What can I do to improve my 7th grade's reading skills?

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(1)English Pedagogy Faculty of Education English Department. ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT. “What can I do to improve my 7th grade’s reading skills?”. Camila Contreras. This research was implemented to apply for an English Teacher degree. Seminar Teacher: Carlos Verdugo Tutor: Carola Pinto Santiago, Chile 2016.

(2) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Abstract The following investigation in action explores how to improve Reading skills in a seventh grade at Francisco Varela School and at the same time the improvement of my own teaching practice. This project studies the different processes involved in reading, the different skills and strategies that students need to have for reading in a foreign language. To achieve this two interventions are developed which aim to improve the aforementioned issue. The interventions are built based on what the different authors suggest. Key words: Reading skills, reading strategies, teaching strategic reading. Abstract La siguiente investigación-acción explora el cómo mejorar las habilidades de lectura en un séptimo básico en la Escuela Francisco Varela y a la vez la mejora de mi propia práctica. Este proyecto estudia los diferentes procesos involucrados en la lectura, las diferentes habilidades y estrategias que los estudiantes requieren poseer para leer en la lengua extranjera. Para esto se desarrollan dos intervenciones que apuntan a mejorar el problema previamente mencionado. Estas intervenciones están construidas en base a lo que los diferentes autores sugieren. Palabras clave: habilidades de lectura, estrategias de lectura, enseñar lectura estratégica. 2.

(3) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Table of Content Table of Content ..................................................................................................................3 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................5 School Context .....................................................................................................................6 The class ...........................................................................................................................7 Problem ............................................................................................................................8 Question ...........................................................................................................................9 Rationale ............................................................................................................................10 Literature Review...............................................................................................................12 How do we read? ............................................................................................................12 Interactive reading ..........................................................................................................13 Reading in L2 (Second Language) .................................................................................14 Intensive and Extensive reading .....................................................................................14 Teaching reading ............................................................................................................15 Teaching strategic reading. Joy Janzen in Richards and Renandya (2002) ...................17 Strategic reading .........................................................................................................17 Classroom processes in teaching strategic reading.....................................................18 Reading strategies ..........................................................................................................19 Reading skills .................................................................................................................21 Microskills ..................................................................................................................22 Research Methodology ......................................................................................................24 Action Plan .....................................................................................................................25 Diagram ......................................................................................................................26 Data Analysis .....................................................................................................................27 Interview to the language teacher See appendix B: .......................................................27 Checklist applied to seventh grade .................................................................................29 Interventions ...................................................................................................................34 Intervention 2 (See appendix F) .....................................................................................35 Reflection ...........................................................................................................................36 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................39 Implications ....................................................................................................................41 3.

(4) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. References ..........................................................................................................................43 Appendixes ........................................................................................................................44 Appendix A ....................................................................................................................44 Appendix B ....................................................................................................................46 Appendix C ....................................................................................................................47 Appendix D ....................................................................................................................50 Appendix E.....................................................................................................................56 Appendix F .....................................................................................................................57 Appendix G ....................................................................................................................58 Appendix H ....................................................................................................................63. 4.

(5) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Introduction When learning a language a person faces many sources of material, this could be written or oral, nonetheless it is evident that it can be difficult for a learner to understand meanings and ideas that these pieces of information are trying to convey. This issue becomes even more serious when a learner is not quite proficient in the target language. Hence it would be helpful for a learner to acquire strategies that can be used as an aid when facing this issue. The present research is a thorough description of an investigation in action that took place during my practicum in a seventh grade at Francisco Varela School. This process originated from a careful reflection upon an issue that emerged from my teaching practice, specifically, when teaching reading. Here, I explore how can I help these students to improve their reading skills by teaching them a few reading strategies. Furthermore, I explore some other minor changes that can affect their achievement in reading tasks. Consequently, literature that provides reading strategies and defines reading skills is consulted. Also, information to collect students' views regarding reading tasks is collected before the interventions. Once the aforementioned information is collected, it is put into practice as interventions in the classroom where students are taught to use reading strategies and apply them by reading a text. This process is monitored through checklists during and at the end of the process. When a student is learning a language, they always receive input. However, in my teacher role, I assumed that they possess reading strategies. For that reason, it is necessary for improving my practice to clear these assumptions and provide my students the tools to handle pieces of reading, so they can feel more comfortable and prepared to do it.. 5.

(6) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. School Context Francisco Varela is a private school located in Peñalolén. It is mixed-gender and has an average of 24 students per classroom. It receives students from pre-school until 9th Grade which is the older grade that the school has, thus they will be the first generation to graduate from the institution. The classrooms are hexagonal and the seating arrangement depends on the subject and the teacher in charge. During each class, the teacher is accompanied by another assistant teacher called “Pareja Pedagogica” who monitors the development and correct execution of the tasks, helps students with difficulties and assists the teacher with instructions, delivery of materials and classroom management if it is required. The project of school is attained to a Buddhist Philosophy and involves an active participation of the students in the learning process. Students are not required to use textbooks for the classes, thus teachers create authentic material and students use their copybooks to take notes about the lessons. The English department counts with three teachers, plus three trainees from Universidad Alberto Hurtado. Students start with English lessons in first grade. It is worth to mention that the process of Literacy, reading and writing, is not forced. The letters and words are taught during the first years in an implicit way, and from third grade the skills related to writing and reading are explicitly taught. Hence, until second grade, English lessons are based on TPR, drawing, singing and writing isolated words by copying them from the board. Regarding the English assessments, these are project-based; therefore, norm-referenced and summative assessments are made during the process while students are working on their project. These assessments assess what students need to learn to build their project.. 6.

