Texto completo

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U N I V E R S I D A D A U T O N O M A D E N U E V O L E O N Secretaría A c a d é m i c a

Texto

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e>f2.o - 4 o fféo

U 5 3 o

V. S

1 0 2 0 1 2 4 5 1 0

I n g l é s

I

w a s

developed

in a

project sponsored by

S e c r e t a r í a A c a d é m i c a

of The

U n i v e r s i d a d

Autónoma de Nuevo León

The material was written by the members of the English

Committee: Evaristo Munguía Panti

Rubén Cepeda Montes

Sara Alicia Ancira Aréchiga

María de Jesús Puente Grunerht

Laura Esthela García Alvarez

And the participation of Chistopher Morris

(4)

C O N T E N T S

Unit 1

C u r r e n t I s s u e s : E n v i r o n m e n t a n d C o m p u t e r s

C l e a r i n g i t u p

Verb to be

Page

T i m e t o r e a d !

Environment 3

Acid Rain 6

History of Computation 9

The Success of the PC 1 2

S k i l l : Definitions 14

16

Verbs in present tense 1 8

Words

at

w o r k

Numbers Prefixes: m i s

u n _

Suffix:

_er

Unit 2

W o n d e r s : N a t u r a l a n d M a n - m a d e

20

25 27

28

T i m e t o r e a d !

The River Nile Niagara Falls

Taj Mahal at Agra, India United Nations Headquarters

Skill:

Identifying class and class members 41

C l e a r i n g i t u p

There i s / a r e 4 4

Words a t w o r k

Prefixes: in_, u n _ , i r _ , il_, d i s _ 46

Prepositions: in, o n or a t 4®

Hi

(5)

F a m o u s people

Unit 4

T i m e to read!

5 6

Arnold Schwarzenegger Julia Roberts

69

Skill:

Exemplification

Clearing it up

7 2

Comparatives and superlatives

Words at work

7 7

Prefix n o n _ 7 8

Vocabulary

S c i e n c e w o r l d

T i m e t o read!

8 3

Chemical Elements 8 6

Genetics Q 1

Light and Radiation

93

Skill: Guessing

m e a n i n g

from context

Clearing it u p

9 5

Passive voice

Words at work

Prefixes

ex_, re_

— - 1 0 2 99

prepositions

?•-H e a l t h C a r e

T i m e to read!

Test Your Fitness Level 1 0 7

Managing Stress 1 1 1

Tell Us What You Think 1 1 6

Vitamins And Minerals 1 2 2

Skill: Skimming-Scanning

125

Clearing it

up

Can, Could 1 2 7

Question Words 1 3 0

Words at work

Prefixes o v e r - , u n d e r - 1 3 2

Parts of the body 1 3 3

Sports 1 3 4

Unit 6

J o b s

T i m e t o read!

Parents' ruling on job irks teen-agers 136

Children who work 1 3 8

Marketplace 1 4 2

Dallas News Classifieds 1 4 5

Skill: Identifying The Main Idea

146

Clearing it up

Must

Will

147

Should 1 4 9

154

Going to 1 5 8

Words at work

Suffixes _ o r , _ e r - 1 6 0

(6)

Unit 7

Natural phenomena

T i m e t o r e a d !

The Changing Face of the Earth Old Faithful

Copper Canyon

Skill: Connectors •

Clearing i t u p

Simple Past

Words at

w o r k

suffixes _ e n c e , _ a n c e . j t y , _ n e s s , _ m e n t

Past of irregular verbs

Unit 8

Marketing

T i m e t o read!

Advertising and the Marketing Mix Products

The New York Hotel Guides

Skill: Main Idea. Topic Sentence

Clearing i t up

Imperative

Words at work

Likes and Dislikes Suffixes (Review)

Acknowledgements

Adapted from

p. 3 Crowell, Thomas and Gerald O. Barney

The Unfinished Agenda

p. 6 Rycroft Robert W., Regeus James L.

The acid rain controversy University of

Pittsburgh Press. 1988, p. 3.

p. 9 . Awad, Elias Business Data Processing.

Prentice-Hall, Inc.

p. 25 South Western Bell. White and Yellow Pages March 1991-1992, Laredo-Encinal, Tx.

p. 27 Thomas, B. J. Elementary Vocabulary.

Nelson.

p. 56 Current Biography . October 1991.

p. 61 Current Biography .July 1991.

p. 69 Current Biography. May 1991.

p. 75 Current Biography. October 1991.

p. 89 Kerrod, Robin. Book of Science.

Simon & Schuster

p. 92 : Idem,

p. 95 Idem,

p. 97 Idem,

p. 99 Idem,

p. 101 Idem,

p. 102 Idem.

(7)

p 116 The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1993.

Pharos Books.

p. 117-118 Getchell, Bud ei_al Ibid.

p 122 Glamour. December 1993

p 124 Glamour. February 1994.

pp. 125.-126 Newsweek. June 7, 1993.

pp. 128-129 Ibidem,

p 132 Shape. May 1993

p. 142 The Dallas Morning News . Febrauary 24, 1994.

p. 1 4 4 Lianas, Angela, Libby Williams. Adventures S r ^ e n r Boo/: 2

Millan.

p. 146 El Norte. Diciembre 1993

p. 148 The Washington Post Weekly. November 15-21, 1993.

p. 151 The Dallas Morning News . February 1994.

p. 152 Newsweek. October 25, 1993.

p. 154 Reader's Digest. August, 1992.

p. 158 The Dallas Morning News . January 31, 1994.

p. 173 Davies, Peter. Ed. Dictionary of The English language .

Dell Publishing Co. Inc.

p. 175 Dawson, Mildred A. et al. Language for Daily Use

World Book Company.

p. 180 Mexico Travel Guide. American Automobil Association.

p. 181 Ibidem.

p. 183 Newsweek, April 3, 1992.

p. 191 Newsweek, April 13, 1992.

p. 192. Woman's Day, July 16, 1991.

p. 193 Hore, Norman and Margaret, English Right from the Start. Coursebook

2 Penguin.

p. 194 Ibidem.

p. 202 Newsweek, July 19, 1993. January 7 & 24, 1994; February 8, 1994.

Photos / Drawings

p. 3 New World Journal. Editorial of

Business offices.

p. 6 Bramwell, Martin. Book of Planet Earth.

Ed. Simon & Schuster.

p. 30 Atlas of the World. Newsweek edition.

p. 53 Current Biography, May and October 1991.

p. 54 Current Biography, July 1991.

p. 85 Watcyn-Jones, Peter. Test your

(8)

p 8 6 Wright, Andrew. 1000 Pictures for Teachers

to Copy. Collins.

p. 106 Kerrod, Robin. Book of Science.

