Texto completo


Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica 2020, Vol. XXIX, N°2, 1324-1332

DOI: 10.24205/03276716.2020.374 1324





















Zhikui Cheng


The mental health of many college students is not optimistic. A viable solution to the problem lies in music therapy. However, it is not yet clear how each attribute of music, namely, speed and mode, affects the emotional regulation effect. To make up for the gap, this paper empirically analyses the influence of music speed and music mode on the emotions of college students. A total of 92 undergraduate students were selected from a university, and divided into four groups for our 2×2 orthogonal experiment. The experimental design covers two music speeds (fast and slow) and two music modes (major and minor). The emotions of each subject were measured by the Chinese Emotional Adjective Checklist (CMACL), and subjected to descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on SPSS 10.0. The results show that the music speed has a significant impact on the emotions of college students, while the music mode does not have a significant effect; slow music is easy to induce negative emotions among college students, namely, sadness, pain, irritability and resentment, while fast music often leads to positive emotions like pleasure and excitement; the emotions induced by the two music speeds differ greatly under the major mode, but slightly under the minor mode. The research results shed new light on the emotional regulation of college students.

Key words: Music Speed, Music Mode, College Students, Emotional Regulation.

Received: 18-05-19 | Accepted: 12-08-19


Music has been widely used since the beginning of human history. In ancient times, music was used for sacrifice, religion, divination and war; in early civilized society, music was used for ritual and music education and entertainment; in modern times, music was widely used in production, labor, medical treatment, education, sports and so on (Liu, Sun, & Wan, 2013). For example, music can improve production efficiency, young workers working under the background of music can increase production by 4%-25%. When there is music in the workshops, productivity increases by 7% in the day shift and 15% in the night shift (Munoz-Merino, Fernandez Molina, Munoz-Organero,

Pingdingshan University, Conservatory of Music, Pingdingshan 467000, China.

E-Mail: 4434@pdsu.edu.cn

2014). Music can cure diseases. The United States and Western Europe use music to treat mental illness, mental illness and neurasthenia with obvious effect, especially for depression and manic psychosis. Music can cultivate temperament, noble sentiment and moral wisdom. There is no doubt that music is of great significance to human social life. Therefore, the study of the influence of music on people's emotions has attracted much attention. There are many reports about the influence of music on people's emotions. In modern times, some people have studied the relationship between modes and emotions, pointing out that a major expresses self-confidence, hope, and pleasure, and can best express sincere feelings. A minor

expresses women's tenderness, Nordic

sentiment and piety; B major expresses loudness, bravery, boldness and pride (Geng & Li, 2018; Ayranci, & Çolakoğlu, 2014). B minor reflects sadness, quiet expectations and so on.




Italian scholars have reported that different scales show different emotions.

However, in the study of the factors affecting music-induced emotions, there are more studies on the influence of music characteristics on emotions, but less on individual characteristics and environmental factors, and less on the influence of the interaction between these factors on emotions. In the study of the influence of music characteristic factors on emotion, the influence of music single structure characteristics on individual emotion is also studied (Martensen & Grønholdt, 2016; Wu & Li, 2015). Because of the differences of individual characteristics, it is difficult to directly link music single structure characteristics with emotion regulation. At present, the empirical study of music on emotional regulation is mainly reflected in the role of dominant clinical diseases, and there are few studies on the mediation and regulation of adverse emotions in daily life (Hagenauer, Hascher, & Volet, 2015). However, professional means and methods will be used in emotional regulation, mainly in the field of music therapy. Most of the other

applications are self-organized, lack of

professional guidance, just relax the body and mind by listening to music simply, or just take music as the background music of activities.

In summary, it is not difficult to see that most of these are empirical descriptions and lack of strong empirical evidence. The influence of music appreciation on people's emotions is objective, but what kind of influence does different music form have on people or narrowly speaking, what kind of emotional influence does different timbre, melody, rhythm speed and mode have on people? How to prove this effect? Based on the relevant theories of music psychology at home and abroad, combined with personality factors of individual characteristics, this study effectively combines speed factors and personality factors in music structure. This paper explores the influence of speed and personality on college students' emotions, and the familiarity of music materials is an important

dimension of music-induced emotional

response. For this reason, this study attempts to use empirical method to select the two elements of music speed and mode, and explore their impact on college students' emotions.