(7) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. The class The class in which the problem has been identified has 24 students, whose age is between 12 and 13 years old. Their English level varies between an elementary proficiency, as an A1 level, and students who are quite more proficient; hence a B1 would be more accurate to classify them. On one hand, there is one girl who is bilingual, therefore she masters the L2. Additionally, there is a second student whose English is more proficient than the class’ average. On the other hand, there are two students with different special needs who receive adaptations on activities and assessments. Moreover, there are four students whose level is beneath the average of the class and usually receive adaptations as well. Thus, is evident that this class is utterly heterogeneous regarding English proficiency and this affects plannings, assessments, classroom management and each factor that influences a lesson. This impacts directly on planning a lesson, more specifically when input is provided to students, since this has to be challenging enough for students who are more proficient, however not too difficult for less proficient students. English lessons for seventh grade are three times a week and they last 45 minutes each.. 7.

(8) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Problem During the first semester, the lessons have been varied, activities usually involve speaking and writing in a modeled and controlled way. Receptive skills are not usually practiced; readings, listening exercises and viewing are a not common part of the lessons since input materials are used once and afterwards for several classes students work focusing on the vocabulary and structures which the aforementioned material provides. As I mentioned before, students’ proficiency varies among the class, hence every reading task I delivered had many adaptations done within the same task and piece of reading. Despite this fact, students’ proficiency was not related with the level of achievement of these tasks, which was low and similar among the class. What I have had the chance to observe when I have applied reading quizzes or reading tasks, is that students in this seventh grade feel uncomfortable and not prepared at the moment of reading a text. Furthermore, students complain because of the difficulty of readings and say that they do not understand. Grades of these assessments are usually between average and low, even when the host teacher usually asks me to lower the difficulty of these tasks. Once I collect quizzes or tasks, I realize that students do not work with the texts, they are not able to complete some tasks and even when reading the instructions of a task they get confused. I reflected upon this phenomenon and concluded that this fact problem is beyond students’ proficiency. I never taught any reading strategies and techniques to my students when I applied reading tasks. Ergo, the fact that students did not worked with their texts and felt not prepared, or confused with them might be a manifestation of them lacking tools to deal with written language.. 8.

(9) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Question Having this in mind I realized that the problem here is students’ reading skills and how do they approach texts. In order to solve this, I decided that the question that best suits the aforementioned problem is What can I do to improve my 7th grade reading skills? The positive aspect of this question is that encompasses many factors of that might be causing this issue, such as teaching reading strategies, motivation, and my teaching practice.. 9.

(10) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Rationale This research is a fundamental element to improve my teaching practice, since it gives me the chance to reflect upon it. Burns (2010) mentions that “reflection in an AR cycle often has a dramatic effect on how teachers build their personal knowledge about aspects of their teaching.”(p. 142). This aspect of Action Research I believe is fundamental for a person who is starting its teaching formation, because it provides tools to build our teaching identity and helps us to improve before we go out to our professional world. Moreover, I will get to explore my own teaching techniques expecting to find some aspects to improve that probably until now I have not realized that may present flaws. As Burns (2010) states AR is a chance to intervene in the problematic situation in order to bring improvements in practice, hence I expect this paper to improve the current situations of my students regarding reading. Within the four skills, the receptive ones have a fundamental role for learners, since from them students can obtain input, work with readings and listening exercises in order to enrich their own vocabulary, plus it allows teacher to have more tools to work with. As Ur (1996) states “Reading skills need to be fostered so that learners can cope with more and more sophisticated texts and tasks, and deal with the efficiently: quickly, appropriately, and skillfully” (147). I believe it is fundamental for my students’ learning process that they feel comfortable when reading and feel able to handle a text even when they cannot understand the whole piece of reading. On the other hand, my ultimate goal is that students can comprehend what they read 10.

(11) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. not only on the surface, but also achieving deeper levels of comprehension. “Acquisition of better reading strategies is apparently needed to crack the illusion of comprehension in readers who are settling for low standards of comprehension. They need to acquire and implement strategies to facilitate deeper levels of comprehension”. (McNamara, 2007, p.4) As Mc Namara states, before achieving this goal of going further a shallow comprehension of a text it is necessary that the reader acquires and implements reading strategies.. 11.

(12) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Literature Review How do we read? According to Brown (2015), literature has identified two main processes that a person puts into action when reading. One of them is called Bottom-Up processing and the other is called Top-Down. The reason to separate them is that the first one refers to the process of decoding and the later makes reference to the process of recalling personal information to understand the text. The following definitions of the types of processing are based on Brown (2015) and Ur (2006). Bottom-Up processing is a data driven operation, since readers use their linguistic data-processing mechanisms to understand the linguistic signals of a text, such as letters, morphemes, syllables, words, phrases, grammatical cues and discourse markers. This requires the reader to use the knowledge of the language itself to select the signals that “mean”. Top-Down is a conceptually driven processing, in which the readers’ intelligence, experience, previous knowledge (schemata) are used to understand a text and construct meaning. One of these types of processing approaches the readers’ schemata, and the other readers’ linguistic knowledge. Separated each type of processing leaves another aspect aside, hence it is necessary to look for an approach that encompasses both processes in order to understand reading as more complex and thorough process.. 12.

(13) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Interactive reading. As it was stated before, the types of processing do not approach reading holistically, leaving aside important aspects of the reading process. There is a need of seeking for an approach that conceives reading as an integrated process; hence authors describe a model called “Interactive Reading”, which has acknowledged the interaction between lowerlevel processes and higher level processes. Lower-level are related to Bottom-Up processes, as higher-level processes are related to Top-down processing.. Interactive models combine the lower-level processes that are needed for successful reading as well as the higher-level processes. The lower-level processes involve rapid word recognition and the ability to combine those words into syntactic and semantic units. The higher-level processes involve a reader’s ability to activate prior knowledge and monitor comprehension of the text. (Anderson, 2004, p.13). Combining the views of Brown (2015) and Ur (2006), when approaching a text, learners should be encouraged to combine Bottom-up and top-down processing, which is called Interactive reading. This enables the reader to move from making predictions or having certain expectations of the text to checking in the written words whether predictions were right or wrong.. 13.