Simon & Schuster.

109 Watcyn-Jones Peter, Jake Alsop.

T e s t your Prepositions. Penguin.

p. i H Wright, Andrew. 1000 Pictures for Teachers to Copy. Collins

p.12o • Getchell, Bud et al. Health. Hougthon Mifflin.

p.138 Harmer, Jeremy and Richard Rossner. More r t o Words. Longman.

p. 139 Wright, Andrew Ibid.

p. 141 Ibidem.

p. 149 Express (Prom ad).

p. 157 The Dallas Morning News . January 31, 1994. . .. .

p. 161 El Norte. Febrero 6, 1994. '

p. 162 The Dallas Morning News. Ibid.

p. 165 Harmer, Jeremy and Richard Rossner. Ibid.

p. 166 The Dallas Morning News. Ibid.

P. 168 Wright, Andrew. Ibid.

p. 177 Ibidem.

1 7 7 The National Council of Teachers of EngUsh. Teachers Edition. Book

Two. The World we Live In. Mc Graw Hill.

p. 182 English Around the World. Scott Foresman & Co. Dallas, TX. USA.

p. 193 Hore, Norman and Margaret. English Write From the Start. Coui^e Book 2. Penguin.

p. 194

p. 219

Ibidem.

Wright, Andrew Ibid.

(9)

P r e s e n t a t i o n

T h i s course contains materials to help you mantain progress in your language learning, and to

are a lot of practical activities in wh.ch understanding written English is a necessity, and

perhaps you have already had experience of some of them.

For example:

1 Understanding the instructions of modem video-games, such as: S u p e r - N i n t e n d o , S e g a - G e n e s i s , pocket games, etc.

2 Understanding manuals of PC Programs.

3 Understanding instructions to install and use imported articles.

4 Reading the labels on imported products.

5 Understanding songs.

only in this language.

XII

Current Issues: Environment and Computer

T i m e t o read! ^

Which picture do you like best? Why?.

Work with 5 other students.

Can you find a link between these pictures?

Can you work out a short story?

(10)

Choose a title for each drawing. ^ fe g p a r t Qf ^ e c o s y s t e m. A) Man needs food. irreversible consequences.

B) Extraction of material from the Earth's crust. E) Irreversible cons q

C) Environment is a complex mixture of factors.

I / L

ENERGY l J J i i M

Pesticides do not break down easily and are very soluble in fat. Once in the waterthey are absorbedIonaatenl*tiny miaS^ariOTS and then make thar way up the food chain. At each step up the chan the concentration of the toxc chemical increases.

Environment

The environment is a complex mixture of factors which interact constantly with each other. Man needs food. Raising food requires energy Energy production utilizes materials from the Earth's crust. The extraction of these materials demands energy, and all of these activities depend upon the labor and ingenuity of people who need food.

So, when anyone of the factors in the environment is altered, either intentionally or accidentally, the repercussions are felt in the entire system. The human population, an integral component of the ecosystem, influences and ultimately is affected by these alterations. The environmental actions that man decides to take will affect everyone, and ill-considered changes may have irreversible consequences.

(11)

T a s k 1 l_1 .

According to the text, write T or F (True or False) in the blank.

1 The environment is formed by one factor.

2 Energy production requires materials from the surface of the Earth.

3 The human population is not part of the ecosystem. _ _

4 Ecosystem alterations affect the human population. _ _

5 Changes may have unwanted results.

Task 2 a

Fill in the blanks, use words from the box.

1

2

3

4

5

The environment is a Raising food requires

Energy production utilizes

mixture of factors.

from the Earth's crust.

of materials demands energy.

Changes may have irreversible

results, complicated, resources, mining, power

r ^ w L in the text that mean about the same as those in the box. Write them i

the spaces:

O Choose a "green* topic.

M a k e

a campaign poster for your school.

T i m e t o read!

> ' / / .

(2)

Normal Rain

(12)

hM Bmiri

Acid rain is .one of the

most controversial

environmental problems in modern industrial society.

Burning fossil fuels has

released vast quantities of

pollutants into the

atmosphere. These pollutants

often form acidic compounds

that frequently travel long

distances before returning to

the Earth's surface as rain or

snow, as well as in dry form.

While the substances

that produce acid rain also

occur naturally, it is the

man-made contributions that have

transformed acid rain into an

environmental problem of

potentially global proportions.

ACID RAIN

BURNING OF

FOSSIL FUELS

FORESTS

ATMOSPHERE

T a s k 1

Underline the correct answer:

An example of fossil fuel is:

Alcohol T.N.T. Gasolin*

Pollutants often return to the Earth's surface as: p

Rain Aerolites Clean

'

Cities that produce more pollutants are: '

Cancun and Mexico City Palenque Puerto Escondido and Monterrey and Oaxaca

Acid rain may occur naturally as an effect of:

the sun the moon volcanic activity

T a s k 2

(13)

a Work in groups. Talk about these questions.

A) How are you, your family, and your community affected by acid rain?

B) List at least three things that can be done about acid rain.

T i m e t o read!

Work in teams.

The title of the text is "The History of Computation.- Before you read the text, work in

groups and note down 4 points you think will be included in the art.cle.

in the text, underline the words you know because they are similar in Spanish. Do

not underline the same word twice.

I have a total of words.

Check with members of your team who underlined most, to increase your list.

Compare the total words of your team with the other teams.

H i s t o r y ©f O o r n p u t a i t o i n

Automatic computation began in 1812 with Charles G. Babbage, an English mathematician who mastered the basic fundamentals of digital computers. His ideas were not appreciated until the last decade of that century. The major contribution of Babbage was the "difference-engine." In 1812, while looking a logarithm table full of mistakes, he began to think in terms of a machine capable of computing mathematical tables. However, Babbage took more time than anticipated to complete hjs model, as he became interested in a new idea. In 1833, while the "difference-engine" was Suspended for a year, Babbage conceived the idea of building an analytical engine which v#ould be capable of performing any calculation. Unfortunately, Babbage died in 1871 wit# his job unfinished.

4

More than a hundred years p^ssed^efore another machine similar to the one visualized by Babbage was developed. In 1937, |j|pfessor Howard G. Aiken, a physicist at Harvard University, developed some ideas involving mechanical calculations. Aiken worked with Harvard University and IBM, and s e v & years later (May 1944) an automatic sequence-controlled calculator was put into service, h

Task 1

Match both columns relating events and years.

1833 (

)

1 The first automatic sequence-controlled calculator was

put into service.