Robert Pracheck pioneered the theory of emotional psychological evolution, which divides emotions into basic emotions and their feedback emotions. He believes that human basic emotions are the product of species evolution and the means to adapt to the struggle for survival of species (Sullivan & Sadeh, 2016). Emotional Roulette is just a simple emotional model, which can show more complex emotional relationships by enriching the form of roulette, as shown in Figure 1. It sums up the basic emotions that college students can produce, and can be used as the starting point of emotional

design research. This model can help

psychologists clarify the intricate relationship between various emotions, and can be used as a "palette" in emotional design. Through the combination of different emotions, create different levels of emotional feedback, thereby strengthening the emotional resonance of College students.

Figure 1


Emotional wheel model

Coordination theory of musical emotion Music and language are important means for human beings to convey information. The process of processing both of them is a process of interaction between the sender and the receiver of information. There are similarities between empathy process in music emotion and language cognition. Overy and Molnar-Szakac try to explain the related concepts of empathy process in language cognition, and use the core mechanism of empathy to explain music empathy (Wang & Murnighan, 2014). Synergy refers to the fact that an individual can achieve



consistency with the object in the frequency and direction of movement in the external

environment, and automatically make

synchronous feedback and adjustment according to the change of the object. They believe that the process of music emotions is the process of empathy between the listener and the composer. When the listener and the music stimulus are synergized, the emotional response is consistent with the mood that the composer wants to express, and the empathy between the listener and the composer is realized. Researchers believe that listeners' acquisition of their own emotional experience is a synergistic effect of two ways, one is a direct and simple way of emotional production, through imitating each other's actions and expressions to achieve the same emotions as the interactors. The other is that it contains cognitive components, which need to be consistent with one's own consciousness so that one can understand the other's emotions and show the same emotional response. However, compared with language, music has ambiguous and abstract semantic information, but it can directly express related

emotional actions. Therefore, in music

emotions, expression and muscle imitation play a major role in this way of empathy.

Figure 2


Emotional regulation process


Can emotional balance be achieved?

Can emotional balance be maintained?

Emotional dissociation

Emotional depression

Emotional expression


Skills acquisition


Talking about emotions



Write your feelings

Emotional dissociation Emotional depression No

No Yes


Control regulation

Expected adjustment

Exploring regulation

Emotional regulation process model

emphasizes that the occurrence of emotional regulation follows a certain psychological process. Campos believes that emotional regulation is an adjustment process at all levels

to induce emotions and corresponding

behavioral expressions. Emotional regulation

runs through the whole process of emotional production. Even before emotional generation, emotional regulation has begun. Therefore, it can be understood that emotional regulation runs through all levels of emotional processing, and the two are an integrated processing process. The three-stage process model proposed by G.A. Bonanno from the perspective of self-regulation is shown in Figure 2. It holds that emotional regulation is a process of maintaining internal self-balance, and that emotional regulation is composed of emotional control and regulation stage, anticipatory regulation stage and exploratory regulation stage in an orderly manner. It can organically integrate the internal emotional adaptation with the occurrence process of emotional regulation. In the specific regulation process, we also try to put forward the corresponding individual emotional regulation strategies in different stages, and prepare for the emotional regulation in the next stage.

The regulation and function of music on human emotion

Music is an abstract art, which is composed of pitch, length, intensity, timbre and other basic elements. Through the sound wave vibration of sound, it is transmitted to human sensory organs and evokes people's emotional resonance. Music is different from other artistic forms. It develops in time and disappears in time. It is an abstract art that expresses human feelings directly.

(1) Speed and rhythm

Music is different from other arts. It is a flowing art, which brings people the enjoyment of hearing. The change of melody will affect the ups and downs of people's mood. People's "excitement", "depression", "tension", "relaxation" and other psychological activities are called modality, and modality activities also contain the characteristics of speed and rhythm (Luomala, Kumar, Singh et al., 2015). Therefore, music works which can cause people to be sad, sad and tranquil have the characteristics of slow speed. For example, Chopin's Nocturne will bring people a sense of quiet, quiet and beautiful. The works that make people produce fast, exciting, active and impatient have the characteristics of fast, such as Beethoven's "Destiny" will make people feel nervous, strong and fierce.