(14) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Reading in L2 (Second Language) Alderson (2000) posits that research have proved that when reading in L2 the knowledge about the second language is more relevant than the reading abilities of the first language.. Intensive and Extensive reading Extensive reading aims at general understanding of long written texts (books and essays) and it is usually performed outside the classroom. The target of this type of reading is to encourage students to find enjoyable this process, plus to give them the opportunity to look for genres they like. Intensive reading according to Brown usually takes place in the classroom. This type of reading activities encourages students to pay attention to “grammatical forms, discourse markers and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships and the like.” (Brown, 2015, p. 409) Harmer (2001) argues that the teacher has three different roles in intensive reading, which are: 1. Organizer: teacher sets time and purpose of the activity. 2. Observer: give students space and avoiding interference while readers are working. Observe and obtain information on students work. 3. Feedback organizer: feedback session, in pairs or lead by the teacher. These roles are directly related to the stages of the class in Intensive Reading, likewise, it is suggested that the teacher guides students’ work but respecting their autonomy. 14.

(15) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Teaching reading Ur (2006) suggests that the process of teaching reading should begin only after students have some basic knowledge of the spoken language, hence reading is matter of recognition rather than deciphering symbols. Moreover, the author states that teachers should start revising and identifying more familiar and common words in English, afterwards moving to recognizing whole sense units. The author suggests some basic principles or teaching implications for teaching reading: 1. The texts used in order to achieve this should be accessible for students, what Ur means is that readers should be able to understand vital information without looking up constantly words in the dictionary or getting extra information. The author states that if a text does not comply with these characteristics, it is not suitable for the purpose of improving reading skills. 2. If a teacher wants their students to read selectively, scanning tasks (where students read to find specific information) are appropriate for this learning objective. 3. Learners should be encouraged to do activities that do not imply decoding word by word, therefore guessing should be done based on an understanding of the context. Dictionary use can help to prove predictions right or wrong. 4. Tasks should be given in advance; hence readers have a purpose for doing the activity. 5. Strategies to be used in a reading task should be said explicitly by the teacher.. 15.

(16) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 6. Tasks should be varied. On the other hand, Brown (2015) sets the following principles: 1. Include reading in an integrated course. 2. Offer interesting and motivating topics for your students. 3. Balance authenticity and readability in choosing texts 4. Encourage the development of reading strategies 5. Include Bottom-Up and Top-Down Techniques 6. Follow the SQ3R Processes 6.1. Survey: Skimming the text for main ideas. 6.2. Question: Asking questions about what one expects to obtain from. the text. 6.3. Read: Looking for the answers of the questions previously asked.. 6.4. Recite: Through speaking or writing reformulate the most relevant. points of the reading. 6.5. Review: assess the importance of what we have read, and trying to. incorporate this into a long-term association. 7. Design pre, while and post reading phases 7.1. Pre-stage: introducing the topic, skimming, scanning, predicting,. activating schemata. 7.2. While-stage: Students fulfill the purpose of the reading task.. 7.3. Post-stage Comprehension questions, vocabulary study, examining. grammatical structures, author’s intention and motivation. Follow up exercises.. 16.

(17) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 8. Build ongoing informal assessment into teacher’s techniques Both authors posit some common aspects to consider in reading tasks, readability, achievable and interesting tasks, give students a purpose and do not make them just decode.. Teaching strategic reading. Joy Janzen in Richards and Renandya (2002) Strategic reading Strategic reading is a way of teaching reading which asks readers to monitor their process, but more importantly, to use and monitor the strategies implemented at the moment of reading. Furthermore, it requires the teacher to explain and model explicitly these strategies. In this type of teaching, students are expected to select their own strategies and recycle them through time. Characteristics of strategic reading: 1.. Students are learning strategies while they are engaged in their regular. reading for a variety of purposes. 2.. Strategies are taught through direct explanation, teacher modeling, and. feedback. 3.. Strategies are constantly recycled over new texts and task.. 4.. Strategy use develops over the long term.. 17.

(18) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Classroom processes in teaching strategic reading The author describes thoroughly the processes or stages that the teacher should follow when reading a text. These are all focused on the student, specifically, the use and implementation of strategies they do. 1. General strategy discussion: Discussing why learning and practicing strategies are important. Creating awareness of the value of what they are doing, and being able to relate learners’ own views on strategies and strategy use. 2. Teacher modeling: Teachers think aloud and can be observed using several strategies, which include asking questions, making predictions, checking those predictions, and summarizing or paraphrasing. 3. Student reading: Encouraging students to read and think aloud. 4. Analysis of strategies used by the teacher or by students when thinking aloud: analyze the strategy use of the reader through full class discussion. Identification and analysis of strategy use is intermixed with teacher feedback on the reader’s behavior. 5. Explanation/discussion of individual strategies on a regular basis: Naming the strategies and repeating explanations on the teacher’s or students’ views of to how to use the strategies. Discussing the What, When, and Why, using certain strategies and how the strategies interconnect. Mc Namara (2007) presents a strategy to teach reading called Reciprocal Teaching quoting (RT; Palincsar & Brown, 1984) …the teacher models these strategies, and then students practice the strategies on the next section of the text as the teacher tailors feedback through modeling, coaching, hints, and explanations. The teacher also invites students to react to peers’. 18.