1937 (

)

2 Babbage died with the analytical engine unfinished.

1877 (

)

3 The "difference-engine" project was suspended.

1944 (

)

4 Professor Howard G. Aiken developed some ideas

(14)

Write the information in T a s k 1 in chronological order.

B)

C)

D)

« t h e following questions and compare your answers with the answers of the

ier men

YES

ibers

NO

jf your team.

NOT SURE

Have you ever played Atari, Nintendo or any

other videogame?

is there anv relation between videogames and

• computers?

o

Is it important to be good at mathematics to

study computing?

• • •

Would you like to study computing after you finish High School?

• • •

Do computer engineers enjoy their job as much as boys enjoy videogames?

J — i n

• If your father asks you to study computing at the university, what will

your response be? Write it in 3 lines.

T i m e t o read!

(4)

Work in small groups.

The text is titled "The Success of the PC". Before you read the text, work in groups

and write down three reasons why you think the personal computer has been so successful.

In the text, underline the words you know because they are similar in Spanish. Do not underline the same word twice.

I have a total of words.

(15)

Tlh)@ §iui©©@©© ©if fth® [P©

1) Since the 1980's, personal computers have become common tools on the job, in schools and at home. They permit their users to perform a tremendous variety of tasks more efficiently than they could previously be performed. These personal

computers are changing the way we think, work, and learn. To help you appreciate the 5) popularity of personal computers, let me cite a single statistic. By 1984, less than a

decade after the invention of the first personal computer, more than 60 percent of all office workers had access to one.

In 1981, IBM introduced its first model into the personal computer market. The original IBM PC has enjoyed extraordinary popularity and is in use in millions of homes, 10) schools and businesses. IBM has responded to the success of its PC by introducing a

complete line of personal computers, varying in accessories, computing power and, of course, price. In the last few years, more than 100 personal computers have appeared on the market All, to some degree, are IBM clones. These clones are compatible with the IBM machines in the sense that they can run programs for IBM computers.

Task 1

Which line(s) tell(s) us about:

The efficiency of personal computers.

Statistical data with a percentage.

The popularity of the PC.

The introduction of IBM into the PC market.

The compatibility of the IBM clones. x

*

T a s k 2

Class survey.

Complete the questionnaire below. Work in small groups and put together your opinions to find out the groups' preferences.

PERSONAL Q UESTIONNAIR E

DO YOU WANT...?

1.- Asuper-nintendo in your room.

YES

NO

DONT MIND.

2.- To own a

PC.

3.- To use a

PC. — |

T a s k 3

According to the text, tick ( • ) the appropriate box:

YES NO

• • •

PCs help in terms of efficiency.

PCs are not very well accepted by users.

PCs help in business.

I B M has responded in the PC market.

O Discuss in pairs.

(16)

S k i l l : Definitions

T a s k 1

Read the words in the box and the definitions. Then match.

Environment ecosystem Organisms

Earth Food Water

D E F I N I T I O N S

_is the liquid that constitutes rain, oceans, rivers

and lakes.

2 An is a community of various organisms that inhabit

an environment.

3 are living bodies made up of interdependant

parts, such as cells, tissues and organs.

4 The is the planet on which we live.

5 is anything that animals or people eat or drink.

T a s k 2

There are a lot of people working

in different companies. Nowadays, almost all these

companies have a computer. Match each part of the computer

with its definition, and write the appropriate number in the

parenthesis.Then, write the correct form of the verb to be on

the line. Follow the example.

Z.

7¡¡¡¡

c

é

\

v. /

A computer ( 4 ) 1 registration fields where specific nature data are stored.

a device that prints, especially one operated by a computer.

Hardware ( ) 2 _

Software ( ) 3 the mechanical parts of a computer.

A floppy disk ( ) 4 g a machine which computes, especially an electronic machine, that either solves problems when given certain data, or stores information.

Files ( ) 5.

A keyboard ( ) 6.

_the program for a computer system.

A screen

A printer

( ) 7.

( ) 8.

_a flexible plastic disk with a magnetic surface used for computer data storage.

_the surface on which stored data is displayed.

(17)

T a s k 3

Work in small groups. Choose the correct verb form for 1 and 2.

Complete the definition in 3-8. Use previous texts or encyclopaedias to find the

information you need.

1 Waste is / are the same as garbage.

2 Pollutants is / are harmful to living organisms.

3 D.D.T. •

4 The ozone layer •

5 Rain forests •

6 Erosion •

7 Deforestation •

8 Humans •

Clearing i t u p

The verb to be is irregular.

T a s k l a

Read the following forms of to be.

I am a student. He Is a dentist She is my sister. It Is green. We are soldiers. You are Mexican. They are learners.

I am not a teacher. He Is not a technician. She Is not my aunt. It is not red. We are not sailors. You are not American. They are not experts.

Are you a doctor? Is he an engineer? Is she pretty? Is It a tree?

Are we classmates? Are you ecologists? Are they correct?

T a s k l b

Answer these questions in pairs.

What are the forms of b e for I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they?

Is the position of am, is, are, the same in the interrogative as in the affirmative?

T a s k 2 C o m p l e t e this t a b l e correct ( X ) Incorrect

A M I S A R E 1.- H e X

X a popular s t u d e n t 2.- 1

1 5 y e a r s old 3.- T h e y

t e a c h e r s 4 . - English

interesting 5.- M y h o m e w o r k

correct 6.- Peter

in his c l a s s r o o m 7.- It

a good i d e a 8.- T h e c o m p u t e r s

turned off 9.- T h e lab

o p e n 1 0 . - T h e Instructions

clear

T a s k 3

Use the affirmative, negative or interrogative form of the verb be to complete the sentences. 1 Italy and Spain Latin American countries.

2 she your sister?

3 Cake and steak vegetables.

4 "El Norte" and "El Porvenir" newspapers.

5 Mathematics and History sports.

6 Man changing his environment everyday.

7 Plants useful.

8 A Chevrolet a computer.

9 they Peter and Jenny?

(18)

Read the following sentences.

I like heavy metal.

You p l a y guitar very well. They l i v e in Toronto. We collect miniatures. Teachers l o v e books Tim and I play billiards

Susan HkesTom Cruise.

Peter works at Mc Donalds.

My cat eats a lot.

Julia Roberts loves cats.

The school team plays today.

The game begins at 4:30.

What's the difference between the verbs of the first column and the verbs of the second?

Task 4a

W e u s e v e r b -»• s w i t h . . .?

1 Vou Ho

m n n

She

m

It We Vou They

r r r~i n r n

Add e s t o the verbs that end with s, ch, sh, x, o, z. John / watches / football matches.