Slow two-beat music is prone to sadness and sadness, while fast three-beat music is prone to happiness and excitement. The experience of




tempo on people's emotions is not significant, because any music changes and develops on a fixed beat, characterized by repeated and alternate cycles of strong beat and weak beat. The speed of music will directly affect people's emotional experience. This is because people are an organism with resonance function. The vibration of sound wave will vary with the speed of music. If the vibration of sound wave and the resonance of human body are coordinated, it will produce a sense of pleasure, and vice versa, it will produce an unpleasant feeling.

(2) Mode and harmony

Different modes of color represent people's different emotions. The major mode of color is

clear, representing people's excitement,

excitement and high-spirited. The minor mode of color is dim, representing people's sadness, anxiety and softness. The mode makes the music produce the main tone, the subordinate tone and the subordinate tone, and arranges the simple tone in an organized and regular way. If the music ends on a stable tonic, it will give people a feeling of completeness and firmness, and if it ends on an unstable baritone or lead, it will give people a feeling of doubt and request (Unger, Papastamatelou, Okan et al., 2014).

The chord is divided into sine triad and sub triad. As the main chord in the mode and chord, the sine triad contains all the tones in the scale of the mode, namely the main chord, the subordinate chord and the subordinate chord. As the central chord of the mode, the main chord has strong stability. It belongs to the main chord and has relative stability. The use of the sine triad in music can give people a sense of firmness and harmony. Because of the instability of the leading tone, the superior tonic and the baritone in the auxiliary triad, it often brings the feeling of gripping and moving.

In addition, such as three or six degrees of harmony is fuller, giving people a harmonious and calm psychological experience, but lack of

motivation. The second, seventh and seventh tones, because of their special proportion, bring discordant and even tense psychological experience. Different music represents different styles. Different forms of expression affect different emotions. Emotional experience is not only related to the style characteristics of works, but also closely related to the development of people's age and cognitive level.



Ninety-two undergraduates, 44 boys and 48 girls, 32 freshmen, 30 sophomores and 30 juniors, with an average age of 20.86, were randomly selected from a university. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups, 23 in each group, including 11 males and 12 females. Each group was treated by a group of experiments.

Experimental design

A 2*2 two-factor completely randomized experimental design was used. The independent variable is the mode and speed of the music. The mode is divided into two levels: major mode and minor mode, and the speed is divided into two levels: slow and fast. The Japanese NIKKKO metronome was used to test the speed. Fifty-two quarter notes per minute were hit as the adagio, marked as = 52, and slower than or equal to 52. Take the speed of hitting 108 quarter notes per minute as the allegro, marked as = 108, and the speed of hitting a quarter note equal to or greater than 108 per minute is considered fast. The mode and speed are combined horizontally into four kinds of processing, i.e. large-scale slow, large-scale fast, small-scale slow and small-scale fast. Two pieces of music were selected for each treatment, totaling 8 pieces. The details are listed in Table 1 below.

Table 1.

Situation of experimental music repertoire

Experimental treatment Major slow speed Speed Duration

Major slow Carnival of the Animals 40 53 seconds

From the New World 40 95 seconds

Major fast The nut Cracke 180 66 seconds

Guitar Sonata 133 89 seconds

Minor slow Albino Violin Music 45 107 seconds

The Song of Wanderers 43 84 seconds

Quick minor Turkey March 120 88 seconds



Experimental materials and equipment (1) Experimental materials

Professors and Ph.D. students majoring in music selected eight of the 100 classical songs based on the principles that best reflect the characteristics of major slow, major fast, minor slow and minor fast. By using the metronome to test the speed test results, GoldWave v4.25 Chinese version software edit the selected eight pieces of music to make them meet the experimental requirements as far as possible.

(2) Experimental equipment

There are 30 seats in a speech room equipped with multimedia and sound effects. Each seat is separated from other seats by a partition, that is, the subjects do not interfere with each other. The surrounding environment of the laboratory is quiet and noiseless, the air is fresh and the light is bright.