(19) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. statements by elaborating or commenting, suggesting other questions, requesting clarifications, and helping to resolve misunderstandings. (RT; Palincsar & Brown, 1984, quoted in McNamara, 2007, p.177) Reciprocal Teaching is quite similar to Teaching strategic reading, since both highlight the role of modelling strategies and the teacher providing feedback. However, Mc Namara emphasizes the role of peers in this process and how they can help each other.. Reading strategies McNamara (2007, p.6) defines a reading strategy as "a reading comprehension as “A reading comprehension strategy is a cognitive or behavioral action that is enacted under particular contextual conditions, with the goal of improving some aspect of comprehension” The author also presents a set of strategies that can assist the process of reading. (Chi et al., 1989, 1994) in Mc Namara (2007). 1. Comprehension monitoring: Students are taught to monitor whether they understand what they are reading. If students reach an impasse in their understanding, they are encouraged to use the other strategies to rectify the comprehension failure. 2. Paraphrasing: It allows the reader to transform the material into a representation that is more familiar and memorable. 3. Elaboration: Encourages readers to go beyond the text by using their prior knowledge, common sense, and logic to elaborate the text. 19.

(20) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 4. Prediction: Teaching students to predict what will occur next can be a useful exercise in metacognition. Forming a prediction requires the reader to make plausible guesses about the future text content based on the current available evidence. 5. Bridging. Linking the concepts within the various parts of the text.. On the other hand, Brown (2015) posits that there are ten strategies which are related to Bottom-Up and Top-Down processing. 1. Identify the purpose in reading: Students know what to look for when reading 2. Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom up decoding: make students pay attention to patterns and relationships among sounds and written elements. 3. Use efficient silent reading techniques for improving fluency: Teach students silent reading rules. 4. Skim the text for main ideas: Quickly running one´s eye through the text. This strategy helps students to make predictions using the information they gathered. 5. Scan the text for Specific information: Searching quickly for some particular information. This tool enables students to extract specific information without reading the whole text.. 20.

(21) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 6. Use semantic mapping or clustering: Grouping ideas into clusters to bring order into the reading process. 7. Guess when you are not certain: This can be applied from guessing meaning until messages or cultural references. 8. Analyze vocabulary: this can be used to give the “guessing” strategy a purpose. Moreover, teachers can look for roots, suffixes, prefixes, etc. 9. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings: Applying, Top-Down processing skills in order to relate schemata with what the reading provides. 10.. Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationships: Create. students’ awareness of these markers in order to help the link ideas. These authors present some reading strategies that are intended to assist the reader. On one hand Brown’s strategies are more specific, since he is making reference to the types of processing. Furthermore, the author puts a narrow scope in the vocabulary and linguistic items of the text. On the other hand, McNamara presents more general strategies, which are mainly focused on the reader’s schemata and how this prior knowledge can be helpful in the comprehension process.. Reading skills On one hand, Alderson (2000) posits that good readers should possess metacognitive reading skills, which are. 1. Recognizing the more important information in the text. 21.

(22) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 2. Adjusting reading rate 3. Skimming 4. Previewing 5. Using context to resolve a misunderstanding 6. Formulating questions about information 7. Monitoring cognition, including recognizing problems, with information presented in text or an inability to understand a text. On the other hand, Brown and Lee (2015) make a distinction between Macro and Micro skills of reading.. Microskills 1. Discriminate among the distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of English. 2. Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short-term memory. 3. Comprehend written language at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose. 4. Recognize a core of words, and interpret word order, patterns and their significance 5. Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.), systems (eg., tense, agreement, pluralization), patterns, rules and elliptical forms. 6. Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms. Macroskills 7. Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationships between and among clauses.. 22.

(23) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 8. Recognize the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation. 9. Recognize the communicative functions of written texts, according to their form and purpose. 10. Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge. 11. Infer links and connections between events, ideas, etc., deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, give information, generalization, and exemplification. 12. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings. 13. Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of the appropriate cultural schemata. 14. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such as scanning and skimming, detecting discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words from context, and activating schemata for the interpretation of the text. (Brown and lee, 2015, p.401). 23.

(24) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Research Methodology Data collection procedures must be related and aiming at the main topic of this paper, which is strategies for reading in L2. Moreover, it is core to collect students’ views on this topic, not only strategies, but also reading in L2. It is necessary for me as a researcher to gain a wider perspective concerning this research topic, in order to do so it is convenient to inquire a teacher from another subject on how reading activities are handled. The pre- stage’s goal is to check what are the main viewpoints students have about reading in L2 and to obtain information on how students feel while they read and face a problem. In order to do so, a checklist will be used (See appendix A). The type of information that I need to collect is what Burns (2010) calls behavioural attitudinal information (attitudes, opinions, beliefs, interests and values). This information is needed in order to investigate how my students feel with reading tasks and what is their opinion regarding reading in L2. The type of answer will be close-ended; therefore the choices will be “Yes”, “Sometimes” or “No”, following Burns (2010) who claims that “These kinds of items are used when the interviewee may not have advanced language abilities, is very young, or where the researcher wants to reduce the risk that too many shades of judgment may be required.” (Burns, 2010, p. 82) The second tool I will use to collect information is a semi-structured interview (See appendix B) which purpose is to enable a researcher to make comparisons across the participants’ responses, but also to allow for individual diversity and flexibility. This interview will be applied to the language teacher who according to the head teacher 24.

(25) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. implements reading tasks in classes as well. This inquiry will have two main objectives one of them is to check whether the language teacher makes seventh grade read, how and why. Secondly, I can gain perspective on how that set reading tasks and whether there has been explicit instruction on reading strategy use. Permission to interview will be asked in advance to this teacher, in order to create an appointment him.. Action Plan This Action Research project is going to be undertaken in the form of reading lessons. Here I will be in charge of teaching some reading strategies to the seventh grade. The goal of these lessons is that students are familiarized with these strategies to become strategic readers. 1. The first intervention involves learning strategies selected for the group. These strategies are explicitly taught, modeled and put into practice. This lesson involves showing with a Power Point the names of the strategies and showing some definitions created by the same students during the lessons. This intervention is expositive and students participate as a class. 2. In the second intervention students put into practice the strategies from last class, they work in pairs so they can comment their impressions. Afterwards, the look at a power Point with some exercises which are very short, moreover the strategy required is mentioned on the heading of the exercise. These lessons are short and strategies are always being named and explicitly taught. Students have the chance to comment with a peer and discuss decisions they make and. 25.