Paul / washes / his clothes the weekend. She / g o e s / to clean the office.

It / waxes / the car in two minutes.

Task 4b

Complete with the appropriate form of: go, live, like, collect, love, finish.

Martin who is seventeen w A l k ^ to Vicky. Vicky J n Canada and she is eighteen years old. Martin and Vicky in classical music

and Martin is very good at the piano. He also stamps from all over the world. Vicky is good in languages and she

traveling very much. She to Europe every year during the summer. Vicky and Martin Senior High School in June.

To have is an irregular verb too.

Look!

My parents have a new car. It has four speeds. My brother has an old car. I

have my own car too. My sister does not have a car. My father has the car in

the garage. My brother and I have the car in the garage too.

W e u s e h a s w i t h . . .?

1 V o u • H e S h e It W e Y o u T h e y

• • • •

• •

in the affirmative

negative

interrogative |_J

T a s k 5

Fill in the blank with the appropriate form oi have

1 Most cities smog problems.

2 Our library books about the environment.

3 She a beautiful dog called "Lobo".

4 Rural areas clean air.

5 Rivers pollution problems too.

6 Because of acid rain, we more health problems.

7 Large cities â lot of smog.

8 People must more green plants at home.

9 We a large collection of "Queen" music.

(19)

Words a t w o r k

T a s k 1

Write the missing words.

o zero 6 six 12 twelve 18 4 0 forty 70 1 one 58 '»• seven 13 thirteen 19 4 3 76 seventy-six

101

one-hundred ana one HO

2

two 8 eight 14 fourteen £ 0 twenty 50 80 eighty 119 3 three 9 nine 15 fifteen 21 54 fifty-four 87

200

4 four lO ten 16 sixteen 3 0 thirty 60 9 0

2 1 8

5 five 11 eleven 17 seventeen 32 65 sixty-five lOO • I one- hundred 300 . three-hundred

317 4 0 0 416 500

T a s k 2

Write the missing ordinal numbers.

(20)

Task 8 a

Write the word of the next number in the sequence:

1 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 , 4 0 ,

2 1 0 0 , 9 8 , 9 7 , 9 6 ,

3 1 1 , 2 2 , 3 3 , 4 4 ,

4 6 , 1 2 , 1 8 , 2 4 ,

5 48, 51, 54, 57,

6

39, 49, 59, 69,

7 60, 65, 70, 75,

8 88, 85, 82, 79,

9 2 9 , 2 4 , 1 9 , 1 4 ,

1 0 53, 43, 33, 23,

T a s k 3 b

Write the

words

of the next numbers in the sequence.

2nd, 4th, 6th,.

15th, 14th, 13th,_

33rd, 32nd, 31st,.

5th, 10th, 15th,

10th, 1st, 9th,

43rd, 33rd, 23rd,.

5th, 4th, 3rd,

11th, 9th, 7th,

1st, 2nd, 3rd,

4th, 2nd, 8th,

eighth tentk

T a s k 4 a

Listen to and circle the numbers that you hear.

1 7 , 1 0 , 2 2 , 4 4 , 5 0

2 4 , 2 0 , 1 3 , 3 0 , 4 0

3 2, 7 , 1 2 , 1 5 , 6 0

4 8 , 1 8 , 2 8 , 3 8 , 4 8

5 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 9

6 20, 25, 27, 29, 30

7 40, 43, 46, 48, 50

8 5 1 , 5 3 , 5 6 , 5 9 , 6 0

9 62, 64, 65, 67, 69

1 0 78, 80, 83, 90, 99

T o t a l

Add up the numbers you circled. What is the total?

Task 4 b

Tick ( • ) the number you hear. Then, write the word for the number.

13 30

12 20

60 16

50 lt>

14 40

70 17

19 90.

(21)

Task §

Write these sentences using numbers.

1 He paid one hundred and fifty dollars. J!e paid S /50.00

2 My phone number is three, two, five, oh, double-six,eight.

3 In nineteen thirty-seven, Professor Howard developed some ideas

about mechanical calculations.

4 Automatic computation began in eighteen twelve.

5 Tulum is situated one hundred twenty-nine kilometers to the south of

Cancun.

6 One centimeter is zero point three nine three seven inches.

T a s k 6

Complete the paragraph with appropriate verbs from the list, making sure to put them in their correct form.

d r e s s p a c k l o c k d o

w r a p

I enjoy traveling for a holiday, but the best part is coming home again. I get home. I (1) the door of my apartment. I put my suitcase on the floor and start to (2)

it. I take out the things I bought on holiday, I carefully (3) them, look at them, and put them on the table. I feel tired, but very happy. I go into the bedroom. I

(4) my blazer and shoes. I take them off. I (5) and I have a

bath.I relax. Home Sweet Home!

Task 7

Use the dictionary to check the meaning of these words, they can all have the prefix "mis-". Add this to the words

spell play

step hear pronounced interpret

treat Us e .

advise understand

_ Now check the meaning of the words again.

..What is the meaning of the prefix "mis-"?

(22)

Task 8

W o r k i n pairs:

look it up!

(task on page 27)

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Computer-land's address is 4500 San Bernardo. What is the telephone number?

The telephone number of Castillo Compu-Tech, Inc. is 726-4224 or 726-4942.

What is the address?

Find the addresses and telephone numbers of the other businesses, noted in the address book.

ADDRESS BOOK

N a m e Address Telephone

Computerland 4500 San Ißernardo

Castillo Compu-Tech

11 flll.'l iti.1i m-i-ri-mi ii.n'mi SÀ&J 726-4224 726-4942

Pro-Gomp

Word a ta

C<Qfë Computers

Computers plus

Southwest Computer Center

business information System

% CS Computers

Tech Mart Computers

See text on page 9

Two words with the prefix "un~"appear in the text.

What are they?

What effect does the prefix have on the meaning of the worxJ? This prefix is used to make a word:

positive

negative

(23)

Task

The suffix " - e r" c h a n g e s verbs into nouns that mean "a person who..."

Example: A person who sings is a U m & i

works

writes

speaks

runs

r e a d s

Check your dictionary for spelling changes.

Words like these are often used to form noun compounds. "A taxidriver" is someone who drives a taxi.

A person who plays basketball is a: _

A person who teaches English is an:

A person who drives a truck is a:

A person who writes scripts is a:

A person who produces movies is a:

T i m e t o read! ^

Let's talk about records:

What is the biggest living animal on Earth? What is the name of the tallest tree on Earth?

What is the longest river in the world?

