”. FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE What is the difference between formal and informal language? Formal and informal language serve different purposes. The tone, the choice of words and the way the words are put together vary between the two styles. Formal language is less personal than informal language. It is used when writing for professional or academic purposes like university assignments. Formal language does not use colloquialisms, contractions or first person pronouns such as ‘I’ or ‘We’. Informal language is more casual and spontaneous. It is used when communicating with friends or family either in writing or in conversation. It is used when writing personal emails, text messages and in some business correspondence. The tone of informal language is more personal than formal language. Examples of formal and informal language are shown below:. Getting to know someone Informal: Who are you? Formal: What’s your name? Informal: What’s up? Formal: How are you? 10 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(18) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. Contractions Informal:. The improvements canʼt be introduced due to funding restrictions.. Formal:. Improvements cannot be introduced due to funding restrictions.. Informal:. I donʼt believe that the results are accurate.. Formal:. The results are not believed to be accurate.. Informal:. The research project wonʼt continue next year.. Formal:. The research project will not continue next year.. Phrasal verbs Informal:. The balloon was blown up for the experiment.. Formal:. The balloon was inflated for the experiment.. Informal:. The patient got over his illness.. Formal:. The patient recovered from his illness.. Informal:. The results of the study were mixed up.. Formal:. The results of the study were confused.. III.. PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT . THE COGNITIVIST THEORY. The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. When we say the word “learning”, we usually mean “to think using the brain”. This basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual (1). However, to get to the learning it is very important to use a variety of 11 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(19) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. activities in new situations because those activities will allow assimilation of what has already been learnt or partly learnt. It will also create further situations for which existing language resources are inadequate and must accordingly be modified or extended--"accommodation“, but what are assimilation and accommodation? In order to make those ideas clearer we will cite Piaget. Whose Key Ideas are? . Assimilation: The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.. . Accommodation: The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.. IV.. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT . THE MOTIVATION PRINCIPLE. “This aspect is crucial because nobody learns if any reason moves her/him. The students will feel attracted by the pictures which are from real life, the topic that is familiar to them, the interesting exercises and everything used in class; not only because of the entertainment but also because of the participation, the intellectual challenge” . THE ACTIVITY PRINCIPLE. “Learning by doing”, students will improve their knowledge of the language, if they use the target language regularly. It means in the educational process, the student must be agent and the actor of his own learning. The teacher will provide to the students activities relate to their personal activities. The learner should get to his or her own understanding of the content facilitated by the teacher into an active process where learners should learn to discover principles, concepts and facts for themselves. The learning environment should also be designed to support and. 12 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(20) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. motivate the learner's thinking by clear guidelines and creates the environment for the learner obtains his own conclusions.” BROWN, Douglas H. (2000). It refers when the students participate in an active way performing an activity, improving their knowledge by regularly repeating the same type of action. . PRINCIPLES. FOR. DESIGNING. LISTENING. AND. SPEAKING. TECHNIQUES:. a). Encourage the use of authentic language and material.. Authentic language and real-world tasks enable students to see the relevance of classroom activity or their long-term communicative goals. If you introduce natural texts rather than concocted, artificial material, students will more readily dive into the activity. b) Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course include listening. Don’t lose out on opportunities to integrate these two skills. As you are perhaps focusing on speaking goals, listening goals may naturally coincide, and the two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing language are often initiated through comprehension. c) Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations, and to change the subject.. V.. DIDACTIC SUPPORT. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH Defined an approach as “it refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serves as the source of practices and principles in languages 13 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(21) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. teaching”, In order to explain Communicative Language Teaching as an approach, it is necessary to clarify what the language theory is and the language learning theory that this approach sustain. . LANGUAGE THEORY:. “The communicative approach in language teaching starts from a theory of language as communication. The goal of language teaching is to develop “communicative competences”. Learning a second language was similarly viewed by proponents of Communicative Language Teaching as acquiring the linguistic means to perform different kinds of functions. “At the level of language theory, Communicative Language Teaching has a rich theatrical base. Some of the characteristics of this communicative view of language follow” o Language is a system for the expression of meaning. o The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. o The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. o The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse. “Communicative Language Teaching means little more than an integration of grammatical and functional teaching; one of the most characteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language”. Here we can cite to Margie S. Berns, an expert in the field of communicative language teaching, who says that "language is interaction; it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society. In this light, language study has to look at the use (function) of language in context, both its linguistic context (what is uttered before and after a given piece of discourse) and its social, or situational, context (who is speaking, what their social roles are, why they have come together to speak)" (Berns, 1984, p. 5).. 14 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(22) TSP UNITRU. VI.. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. TECHNIQUES  Showing pictures: “Pictures are the most useful visual aids available to the teacher. They can result a good way to engage to the learners with new situations or vocabulary and practice many aspects of the language”.  The teacher shows different pictures on the board..  Asking questions. This technique helps the teacher to control the class. It also helps to keep the attention of the whole class. Asking questions give good students a chance to show their knowledge, and give weak or shy students a chance to answer.  The teacher asks their students to guess the topic.  The teacher asks their students if they understand the vocabulary..  Giving and following instructions: This is a simple but valuable communicative activity. This is the use of the language at work. VII.. TEACHING AIDS Teaching aids are helpful tools for teaching in a classroom or with individual learners. Teacher can use them to:  Help learners to improve reading and other skills.  Illustrate or reinforce a skill, fact or idea.  Relieve anxiety, fears or boredom, since many teaching aids are like games. . Teacher’s Voice:. 15 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(23) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. The teacher’s voice is an important teaching aid. One of the first requirements of good teaching is good voice projection. The teacher needs to be heard by all the students.. . Body Language:. The use of hands, arms, face and any part of the body can effectively in several ways to help the student’s communicative.  The teacher uses his body language during the class to make students understand instructions.. . Pictures: Many people who use pictures make difficult things easier to understand..  The teacher uses different pictures to explain the new content of the class.. . Worksheets:. Worksheets allow teachers to measure the students’ learning. A worksheet teacher can contain different kind of exercises according to the content of the lesson.. 16 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(24) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. BIBLIOGRAPHY.  ATHERTON, J S. (2013). “Learning and Teaching” Piaget's developmental theory,Cambridge University Press, LONDON  BAXTER, A.(1997)“Evaluating your students”.Richmond Publishing, London.  BERNS, M. S.(1984). Functional approaches to language and language teaching: Another look. In S. Savignon & M. S. Berns (Eds.), "Initiatives in communicative language teaching. A book of readings" (pp. 5). Addison-Wesley, MASSACHUSETTS  BROWN, D.(2000). “Teaching by Principles, an interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy”. 2nd Ed. Pearson Education. Iowa, USA.  CAMBRIDGE ADVANCED LEARNERS DICTIONARY, (2003).. 1st. Ed.. Cambridge University Press. New York.  HARMER, J. (2005) “How to teach English”, Longman. England.  LARSEN- FREEMAN, D.(2002). “Techniques and Principles”. 2nd. Ed. Oxford University Press. New York.  RICHARDS, J.(1991). “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching”, Cambridge University Press, New York.. 17 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(25) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. APPENDIXES. APPENDIX 1. SHAWN MENDEZ AND ZAC BROWN. Good morning, I’m Shawn Mendez. What’s your name, sir?. I’m Zack Brown. What do you do, Shawn?. I’m a singer too. I work in New York, where do you work?. I’m a singer, I sing pop music. And you?. 18 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(26) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. APPENDIX 2 INTERVIEWING DUA LIPA. Who are you?. What do yo do?. I’m Dua Lipa. I’m a singer. I live in the United States.. Where do you live?. 19 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(27) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. APPENDIX 3. 20 Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(28) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

(29) TSP UNITRU. Biblioteca de Educación y Ciencias de la Comunicación – UNT. Esta obra ha sido publicada bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No Comercial-Compartir bajo la misma licencia 2.5 Perú. Para ver una copia de dicha licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pe/.

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