(26) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. opinions they have. Examples are provided all the time. Diagram August. Activity week 1 Observe the context. x. September. October. November. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 2. ¿. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. x. x. x. x. x. x. x x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x x. x. x. x. x. x. x. Problematiz. x. e and R. Q. x. Instrument. x. x x. 4. x. to confirm the. x. problem Consulting the literature. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. x. Data collection Data analysis. x. x. x. Reflection and conclusions. x. x. Final. x. 26.

(27) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Data Analysis Interview to the language teacher See appendix B: The interview was applied to a language teacher from the school, he teaches in Seventh grade. This is the first year he teaches them. The teacher was asked to read and sign a consent form See appendix H before executing the interview. Regarding reading tasks He states that he applies reading activities, sometimes silent reading, sometimes combined with other activities. He says that reactions are diverse and that students pay a lot of attention to the extension of the text. The teacher applies these tasks bearing in mind three main goals, which are: to achieve the learning objectives from the ministry, to deepen the content from the subject and to create reading habits. According to the teacher, reading is the hardest thing for them. He says that oral and written communication are not issues for them. But reading is an issue. Regarding reading skills and strategies The teacher states that he is not certain on whether students use strategies or not, since these have not been explicitly worked as such. However, they do use strategies on group activities He also argues that they he has worked on pre, while and post reading strategies. This teacher claims not being sure whether students will be benefit from making this process explicit, but it is better according to him that students are encouraged to use these tools in. 27.

(28) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. the practice in an implicit way. This teacher believes that students who handle these strategies at this level are the ones from traditional schools who have followed the national curriculum. That is why they have developed more complex skills. He also thinks that students from this seventh grade have very different school backgrounds, hence, he cannot assert that they know the more basic registers. As a conclusion, he posits that it is necessary to implement a systematic and guided Reading Program in order to achieve the desired levels and skills. He is certain that if this program is applied, considering the advantage that 7th grade is a class that works well autonomously, this could have great benefits. Regarding students’ reading comprehension The teacher asserts that students are still on a shallow level of comprehension, also that they have to work on superior levels. With respect to this same topic, he states that this would be the right moment to start with a systematic display of reading activities. That now is the right moment to encourage them to read a bit more.. 28.

(29) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Checklist applied to seventh grade This checklist was applied to 21 out of 24 students from seventh grade. Previous to the application of this instrument there was a previous explanation of the main topic and they were informed that this was for a research to apply for a teaching degree. Students were informed that if they did not wanted to answer, they had to leave the checklist blank, nonetheless, nobody refused to participate. To see the samples answered by the students go to Appendix D. It is worth mentioning that there was a third part of the checklist that is not analyzed since very few students answered it correctly, hence it is not part of the study. Table 1: Checklist results – part I. Question 1. Do you like reading tasks? 2. Do you think reading in English is difficult? 3. Do you think you know enough English to read a text? 4. Do you feel capable of reading a short text in English? 5. Do you feel frustrated when reading a text in English? 6. Do you feel bored when reading a text in English? 7. Do you feel confused when reading a text in English? 8. When you do not understand one word or more, do you feel frustrated? 9. When you do not understand one word or more, do you feel angry? 10. Do you think is useful to do reading tasks to learn English? 11. Do you think the topic of the text influences the difficulty of the task?. Yes 5 6 5 16 3 7 7 5. No 6 7 9 2 13 5 7 11. Sometimes 11 9 7 3 5 9 7 5. 0. 17. 4. 16. 2. 3. 8. 5. 8. 29.

(30) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Figure 1. Results of the checklist - part 1. Liking reading tasks: Question 1 In question number the majority of students chose the option "sometimes”, followed by "no". However, as we can see in Figure 1 students who did not choose the answer “sometimes” are divided almost evenly between the choices “yes” and “no”. Perception on the difficulty and self-proficiency when performing reading tasks: Question 2 – 3 – 4 Figure 1 shows that in questions two and three numbers are distributed similarly among the three options. Students state that sometimes is difficult to read in English, followed by that it is not difficult to do so. Moreover, on question three, the majority answered that they do not know enough English to read a text in English. Nonetheless, when looking at 30.

(31) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. question 4 in Figure 1 it is clear that the majority of students chose the option “yes”, they feel capable of reading a text in English” Negative feelings towards reading tasks: Questions 5 – 9 When looking at figure 1, specifically questions five to nine, it is observable that none of these questions have as a majority the answer “yes”, which discards the idea that students have negative feelings towards reading tasks and difficulties they encounter while reading. Usefulness of a reading task to learn English: Question 10 In this question, it can be observed in Figure 1 that the majority of students expressed that it is useful to read texts in English when someone is learning the language. Topic influence on a task: Question 11 Figure 1 reflects that students’ answers look split evenly through the three answers, nonetheless, when looking at Table 1 it is observable that the majority of answers are “yes” and “sometimes”, which implies that students do believe that the theme of reading will influence whether they understand what they are reading or not.. 31.

(32) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE Table 2: Checklist results – part 2. Question 1. Do you think that to read a text in English it is necessary. Yes No Sometimes 4. 15. 2. 2. Do you know any strategy to read a text in English?. 4. 16. 1. 3. Do you know how to use a Spanish-English, Spanish-. 13. 4. 4. 16. 1. 4. 10. 3. 8. 12. 3. 6. to know a lot of English?. English dictionary? 4. Do you know what to do when you no do not understand ideas in the text? 5. . Do you feel more comfortable with texts that have pictures or images related to the topic? 6. Do you feel more prepared to read when there is an explanation of the text before reading?. 32.

