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Discovery of coherent X-ray pulsations in the sub-luminous disk state of XSS J12270-4859

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Alessandro Papitto (ICE CSIC-IEEC Barcelona)

25.6.2015 – NS at the crossroads: X-ray binaries and transitional ms pulsars 25.6.2015 – NS at the crossroads: X-ray binaries and transitional ms pulsars EWASS 2015 – La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain EWASS 2015 – La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain

Discovery of coherent X-ray pulsations in the

sub-luminous disk state of XSS J12270-4859

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The three states of millisecond pulsars

Sub-luminous disk state Accretion powered state

X-ray outburst

Rotation powered state

Radio/gamma-ray pulsations

L[X-rays]

(erg/s) 10

36

L[-rays]

(erg/s) 10

34

10

33

undetected

10

35

10

34

10

33

10

32

10

31

M28 I

M28 I

PSR J1023+0038 XSS J12270-4859

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The sub-luminous disk state

Accretion disk (H broad line);

X-ray luminosity ~ 10

33

– 10

34

erg/s, variable,

Spectrum described by a power law with ~1.5. No cut-off up to ~80 keV;

Radio bright emission with flat spectrum;

Gamma-ray (>0.1 Gev) luminosity ~ 10

34

erg/s; 5-10 times brighter than in radio pulsar state;

Systems can persist in the sub-luminous state for a decade.

What is powering the emission? Accretion or rotation power?

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XSS J12270-4859

Sub-luminous disk state

X-ray luminosity ~1034 erg/s Fermi gamma-ray counterpart same state during 2003-2013

[De Martino+2010,2013; Saitou+2010; Hill+2011]

Radio PSR state Very faint in X-rays (~10

32

) erg/s No disk

[Bassa+2014, Bogdanov+2014, Roy+ 2014]

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Broad double-peaked optical emission lines

Halpern+ 2013

Sub-luminous disk state: X-ray pulsations

XMM-Newton detection of pulsations at the 1.7 ms spin period by performing a search around the radio PSR ephemerides

A

RMS

=(7.7 ± 0.5)%

A

2nd

/A

1st

= 1.8

Pulsations not detected in radio PSR state (A

RMS

<7%)

Pulsed flux ≥ 10 times larger than during radio PSR state → accretion origin

Similar pulse shape in soft (0.5-2.5 keV) and hard (2.5-11 keV) XMM band

Papitto et al. 2015, MNRAS, 449, L26

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Broad double-peaked optical emission lines

Halpern+ 2013

Sub-luminous disk state: X-ray pulsations

Pulsations detected only in high state In low (A

RMS

< 5.8%) and flaring state (A

RMS

<2.7%) no detection

Very similar behavior observed from PSR J1023+0038 in the

sub-luminous disk state [Archibald et al. 2015]

Papitto et al. 2015, MNRAS, 449, L26

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Implications of X-ray pulsations

0

RNS RIN

RCO Pulsations detected at LX=5x1033erg/s

~100-1000 times lower than AMSPs

The mass accretion rate on the NS surface is 100 times smaller than the one required to keep the magnetosphere inside the corotation radius.

(dM/dt)disk ~ 100 (dM/dt)NS to have Rin ~ Rco

More than 95% of the inflowing mass ejected (e.g. through the propeller

effect) or accumulated in the disk.

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Propeller outflows

0

3d MHD simulations of propeller ejection of matter

Lii, Romanova+ 2014 – for a disk terminated close to the corotation surface, part of the inflowing mass manages to accrete and part is launched in an outflow.

→ Accretion and outflows can coexist

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The gamma-ray emission

0

Ecut ~ few GeV

→ radio pulsar models, GeV electrons of magnetospheric origin

→ propeller model, electrons accelerated at the turbulent disk-magnetospheric boundary

Propeller hypothesis:

→ synchrotron (up to MeV)

→ self-synchrotron Compton (up to GeV) A solution found for:

Rin = 1.8 Rco

(dM/dt)disk = 2.4x10-11 Msun/yr ~30 (dM/dt)NS

Papitto & Torres 2015, ApJ, in press Papitto, Torres, Li, 2014, MNRAS,

(see Diego Torres talk later this morning)

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Discussion & Conclusions

0

Possible scenarios for the sub-luminous disk state:

- a rotation powered pulsar:

X-ray pulsations unlikely (not observed in the radio pulsar state);

Bolometric luminosity too high (close to or larger than spin down power);

- a purely accreting pulsar:

X-ray luminosity too low (predicted inner disc radius ~ 5 Rco);

- a propeller model (with a fraction of the mass accreted) accounts for the bolometric high energy luminosity and qualitatively explains the radio and the gamma-ray emission;

- Are all sub-luminous accretors pulsars? (need for new instruments)

PSR J10023+0038

=2

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A parallel session on X-ray binaries and pulsars Abstract submission before September 15 at https://indico.cern.ch/event/336103/

0

PSR J10023+0038

=2

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