Now, what do you know about the Nile?

What continent is it in?

What culture is usually associated with it?

What country is the Nite mostly associated with?

Before reading the text, the "River Nile", tick ( • ) what you think the article will be about.

• History of the egyptian culture.

• Geographical description.

• Importance to the judeo-christian religion.

In the text, underline the words you know because they are similar in Spanish. Do

not underline the same word twice.

I have a total of words

Check with members of your team who underlined more and increase your list.

(24)

Task

The suffix " - e r" c h a n g e s verbs into nouns that mean "a person who..."

Example: A person who sings is a U m & i

works

writes

speaks

runs

r e a d s

Check your dictionary for spelling changes.

Words like these are often used to form noun compounds. "A taxidriver" is someone who drives a taxi.

A person who plays basketball is a: _

A person who teaches English is an:

A person who drives a truck is a:

A person who writes scripts is a:

A person who produces movies is a:

T i m e t o read! ^

Let's talk about records:

What is the biggest living animal on Earth? What is the name of the tallest tree on Earth?

What is the longest river in the world?

Now, what do you know about the Nile?

What continent is it in?

What culture is usually associated with it?

What country is the Nite mostly associated with?

Before reading the text, the "River Nile", tick ( • ) what you think the article will be about.

• History of the egyptian culture.

• Geographical description.

• Importance to the judeo-christian religion.

In the text, underline the words you know because they are similar in Spanish. Do

not underline the same word twice.

I have a total of words

Check with members of your team who underlined more and increase your list.

(25)

The River Nile

The world's longest river, the Nile, traverses 35 degrees of latitude in eastern Africa, from below the equator northward to the Mediterranean Sea. Measured from the source ot its remote headstream, its length is about 6600 kms. The Nile system gathers its waters from nine countries: Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Zaire, the Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt all share its basin of some 2,978 sq km.

The source of the Nile is in the highlands of southern Burundi. From there, the Ruvironza river flows northward to become the Ruvubu. This river is joined by the Nyabarongo, which has tributaries from the southern side of the Virunga range in Rwanda Together, they form the largest stream flowing into Lake Victoria, called the Kagera River, which enters Uganda from Tanzania. The distance along the Kagera-Ruvubu system is more than 800 km.

From Aswan northward to Cairo, the Nile irrigates Upper Egypt. For these 960 km it flows between steep, rockwalled desert cliffs, and human settlement is virtually confined to the floodplain.

Although downstream from Aswan the river is no longer a natural system, bu. one controlled by human beings, the words of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus are true today: "Egypt is the gift of the Nile."

T a s k 1

On the map, darken the surface of countries where the Nile River passes through.

T a s k 2 a

Find words in the text that mean more or less the same as these and write them on the lines.

oriental

origin

affluents

old

Grecian

T a s k 2b

Fill in the blanks with the words you wrote in task 2a.

The River Nile is in the region of Africa.

The ^culture in Egypt developed along the Nile.

Many important , make the River Nile the longest river in the world.

The Nile has its in Burundi.

Herodotus was .

• • • ï \

(26)

T i m e t o read!

(2

)

Do you know where these waterfalls are?

Iguazu

Salto del Angel

Niagara

Cola de Caballo

Tzararacua

Victoria

What differences are there between the Niagara Falls and the Cola de Caballo?

Work in small groups.

In the text NlagaraFalls, underline the words you know because they are similar

in Spanish. Do not underline the same word twice.

I have a total of words

Check with members of your team who underlined more and increase your

list. Compare the total words of your team with other teams.

Niagara Falls

This natural wonder consists of two waterfalls on the border between

the United States and Canada, and lies between the cities of Niagara Falls, N Y

and Niagara Falls, Ontario. The spectacular beauty of these waterfalls makes

them a major tourist attraction in North America.

The falls, whose name come from the Neutre Indians and means

"thundering,water," are located at about the midpoint of the Niagara River

which separates the United States and Canada.

The total volume of water of the river varies with the seasons (more in

summer and less in winter) but averages about 6,000 cubic meters per second.

Of this, 2,830 cubic meters per second are allowed to flow over the falls

during daylight hours of the tourist season and half that amount at other times.

The rest is diverted for the production on hydroelectric power. The flow is

regulated by an elaborated control system completed in 1963.

T a s k 1

Underline the best answer, according to the text.

The Niagara River is located in

North America The USA Canada

The origin of the word "Niagara" is

French Canadian English Native American

The quantity of water in the Niagara River is higher in

January December July

The term "Thundering Water" means that the water

runs flows roars

Part of the water is used for the production of

(27)

T a s k 2

Complete the table with information from the text.

Number of waterfalls forming the "Niagara Falls."

Average cubic meters per second of water that flows over the Niagara Falls.

Number of cubic meters per second allowed to flow over the falls

during daylight hours in July.

An elaborate control system was completed this year.

T a s k 3

Answer Yes or No.

YES NO

• •

1 The flow has no variation in quantity all year round at Niagara

Falls.

10

1 Niagara Falls is also a borderline between Canada and the

United States.

i n

1 Ontario is in the United States.

• Working in pairs, investigate about falls near the region where you live.

Write a short description of it.

T i m e t o read!

(3)

What do we celebrate on February 14th?

Why are love and death related in "Romeo and Juliet"?

Do you know how love and death are linked to the "Taj Mahal"?

In the text, underline the words you know because they are similar in Spanish. Do not underline the same word twice.

I have a total of words

Check with members of your team who underlined more and increase your list.

Compare the total words of your team with other teams.

The Taj Mahal at Agra, India

1 When the Mohammedan invaders from Persia (called Mongols) invaded India

in the 16th century, they carried many ideas with them that resulted in the construction of the incredible work of art called Taj Mahal. This nearly perfect structure was completed at Agra in the 1600's by Shah Jehan as a tomb for s himself and his wife, who had borne the title "Taj Mahal" ("Crown of the

Palace"). Shah Jehan loved his wife so much that he built this unusual tomb as a symbol of their love. This main construction rises on a walled platform surrounded by an immense park with a long reflecting pool and orderly rows of shrubs and trees. The main dome is shaped like a rose-bud, a style that became a major element of Mohammedan mosques. Four smaller domes cover four sides of the eight-sided structure, but do not support the main dome.

Although the Taj Mahal was constructed late in Mohammedan history, it is a perfect example of Mohammedan style. The Hindus, whose religion

predominates in India, have never erected a religious or historical structure to

1S match the magnificent splendor and classic symetry of this monument

T a s k l

Which line(s) tell(s) about...

an invasion of India.

the meaning of the expression 'Taj Mahal". a technical explanation of the Taj Mahal structure. the most important religion in India.