(33) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Part 2 Relation between language proficiency and reading: Question 1 The majority of the students from seventh grade chose the option “no” in this question, ergo, there is a common view in this group that being proficient is not necessary for being able to read. Reading strategy knowledge: Question 2 By observing Figure two it is evident that the answer “no” has the majority of preferences, therefore, students answers reveal that there is no major knowledge of reading strategies. Dictionary use and how to proceed when ideas are unclear at the moment of reading: Question 3 – 4 These questions aim at processes that happen while reading, the majority of answers in these questions are “yes”, which implies that students know how to use the resource of dictionary and what to do while they are reading and do not understand an idea. Aids for reading tasks: Questions 5 - 6 These questions make reference to aids that can assist learners before reading, such as showing images and giving an explanation before engaging in the reading process. The majority of students in these questions answered “yes”, hence they see these resources as helpful when reading.. 33.

(34) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Interventions Intervention 1 (See appendix E) The first intervention was a 45 minutes lesson in which students looked at a Power Point See appendix G. Table 3 Reaction of students through different moments of the class. Moment. Students’ reaction. preparing the class When they saw the word “reading” on the projector there were at to start. least three students who reacted negatively to the topic, expressing that they do not know understand anything when they read.. Topic presentation. Students’ opinion was that Reading strategies were helpful to read faster, other said that it was to remember what they read later.. Reading strategies Students took notes, as I asked whether they can give examples of definition. something that can help them while reading or name a strategy nobody raised their hands to answer.. Reading strategies Students were participating by relating their experiences and what review. they do when they read in Spanish. They took notes by copying what it was written in the slide and some other ideas that emerged from the discussion. It generated a discussion from what was being said. Students commented on what their classmates and the teacher said. With help of the guide teacher, the discussion got more active by grabbing a text and predicting using the cover. 34.

(35) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Intervention 2 (See appendix F) The first intervention was a 45 minutes lesson in which students looked at a Power Point and answered the questions in pairs. See appendix G. Moment. Students’ reaction. Reviewing last. Students were remembering and naming strategies, they looked at. class’ strategies. their notebooks and raised their hands to name them. Afterwards they sat in couples and listened to the instructions.. Students work. Most couples discussed their answers before writing them down.. individually. Some students were waiting for their partner to write and they copied the answers. Most students looked back in their notebooks in order to check the definitions of strategies.. Check students’. Couples did not take long in answering the task. They raised their. work. hands and answered. Answers were accurate and most of them did not have any mistakes.. 35.

(36) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Reflection After having analyzed the data collected it is important to reflect upon the findings made in this research and to review how this might help us to move a step forward towards the answer of the question that guides this research. In order to do so, it is necessary to relate the data with the literature reviewed previously in this work. The question chosen to guide this paper is quite broad and encompasses many aspects that can influence the process of reading for this seventh grade. The aim of doing so is to approach many factors that can be affecting the process of reading for learners, such as negative feelings and perceptions toward this skill. Moreover, it can approach more concrete aspects, such as images, format, genre or topic. During this work I discovered that students do not perceive reading or the problems that they can encounter while doing so, for example not knowing a word. Furthermore, students do feel more prepared to read when I provide some aids when setting a task, as images or an explanation On the other hand, it is relevant to see that students do not conceive high English proficiency as something core to read in English, also there is awareness that in order to increase their proficiency reading can be a helpful tool. Taking this into consideration, a helpful instrument to improve their reading is teaching reading strategies, though, students claim they do not know any. Plus, while talking to the language teacher there was evidence that from his point of view students do not possess reading strategies nor skills in Spanish. Although he states that it would be a good moment to start implementing a reading plan. Even though there is not literature in this work about the relation between reading strategies in L1 and L2, it. 36.

(37) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. is relevant to analyze the possibility that students can transfer strategies from their mother tongue to a foreign language, however if there is nothing to transfer such investigation cannot be made in this context. When teaching Strategic Reading according to the authors reviewed I this paper it is necessary to discuss and teach strategies explicitly, which actually differs from the view of the language teacher who states that these from his point of view are easier to acquire implicitly. Following what the authors posit, through the interventions strategies were taught and put into practice explicitly, this proved to work well with students, since during the short reading exercises students were using the names, they achieved the goals from the tasks and they were naming and discussing the strategies even after a small short session. What would have been more appropriate during the whole process of execution of this research and its interventions; is first collecting more point of views regarding of reading skills and strategies, for example from the literature teacher and teachers from other subjects, plus, my guide teacher. This would have given me a wider scope of research and the opportunity to check the view of the school. In addition, if the amount of interventions would have been bigger, more results could have been explores, students could have get more familiarized and have the chance to explore through more reading strategies and pick the ones more suitable for their own learning process. Finally, the purpose of this research is to explore how an improvement of my practice can help this seventh grade to improve their reading skills, nevertheless no intervention approached reading tasks that can actually explore into reading skills by reading a whole. 37.

(38) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. text and doing some comprehension activities. Consequently, dedicating more time to explore the consequences of my interventions on comprehension would have increase the depth of this research.. 38.

(39) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Conclusions This Action Research paper started with the purpose of solving a problem identified in a seventh grade, which was that students have not developed reading skills, hence my question aimed olving this issue. To do so, I researched the literature to look for information on how people read, what are reading skills and strategies and how to teach strategic reading. Afterwards, based on the literature review and the information collected with the checklist two interventions were planned in order to improve this issue. The results of these interventions proved to be positive, nonetheless the amount of interventions was not enough to be conclusive about the results on the interventions on comprehension. Bearing the research question in mind, what I can actually do in order to improve my students’ reading skills is to provide them with some resources to help them read, the ones named in this work are images and explanation before reading. The most important thing is that I was able to discover and put into practice is teaching Strategic Reading, which is the improvement on my practice needed to create an advance on improving student’ reading skills. Taking the previous paragraphs into consideration it is worth mentioning that at the beginning of the paper there were many things to take into consideration when talking about reading. At the beginning, my biggest concern and one of my hypothesis was that students actually have negative feelings towards reading, hence that would have implied a longer and more complicated work in which it would have been necessary to look for an action plan to change students’ perception of reading. However, this was proved wrong and students even see reading as necessary to. 39.