(3) Measuring tools

The Chinese Emotional Adjective Checklist (CMACL) compiled by Zhong Jie and Qian Mingyi was used to test the subjects' emotions. There were 30 items in the scale, including four factors: irritability (F), pleasure and excitement (HE), pain and sorrow (PS), resentment (AH). HE was positive, F, PS and AH were negative. The scale has good validity and reliability. The NIKKKO metronome instrument made in Japan is used as a measuring tool for music speed.

Experimental steps

In the first step, 23 subjects in each group were assigned to the laboratory. Each of them was asked to sit in a seat and sit in a comfortable position. Then they were given 3 minutes of deep breathing relaxation training to stabilize the mood of the subjects.

The second step is to give each participant a self-emotional adjective evaluation form. The

"alternative adjectives" in the table are 30 adjectives in CMACL, and the requirements for filling in the table are explained.

In the third step, after explaining and clarifying the experimental requirements, the experimental music was started to play. After each piece was played, the subjects were asked to describe their emotional feelings immediately after listening. Four groups of subjects were treated with major slow, major fast, minor slow and minor fast. Each participant listened to two pieces of music at one level of processing.

Data processing of experiments

The experimental data were sorted out, and the extreme values were eliminated. Then descriptive statistics and multiple variance analysis were carried out using SPSS10.0 statistical software package.


Analysis of the effect of the modality and speed of music on College Students' emotions

The adjectives describing the mood of each group after listening to the music are described and counted. The results are shown in Table 2. The data in the table show that: (1) Regardless of the mode size, slow music is easy to induce negative emotions of College students. Among them, 95.2% thought that they felt negative emotions from the slow speed of major, 51.1% thought they felt pain and sadness, 39.9% thought they felt irritability, and 4.2% thought they felt resentment. Ninety-six percent of the respondents thought that they felt negative emotions when they were slow in minor, of which 52.3 percent thought they felt pain and

Table 2.

Descriptive analysis of the emotional impact of music modality and speed on college


Major slow speed Quick minor Major fast Minor slow

n 25 25 25 25

Median Sad Excited Happy Sad

Mode Sad Excited Excited Sad


Sad (39) Excited (28) Happy (25) Sad (48)

Depressive (16) Happy (50) Excited (16) Painful (14)

Regretful (10) Joy (16) Joy (14) Depressive (10)

--- --- Unquiet (11) Unquiet (10)

HE 4.8% 70.3% 52.3% 4.0%

AH 4.2% 12.8% 18.8% 6.1%

PS 51.1% 1.4% 3.1% 52.3%




sadness, 37.6 % thought they felt irritability, and 6.1% thought they felt resentment. (2) Regardless of the size of the mode, most of the fast music results in the positive emotions of pleasure and excitement of College students. 70.3% of the subjects thought that the positive emotions of pleasure and excitement were quickly felt in minor, and 52.3% thought that the positive emotions of pleasure and excitement were quickly felt in major. In addition, the number of conformity, median and frequency also reflected the negative emotions of sadness, sadness, sadness and restlessness of the slow music subjects, while the fast music made the subjects feel the positive emotions of excitement, joy, joy and happiness.

How does the mode and speed of music affect college students' emotions? The effects of these two factors are analyzed by variance analysis and simple effect analysis. The results are shown in Table 3 below.

Table 3.

The variance and effect of the

modality and speed of music on College

Students' emotions

Source of variation SS df MS F

Processing interval 34.54 3 --- ---

A (Mode) 0.27 1 0.27 1

B (Speed) 13.53 1 13.53 53

AB 2.56 1 2.56 9.82

A (at b 1 level) 2.26 1 2.26 8.66

A (at b 2 level) 0.58 1 0.58 2.16

B (at a 1 level) 13.89 1 13.89 53.8

B (at a 2 level) 2.18 1 2.18 8.32

Intra-cell error 7.28 29 0.27 ---

Total 41.89 32 --- ---

The data in Table 3 show that: (1) the main effect of music speed on College Students' emotions is very significant (F = 52, P = 0), and the difference between speed and mode is very significant (F = 9.81, P < 0.001). However, the main effect of the mode of music on College Students' emotions is not significant (F= 1, P >

0.05). (2) Because of the differences, we further

analyze their simple effects. The results show that there are significant differences in the speed of music between the two levels of mode

(F = 53.9, P = 0 at the major level; F = 8.31, P <

0.01 at the minor level), especially in the major level. But the difference of mode is very significant only at the slow level, but not at the

fast level (F = 8.65, P < 0.01 at the slow level; F =

2.15, P > 0.05 at the fast level).