(28)

T a s k 2

Match the following concepts:

Means "Crown of the Palace."

A place in India.

Invaders of India in the 16th century.

Home country of Mongols.

Creator of Taj Mahal.

Classification of the Taj Mahal construction.

• Which monuments as magnificent as the Taj Mahal are there in Mexico?

What do you know about their history ?

Write a description about one of them for a tourist guide, using the Taj

Mahal as a model.

Mohammedan style( ) 1

Shah J.ehan ( ) 2

Persia ( ) 3

Taj Mahal ( ) 4

Mongols ( ) 5

Agra ( ) 6

A) World War tl 8 ) O ^ a t h C) .' Peace symbols

D) United Nations Flag

E) United Nations Headquarters

Who te the present General Secretary pf the United Nations? There will be a prize for the first right answer!

* ¿¡V - * •

J

-T i m e t o read!

(29)

What was the purpose of creating the United Nations?

Where is the headquarters of the United Nations?

Make a list of any events you know in which the United Nations was involved:

Read the text.

United Nations Headquarters

When the United Nations decided to build a permanent home, as principal architect they choose Wallace Harrison, who was born in the United States in 1895. 150 other architects were also chosen from other nations to design the headquarters. The site for the headquarters was the eastern section of the island of Manhattan in New York City. Land for the "World Capital" was donated by an American millionaire, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. When it was completed in 1950, the United Nations Headquarters had cost about $70,000,000.00 It is made up of four buildings: the Library, General Assembly, Secretariat and Conference buildings. The rest of the 17.5 acre site was converted into a park. The dominant building of the group is the 39-floor glass and marble construction that forms the Secretariat Building. This building houses offices representing all of the nations that participate in the United Nations.

The United Nations objective is peace and welfare throughout the world... But, how

well do you think it has been achieved?

T a s k I - ~ "

Answer Yes or No

YES NO

Manhattan is far from the Atlantic Ocean.

T h e United Nations Headquarters is in New York State.

Wallace Harrison was British.

-T— T h e United Nations Headquarters was completed in the

1980's.

G'ass and marble are materials used in part of the

construction.

Task 2

Complete the questionnaire below.

Which idea is the most important to you? Discuss your answer in pairs.

PERSONAL QUESTIONNAIRE

DO YOU AGREE? YES NO

WHY?

The construction of the U. N. Headquarters was necessary.

The term "World Capital" for the United Nations is appropriate.

(30)

T a s k 8

Find words in the text that mean about the same as these:

To construct Place

Selected Finished

Countries Partake

T a s k 4

V1-: ni ^jJCji* •-• " "

Fill in the blanks using the words you wrote in T a s k 8»

Many countries j n the United Nations.

Architects from severalL _ p a r t i c i p a t e d in designing the

United Nations Headquarters.

The construction was in 1950.

Wallace Harrison w a s _ to build the United Nations

Headquarters.

The selected for the building was New York City.

The countries wanted a permanent home.

• Discuss this in groups.

The UN has been involved in Somalia, Bosnia, Palestine, Haiti, Kuwait

and many other places. Choose one place. Find out as much as you can in

your school library, and write the information your group collects.

Compare with others.

Skill: Identifying Class and Class members

Task 1

Complete the following puzzle with a word which has a more general meaning

than the others. Before starting, look at the example:

1 cat, elephant, lion, dog

2 gold, iron, copper, silver

3 coat, dress, blouse, raincoat

4 parrot, pigeon, eagle, owl

5 doughnut, biscuit, pie, cake

6 smog, acid rain, waste

7 father, mother, son, daughter

8 Nile, Amazon, Suchiate, Usumacinta

9 school, church, house, palace

I 0 salmon, tuna, sardine, trout

I I oak, cedar, mesquit

1 2 motorbike, motorboat, truck, car

1 3 Peter, Joe, Susy, Natalie

1 4 July 23, October 21, November 27, December 8

1 5 rose, tulip, lily, violet

1 6 piano, guitar, trumpet, violin

1 7 coffee, tea, milk, juice

1 8 February, March, June, July

1 9 crocodile, lizard, snake, chameleon

(31)

T a s k 2

Write one name for each of the following groups. Before

example:

1 Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Salvador Dali

2 Madrid, London, New York, Ontario

3 sodium, carbon, calcium, chlorine

4 January, February, August, July

5 gasoline, diesel, oil, alcohol

6 sandwich, nachos, hamburger, hot dogs

7 America, Europe, Africa, Asia

8 1 , 5 , 9 , 1 3

9 in, on, at, under

I 0 sweater, blouse, coat, shirt

I I computer, fax, calculator

1 2 Monday, Sunday, Saturday, Tuesday

1 3 Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Indian

1 4 Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl, Pico de Orizaba

1 5 red, violet, green, orange

1 6 A, B, C, D . . . Z

1 7 History, Chemistry, Biology, Physics

1 8 Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Gloria Stefan

1 9 car, bus, train, helicopter

2 0 spring, summer, autumn, winter

starting, look at the

Circle the word in each list that has a more general meaning than the other words.

Earth

planets

Jupiter

Pluto

apple

banana

fruit

melon

football

baseball

volleyball

sports

teacher

mechanic

jobs

dentist

Task 4 •

Make a list of members of these classes:

Oceans Lakes Rivers

Task 5

U n d e r l i n e the word that is more general than the other three words :

language English German French

telephone radio newspaper means of communication

microwave appliance refrigerator toaster

chair sofa furniture table

feeling hate envy love

blackboard eraser classroom piece of

heart lungs liver organ

color orange black green

in front of beside place behind

and connector but or

(32)

Clearing i t u p

There is - t h e r e are.

Task 1

Practice the dialogue.

Sarah is a teacher. She's just moved into a new apartment. She meets her neighbor Peter for the first time.

Peter: Hello there. My name is Peter. I have the apartment opposite. Sarah: Hi, glad to meet you. I'm Sarah. Are there any restaurants around

here?

Peter: Yes, there are some in the shopping mall, at the end of the street.

Sarah: Oh good. I'm starving, I need some copies too, is there a copy

service?

Peter: Well, I think there's one across from the post office.

Sarah: Thanks Peter.

Peter: By the way, there's a Disco a couple of blocks away.

Sarah: A Disco?...that's great!

Task 2

Now, think about the verb be. Can you work out the negative form of there is, there are?

a, a n , any, s o m e , is, a r e , not

y I

S I N G U L A R P L U R A L

v ; M y v r i è

-A ffirm et ti ve T h e r e —

i. % Y

v ; M y v r i è

-A ffirm et ti ve

fegati f t - T h e r e T h e r e — •

Interrogati if

i 1

t h e r e ? t h e r e • • •

Task 3

Complete these conversations.