(40) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. improve proficiency in English. I believe that choosing reading strategies to solve the problem identified was a form of moving the problem from students (their level of proficiency, perceptions and attitudes) to my practice. What I mean is that the reason to choose reading strategies to solve the problem was the best way to make myself responsible from this issue and improving my practice. Even though I decided to intervene by applying reading strategies, one of the main issues to implement my interventions was the lack of communication that I had with my guide teacher, hence we were not coordinated to work as a team and to put ideas together in order to create an improvement on the problem. The second consequence of this fact was the lack of time that I have to apply this, since I decided to work independently from my teacher. Moreover, I felt sometimes insecure about my own work; as a result, while I was creating my interventions I changed them many times before applying them. Despite all the previous difficulties, students had a good disposition and were willing to participate during the interventions, which made my work easier and more pleasant. Firstly, I learned that in education I do not have to take things for granted, I assumed that students know how to read in English just because they know how to decode which later proved to be wrong. Secondly, I underestimated capabilities of students, by attributing what went wrong in my lessons to my students and not to what I need to improve as a teacher.. 40.

(41) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Implications While doing this investigation in action, I went through many different processes which allowed me to reflect upon my practice and perceptions I have about teaching and my students. I learned to reflect on an issue by looking at it from different scopes and perspectives, thus I would be able to find the different causes of it and its implications on my teaching. On a more methodological perspective, this work enriched my knowledge on reading strategies and skills, and a new concept for me which is Teaching Strategic Reading. Through the elaboration of this paper I learned many new techniques and methods of teaching reading more efficiently and which help learners while performing these tasks, besides I decided to enhance this new information and practices in the upcoming years so I can update what I have learned in the past 4 months. Taking these findings into consideration, it is necessary to always make a research upon skills, since there are always strategies to be learned by the teacher, taught to students and afterwards learned by them. The four skills are not something that learners just bring with them, especially when learning a second language. There are ways to help them to acquire and improve these skills. Do not assume that students know how to cope with input and the receptive skills’ tasks that teachers apply. During the learning process and the construction of this project a main aspect about Action Research that has to be kept in mind is that it is a cyclical process, the researcher teacher never reaches to a definite end, since one can always improve the. 41.

(42) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. interventions applied, make slight changes or apply them in a different way or to different groups. Hence teachers should never stop exploring the possibilities of making an improvement on their own practice and their students’ learning process. Action Research gives the possibility of stopping for a second and start observing carefully the problems and issues one is facing every day in a complex place that is the classroom. It gives the opportunity of being an agent of change for your students’ learning process and to make teachers’ practice more pleasant and better by proposing changes and intervention. By exploring literature, one gets to intervene with basis and select carefully what authors propose based on your context. Additionally, what is more valuable of Action Research is that as you are the teacher and the researcher, you are able to craft carefully interventions based on your context and the characteristics of the group you are applying this research for. According to Burns (2010) reflection in Action Research has a dramatic effect on how teachers build their personal knowledge about aspects of their teaching, based on this author’s words; there is never a reflection process in this type of research that does not generate a change in a teacher’s practice, consequently there is never a reason to refuse applying an Action Research, as long as one reflects on one’s own practice there will be always a change to be made to be a better teacher, and specially to improve our student’s learning process which should be every teacher’s goal.. 42.

(43) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. References Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author. Anderson, N. J. (2004) Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness of ESL and EFL Learners. The CATESOL Journal 16.1. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. Brown, D., Lee, H. (2015) Teaching by Principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. Fourth Edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research in English language teaching. New York: Routledge. Ur, P. (2007). A course in language teaching. Practice of theory. Teacher training and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Harmer, J. (1998). How to teach English: An introduction to the practice of English language teaching. Harlow: Longman. Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. New York: Cambridge University Press. McNamara, D. S. (2007) Reading Comprehension Strategies. Theories, Interventions, and Technologies. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers. New Jesey. USA.. 43.

(44) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Appendixes Appendix A Checklist 1. Do you like reading tasks? a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes 2. Do you think reading in English is difficult? 3. Do you think you know enough English to read a text? 4. Do you feel capable of reading a short text in English? 5. Do you feel frustrated when reading a text in English? 6. Do you feel bored when reading a text in English? 7. Do you feel confused when reading a text in English? 8. When you do not understand one word or more, do you feel frustrated? 9. When you do not understand one word or more, do you feel angry? 10. Do you think is useful to do reading tasks to learn English? 11. Do you think the topic of the text influences the difficulty of the task?. Second part 1. Do you think that to read a text in English it is necessary to know a lot of English? 2. Do you know any strategy to read a text in English? 3. Do you know how to use a Spanish-English, Spanish-English dictionary? 4. Do you know what to do when you no do not understand ideas in the text? 44.

(45) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. 5. Do you feel more comfortable with texts that have pictures or images related to the topic? 6. Do you feel more comfortable when there is an explanation of the text before reading? Third part If you can choose a topic of interest to read, which one will be? (select 3) from 1 the one you like the most until 3. Science fiction, Science Music Art History Culture Technology Sports Myths and legends Politics Cinema and TV Other ______________. 45.

(46) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Appendix B Interview What subject do you teach to seventh grade? 1. Do you give them some reading tasks?. If the answer is yes: 2. What are the objectives of such activities? 3. Have you taught them some strategies to handle readings? 4. How do students react to these tasks? 5. Do they use any strategy? 6. In your opinion, do they comprehend what they read in a shallow or deep. manner? 7. Do the students achieve the goals of the reading tasks?. 8. Do you believe that they are ready to comprehend what they read? 9. Do you believe that students lack reading skills and strategies? Do you. have a hypothesis for this fact? Do you give them some reading tasks? If the answer is no: 1. Why have you decided not to do so? 2. Do you believe it is necessary to make students read? 3. Do you believe that this class is not prepared to do reading tasks? 4. Do you believe that students lack reading skills and strategies? Do you. have a hypothesis for this fact?. 46.