Analysis of emotional validity dimension score data

According to the average score and standard deviation test as shown in Table 4 and Figure 3, the emotional validity of fast music to extraverted subjects (M = 7.7154, SD = 0.91398) was shown. The emotional potency (M = 6.1438, SD = 0.86455) induced by high neuroticism subjects was higher than the threshold value (5 points), which induced positive emotions. However, the emotional value (M = 3.7154, SD = 0.61136) induced by slow music was lower than the critical value of the emotional value (M = 2.0011, SD = 0.55481) induced by high-extroversion subjects, and negative emotions were induced by slow music.

Figure 3


Mean and standard deviation of

emotional potency score

High extraversion ra pid music High extraversion sl

ow music

High neurotic fast mHigh neurusic otic slow m usic 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8



dard de





n val



0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Table 4.

Mean and standard deviation of emotional potency score

Mean value (M) Standard deviation (SD) Number

High extraversion rapid music 7.7154 0.91398 15

High extraversion slow music 3.7154 0.61136 15

High neurotic fast music 6.1438 0.86455 15



Table 5.

Analysis of variance of repeated measurement of personality type and music speed

on emotional quotient score

Value F Sig Partial eta squared

Personality type 0.858 0.861 0 0.86

0.152 0.152 0 0.86

Music speed 0.988 0.989 0 0.98

0.032 0.032 0 0.98

Personality type 0.023 0.023 0.698 0.13

Music speed 0.998 0.989 0.698 0.13

Figure 4


ANOVA Contrast Chart

Personality type Musical speed Personality typeMusical speed -0.1

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

Value F

Partial eta squared

According to the results of 2 *2 repeated measurement equation analysis as shown in Table 5 and Figure 4, the results showed that F (1, 14) = 79.057, P < 0.001, σ2 = 0.86, the main

effect of personality type was significant. It can be said that whether listening to fast music or slow music, the emotional valence score of high extroversion subjects was always significantly higher than that of high neuroticism subjects.

When F (1, 14) = 623.1, p<0.001, σ2 =0.989, we

can see that the main effect of music speed is significant, and the emotional value of fast music is significantly higher than that of slow music. When music speed and personality type interact, F (1, 14) = 0.168, p>0.05, we can see that the interaction between speed and personality type is not significant.

In conclusion, we can see that: 1. Compared

with high neurotic individuals, highly

extraverted individuals are more open-minded in personality and more positive in emotions generated by dealing with things. They are also induced by fast and slow music. The total average score of emotional valence of highly extraverted individuals is higher than that of high neurotic individuals. 2. Consistent with previous research results, the results of this experiment also show that the speed of music can significantly affect the emotional induction of individuals. Fast music can not only affect the emotions of highly extraverted individuals, but also affect the emotions of highly neurotic individuals. Similarly, slow music can also affect the emotions of both highly neurotic and highly extroverted individuals. Moreover, fast music can induce positive emotions of two personality types, and slow music can induce negative emotions of two personality types.

Analysis of Emotional Awakening Dimension Score Data

The results of 2*2 repeated measurement equation analysis showed that F(1,14)=6.06,

p<0.05, σ2=0.329 as shown in Table 7. When the

main effect of music speed was significant, the arousal score of fast music was significantly higher than that of slow music as shown in Table 6 and Figure 5. When music speed and

personality type interact, because

F(1,14)=203.8, p<0.001, σ2=0.951, the

interaction between them is significant.

Table 6.

Average and standard deviation of emotional arousal score

Mean value (M) Standard deviation (SD) Number

High extraversion rapid music 7.7968 0.89369 16

High extraversion slow music 4.1538 0.66388 16

High neurotic fast music 4.7968 0.89369 16




Figure 5


Average and standard deviation of emotional arousal score

High extraversion ra pid music High extraversion sl

ow music High neurotic fast m

usic High neurotic slow m

usic 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8



ard devi




n val


Mean value

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Table 7.