Teactser : Excuse me, is an eraser here?

Rpbert : Yes, there . There one on the desk.

Teacher : Thanks a lot.

Teacher : I'm new in the school there a library in this building?

Peter : Yes, there. _two, but they are on the second floor.

T e a c h e r : That's good. Oh Peter, by the way.

theaters near the school?

any

Peter : No,. . But

theater around the corner.

Teacher : Thanks. Oh, what about a bank?

a movie *

Peter : No, one near here, but

some downtown.

(33)

Words at w o r k

T a s k l a . . .¿iiUiibciyvnyo »<?<:

See the text on page 35

Two words with the prefix in , un .appear in the text. What are they?

What effect do the prefixes have on the meaning of the word?

T a s k l b

Underline the prefixes in the following words:

disorder

incapable

impossible

unbelievable

irregular

illegal

Guess the meaning of each prefix.

Think of other words formed with the same prefixes.

These prefixes are used to make a word:

Positive

Negative

T a s k l e

What prefix would you add to each of these words in order to make them negative?

.agree

.predictable

.ability

.organized

.trained

.mortal

.responsible

.familiar

human

.direct

.credible

.patient

.logical

.approve

.covered *

.flexible

.relevant

comfortable

* You can use more than one prefix before this word.

How does the meaning change?

Is each root word a noun or an adjective? Use your dictionary !

T a s k 2

Select the correct word from the following list. Add the correct prefix.

legal honest polite conscious regular

Those boys didn't say "please" or "thank you." They were very

After the accident, he was for 15 minutes.

He always tells lies. He's completely .

The use of drugs is against the law. It's

The bus schedule is very up to one hour.

(34)

the week We use 1 1 for

months seasons years centuries r e

-times of the day

specific periods .iftQSW

Read these sentences:

We use

Beethoven was born in the 18th centui

John Lennon was killed by a madman r 1980.

On March 10,1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

Kids usually wake up at nine o'clock on Saturday.

They usually play soccer on weekends

Complete this table with: i n

Task 8c

Now, complete the tables with: i n o n or a t

Times of the day / Specific periods

five o'clock

seven thirty

midnight

Christmas

Easter

the weekend

Months / Seasons Years / Centuries

February

November

summer

winter

1994

the twenty first century

Days of the week / Dates

Î ' VI

Sunday

Friday

rt^.i:..''

v fV.i1 ITVllI V i ^ - t

September 16th

July 4th

November 24th

i v *•>' -September 16th

July 4th

(35)

Task 3 d

Complete the sentences with: i n , o n or a t .

1 .Sunday, we wake up ten o'clock the morning.

2 The teacher arrived quarter past four _ t h e afternoon *

3 In the USA people play football winter and baseball summer,

4 I often study late night.

5 Oscar usually plays baseball Tuesdays and football Saturdays.

* Look : in the morning, in the evening,

in the afternoon but a l night

Task 4

Make sentences. •

Example:

When is the Mexican Independence Day?

M o a J o u i V y W ^ 3W u ^ gefUmkeA. J6tk

When is Christmas Day?

When is your birthday?

When is Columbus Day?

When does summer begin?

Task 5

Read the text and transfer the information in it to the table.

Of Mexico's eighty-one

million people, sixty percent

are mestizo. This means

they are of

mixed Euopean and native

American descendant.

An additional thirty percent

are of fifty-six

different native

American groups.

Nine percent are white

and only one percent

is black.

— 1

Complete the chart with the correct numbers

Mestizo

Native American groups

White

Black .

30 %

million people Mestizo

Native American groups

White

Black .

?

% 7.29

Mestizo

Native American groups

White

Black .

/ %

Mestizo

Native American groups

White

Black . f— /0

Mexican People 1 0 0 % 81 million people

Mexican People

Yucatan Today The Tourist Guide Vol.6, No. 6

June 15, 1993

(36)

F a m o u s people

The world's most popular movie star is an

Austrian-born ex-body-builder with the

improbable name of Arnold Schwarzenegger.

He made ten films during the 80's,

including"Conan the Barbarian,"

"The Terminator" "Commando" and "Predator."

Julia Roberts is a young, popular actress. She

was born in Georgia, USA. People in many

countries know her because of movies like "Pretty

Woman," "Steel Magnolias," "Sleeping with the

Enemy" "f^i^tnnorc "

(37)

One of the iconoclastic, controversial and

most talked-about American filmakers of

past thirty years, Francis Ford Coppol;

lists among his credits such note-worthy

movies as "The Godfather" (Parts I, II and

III), "The Conversation," "Apocalypse

" "The Cotton Club," "Peggy Sue Got'

and 'Tucker: The Man and his

Dream."

Who's who? Match the columns:

1 Julia Roberts A famous movie director.

2 Arnold Schwarzenegger An American actress known as

"Pretty Woman."

3 Francis Ford Coppola A popular muscleman.

Vocabulary in context.

Match the words with similar meaning.

controversial

popular

young

improbable

note-worthy

- not old

- well-known

- outstanding

- conflictive

- unlikely

Task 1

According to the text about Arnold Schwarzenegger, put the following events into

the order they happened by numbering them 1-7. First scan in the text the years

when the events ocurred, then write them in the corresponding parentheses.

Schwarzenegger received the Simon Wiesenthal Center's National Leadership Award for his support of the organization's Holocaust studies.

He became the youngest man ever to win a Mr. Universe title.

Schwarzenegger made ten films during the 80's. These included

"Conan the Barbarian," 'The Terminator," "Commando" and "Predator."

He appeared in "Hercules goes to New York."

He became chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in the U.S.A.

He arrived in the United States to compete in a Mr. Universe contest.