(47) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Appendix C Entrevista Me llamo Pablo Yañez y soy el profe de Lenguaje de séptimo básico ¿Desde cuándo les enseñas a séptimo? De este año 2016 ¿Les asignas actividades de lectura en clase? Cuando amerita si, en algunos momentos lo hemos tornado sistemático como lectura silenciosa y en otros momentos ha ido acompañado de actividades en caso de ser necesario. ¿Con qué fin o fines? En primer término con la finalidad de desarrollar los objetivos de lectura que aparecen en el programa, eeh con el objetivo de profundizar los contenidos que se están viendo y con el objetivo más general de generar hábito lector ¿Les has enseñado estrategias para abordar dichas actividades? Hemos trabajado en estrategias de antes, durante y después de la lectura, sin embargo no se han explicitado como tales. y no sé si el curso todavía se vaya a ver beneficiado con la explicitación del proceso sino se insta más bien por, de forma implícita por medio de la práctica se incita al uso de esas herramientas. En el momento en que los estudiantes reciben una actividad de lectura, ¿cómo reaccionan? En general lo primero que hacen es medir cuán largo es el texto que tienen a leer, aunque se hace el esfuerzo constante de luchar contra esa idea de que el texto es complejo en la medida de su longitud. El resto de las reacciones son diversas, heterogéneas, algunos leen el texto apenas les llega, otros no se dan por enterados de la existencia, hay 47.

(48) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. distintos tipos de reacciones. ¿Hacen uso de estrategias? No puedo dar fe de que hagan uso autónomo, pero sí se hace trabajo de lectura grupal donde si hacen uso de aquellas ¿Comprenden los estudiantes lo que leen de manera profunda o superficial? Aún es superficial, hay que trabajar en habilidades de escalafones superiores, todavía estamos en una etapa de nivel comprensivo. ¿Alcanzan los objetivos de estas actividades? Por lo general es lo que más les cuesta, por lo general en los otros dos ejes la asignatura, que son la comunicación oral y escritura, pareciera ser que la lectura es lo que más les cuesta ¿Tú crees que el curso en su mayoría, respetando siempre lo heterogéneos que son ellos, están preparados ya para subir a la comprensión más profunda del texto? Yo creo que están en el momento preciso para que su octavo básico comience con un despliegue sistemático de actividades lectoras, están en un momento crucial, donde se les puede dar el empujoncito que necesitan ¿Tienes alguna hipótesis respecto a la carencia que tienen los chiquillos todavía de estas estrategias de comprensión, etcétera? Creo que estas estrategias están sustentadas sobre la base o el supuesto de que las personas que se enfrentan a ellas han tenido un camino escolar tradicional, de tal manera que en un colegio que sigue al pie de la letra el currículum y los objetivos de aprendizaje, seguramente ya hubo, o debería haber habido un trabajo previo de desarrollo de habilidades más complejas, como de inferencia, interpretación, la evaluación, etcétera.. 48.

(49) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Creo que como el pasado escolar de estos chicos es tremendamente heterogéneo uno no puede ni siquiera dar fe de que se muevan en esos registros más básicos, por lo mismo seguramente si hubiera que plantear una hipótesis, sería que habría que instalar un programa de lectura dirigida bien cuadrado y sistemático en lo que respecta a las habilidades y niveles que se pretenden lograr, creo sin embargo que el curso, el séptimo básico, tiene la fortaleza del trabajo autónomo, que es una fortaleza bien grande, entonces dada esa fortaleza, creo que un plan sistemático de lectura, dónde me hago la autocrítica por no haberlo hecho este año, pero creo que un plan sistemático de lectura combinado con sus fortalezas en el ritmo de trabajo podría ser beneficioso.. 49.

(50) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Appendix D. 50.

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(56) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Appendix E Journal entry - Intervention 1- November 23rd Students were not very enthusiast about the strategies, there was one student who said “ay Camila leer que lata” There were other two who said “para qué vamos a hacer esto”. Hence, I saw that they were not very eager to see what was coming next. I took advantage of negative comments, and my introduction to the topic was to ask them whether it is easy to read in English, most of the class said “Noooo”. I asked why one of them said “Porque los temas son muy fomes de repente” Another said “porque a veces no entiendo na” When the student said that I told them that today’s class was about “Reading strategies” and that this would help them no matter what their level was, but they needed to take notes so that they can have a reference when they need to use strategies. As we were moving on, students seemed more engaged, they were raising their hands and participating. My guide teacher helped me while the discussion was going on, she handed me a book (in Spanish) and we started to make some exercises like predicting from the cover, title and random sentences we chose to read from the book, students were engaged raising their hands and giving their opinions. There were at least five students who transferred the strategies discussed to reading in L1, other commented upon what their classmates said.. 56.

(57) TEACHING READING STRATEGIES TO SEVENTH GRADE. Appendix F Journal entry - Intervention 2- November 28th After reading the class’ menu, I did a small review in which students were asked to raise their hand and name previous class strategies. They looked at their notebooks and raised their hands to name them. Afterwards they sat in couples and listened to the instructions. While students were working and I monitored I realized they were discussing their answers before writing them down. The second thing I noticed was that there were some students who were just waiting for their partner to write and they copied the answer. The third thing was that they were looking back in their notebooks in order to check the definitions of strategies. At the moment of closure, I asked students to raise their hands and answer out loud. The rest of the students checked their answers. Students´ answered correctly, most the couples were raising their hands in order to answer. Discussing why learning and practicing strategies are important. Creating awareness of the value of what they are doing, and being able to relate learners’ own views on strategies and strategy use.. 57.

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