Analysis of variance of personality types and music speed repeated measurements

on emotional arousal scores

Value F Sig Partial eta squared

Personality type 0.004 0.055 0.847 0.004

0.998 0.055 0.847 0.004

Music speed 0.329 6.061 0.031 0.329

0.693 6.061 0.031 0.329

Personality type 0.951 203.8 0 0.951

Music speed 0.071 203.8 0 0.951

Figure 6


Interaction between personality

type and music speed in emotional


Quick tune Slow tune

4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0




l arous




Curvature speed Personality type 2

Personality type 1

Further simple effect analysis showed that on the personality level, the emotional arousal score of high extroversion subjects in fast music was significantly higher than that of slow music, and the emotional arousal score of high neuroticism subjects in slow music was significantly higher than that of fast music. In the aspect of melody speed, the emotional arousal score of high extroversion subjects was significantly higher than that of high neuroticism subjects, and the emotional arousal score of high

neuroticism subjects was significantly higher than that of high extroversion subjects. The interaction between personality type and music speed in emotional awareness is shown in Figure 6.


The university stage is an important period for the development of personality and the formation of outlook on life. The mental health of college students has attracted more and more attention from the society. Psychological problems are also the focus of the society. Studying college students' emotional regulation can help college students choose appropriate music, better play the role of music in emotional regulation in their daily learning and life, alleviate psychological pressure, and further promote and promote the development of College Students' mental health. The speed of music has a significant impact on college students' emotions, but the main effect of mode on College Students' emotions is not significant. Slow music tends to induce college students' negative emotions such as sadness, sadness, pain, irritability and resentment; fast music mostly leads to college students' positive



emotions such as pleasure and excitement. The influence of music speed and mode on College Students' emotions is very significant. The difference of speed between the two levels in mode is significant, especially in major. But the difference of mode is very significant only at the slow level, but not at the fast level.


Ayranci, E., & Çolakoğ lu, N. (2014). An empirical study on the nexus between the emotional intelligence of top managers and their

assessment of intellectual capital. Quality &

Quantity, 48(4), 2023-2052.

Geng, L., & Li, X. (2018). An empirical study on the relationship between consumption emotions

and brand loyalty. Chinese Journal of

Communication, 11(3), 1-22.

Hagenauer, G., Hascher, T., & Volet, S. E. (2015). Teacher emotions in the classroom: associations

with students’ engagement, classroom discipline

and the interpersonal teacher-student

relationship. European Journal of Psychology of

Education, 30(4), 385-403.

Liu, X. Y., Sun, R., & Wan, W. H. (2013). An empirical research on employees' emotions influence

factors. Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(15),


Luomala, H. T., Kumar, R., Singh, J. D., & Jaakkola, M. (2015). When an intercultural business negotiation fails: comparing the emotions and

behavioural tendencies of individualistic and

collectivistic negotiators. Group Decision and

Negotiation, 24(3), 537-561.

Martensen, A., & Grønholdt, L. (2016). The effect of received word-of-mouth on consumer emotions and choice: findings from a service industry. International Journal of Quality & Service Sciences, 8(3), 298-314.

Merino, P. J., Fernandez Molina, M., Munoz-Organero, M., & Delgado Kloos, C. (2014). Motivation and emotions in competition systems

for education: an empirical study. IEEE

Transactions on Education, 57(3), 182-187. Sullivan, A. L., & Sadeh, S. (2016). Does the empirical

literature inform prevention of dropout among students with emotional disturbance? a

systematic review and call to action.

Exceptionality, 24(4), 1-12.

Unger, A., Papastamatelou, J., Okan, E. Y., & Aytas, S. (2014). How the economic situation moderates the influence of available money on compulsive buying of students - a comparative study

between turkey and greece. Journal of

Behavioral Addictions, 3(3), 173-181.

Wang, L., & Murnighan, J. K. (2014). Money, emotions, and ethics across individuals and

countries. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1),


Wu, H. C., & Li, T. (2015). An empirical study of the effects of service quality, visitor satisfaction, and emotions on behavioral intentions of visitors to

the museums of macau. Journal of Quality