(38)

luiyJO 1947 Actor, bodybuilder emrepreneu

w r i t e r A d d r e s s : c / o O a k P r o d u c t i o n s . 321

H a m p t o n Dr.. Ste 203. V e n i c e c a n •

Porker Public Relations, 11500 W Olympic

Blvd . Ste 400, Los A n g l e s , Calif yui-o4

NOTE" T h i s b i o g r a p h y s u p e r s e d e s t h e article that a p p e a r e d in C u r r e n t B i o g r a p h y in 19/9

T h e w o r l d ' s most p o p u l a r m o v i e star is an Austri-a n - b o r n e x- b o d y b u . l d e r v. >h t h e i m p r o b a b l e n a m e of A r n o l d S c h w a r z e n e g g e r H i s u n t l a g g . n g toil, u n q u e n c h a b l e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , « n d e n g a g i n g m e d i a - s a v v y personality h a v e e n a b l e d him to e m e r g e f r o m a n o b s c u r e A l p i n e village to b e c o m e t h e most f a m o u s of all m u s c l e m e n (he ^ ^

n o f e w e r t h a n five m a g a z i n e c o v e r s i n ] u n e 1 9 9 0 2 °n P' . T h e first b o d y b u i l d e r to pari a;, his

v e i n - p o p p i n g b i c e p s into n v i a b l f film c a r e e r . S c h w a r z e n e g g e r m a d e ten f i l m s d u r i n g t h e ^ B u s -i n c l u d -i n g C o n a n t h e B a r b a r -i a n . The T e r m i n a t o r , C o m m a n d o , a n d Predator-thai took in a c o m -b i n e d total of m o r e t h a n $1 -billion w o r l d w i d e at t h e box o f f i c e . M o r e r e c e n t l y . Total Recall a n d T e r m i -n a t o r 2' Judgment Day h a v e p r o v e d that t h e S c h w a r z e n e g g e r a p p e a l is as f o r m i d a b l e as ever An a s t u t e b u s i n e s s m a n w h o h a s i n v e s t e d his e a r n -ings in r e a l estate, he h a s a m a s s e d a f o r t u n e esti-m a t e d at $50 esti-million a n d is o n e of the ten w e a l t h i e s t e n t e r t a i n e r s in t h e U n i t e d States.

S c h w a r z e n e g g e r , A r n o l d

3 A r n o l d Alois S c h w a r z e n e g g e r , w h o s e s u r n a m e m e a n s "black p l o w m a n . " w a s b o r n on July 30 947 in Graz, Austria, the y o u n g e r son of Gustav S c h w a r z e n e g g e r a n d A u r e l i a (Jedrny) S c h w a r z e n -egger. His f a t h e r w a s the police chief in Thai, a n e a r b y village w h e r e A r n o l d a n d his > b r o t h e . M e i n h a r d , g r e w u p in p o s t w a r austerity. T h e f a m i -ly did not h a v e i n d o o r p l u m b i n g , a t e l e p h o n e or a r e f r i g e r a t o r until A r n o l d w a s f o u r t e e n . W i t h that kind of u p b r i n g i n g , " h e h a s o b s e r v e d , Y o u j e a r n not to t a k e a n y t h i n g for g r a n t e d . Today n A m e r i c a . " h e c o m m e n t e d in a n ^ t e r v i e w with R i c h a r d Corliss for T i m e ( D e c e m b e r 24 19901 see k i d s c o m f o r t a b l e , getting e v e r y t h i n g they w a n t . . . A n d I realize t h a t stability will n e v e r c r e a t e t h e h u n g e r it takes to go b e y o n d t h e limits w h e r e o t h e r s h a v e b e e n . F o r that, y o u h a v e to b e a little off. S o m e t h i n g h a s to h a p p e n in y o u r child-hood that y o u say. 'I a m going to m a k e u p for this.

4 So respectful of a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s w a s S c h w a r z -enegger that, as a boy, h e "was a l w a y s d r e a m i n g of very p o w e r f u l p e o p l e , d i c t a t o r s a n d t h i n g s like that." After s e e i n g h i s first m o v i e w h e n h e w a s eleven, he b e c a m e " f a s c i n a t e d w i t h A m e r i c a " a n d felt "an urge that (he) w a s m e a n t for s o m e t h i n g big." S u d d e n l y , as h e w r o t e in M e n ' s Fitness (August 1991), he " d e s p i s e d b e i n g in a little c o u n -try. . . . I did not w a n t a n y t h i n g a b o u t m y life to be little. What I w a n t e d w a s to b e part of t h e big cause, the big d r e a m e r s , t h e big s k y s c r a p e r s , t h e

Dig money, the big a c t i o n . E v e r y t h i n g in t h e U n i t e d States was so big. T h a t ' s w h a t I e n j o y a b o u t this country."

5 Figuring that bodybuilding could gain him en-trance into the United States. Schwarzenegger be-came serious about physical culture in his early teens, when he began to lift weights in order to train for the local soccer team. His parents forbade him to spend more than three nights a week in the local gym in a futile attempt to deflect their son from his strange, newfound obsession, but he cir-cumvented their intentions by working out in an unheated room of the house. "When I was fifteen," he recalled in his interview with Nancy Collins. "I had a clear vision of myself being onstage winning the Mr. Universe contest, and I was driven by that thought. It was a very spiritual thing in a way, be-cause I had such faith in the route, the path, that it was never a question, in my mind, that I would make it."

After graduating from secondary school in 1965, Schwarzenegger joined the Austrian army, which served him meat every day. instead of once a week, as his mother had done at home. T h e meat made my body respond tremendously." he told Nancy Collins, "because all of a sudden it got all this protein." After only one month in military service, he won the Junior Mr. Europe title in Stuttgart, Germany. Having gone AWOL to compete, he spent a year in the brig. Although he gradually grew strong enough to bench-press 500 pounds, he eventually abandoned the potentially injurious power lifts in favor of developing all the muscles of his body in perfect harmonious proportion. "I felt like Leonardo da Vinci," he has said. "I was a sculptor shaping the body."

6 T r a i n i n g for five h o u r s a d a y might s e e m ' q u i r e a n e n o r m o u s l y d i s c i p l i n e d c h a r e s S c h w a r z e n e g g e r h a s insisted that it haci n do with discipline. "I loved it," h e h a s sa

c a u s e I k n e w that e v e r y t i m e I w e n t to t h e u w a s o n e s t e p closer to w i n n i n g the c o m p e t i t o r ; D u r i n g a n i n t e r v i e w with ]oan G o o d m a n for Play boy (January 1938), h e said, "I w a s taught that pa n a n d s u f f e r i n g w e r e not o b s t a c l e s you should eve think a b o u t . You just go t h r o u g h t h e m . " His stoic al-titude paid off in 1967, w h e n , at the age of t w e n h he b e c a m e t h e youngest m a n e v e r to win a M: U n i v e r s e title. T h e y e a r b e f o r e h e h a d b e e n n a m e r Mr. E u r o p e , Best-Built M a n of E u r o p e , a n d w i n n e : of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o w e r l i f t i n g C h a m p i o n s h i p

In 1968 S c h w a r z e n e g g e r f u l f i l l e d a n o t h e r of hi' d r e a m s w h e n h e a r r i v e d in t h e U n i t e d Slates to

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