The morisco who was Muley Zaidan's Spanish interpreter

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(1)THE MORISCO WHO WAS MULEY ZAIDAN'S SPANISH INTERPRETER AHMAD BNU QASIM IBN AL-FAQIH. Q~SIM. IBN AL-SHAIKH AL-HAJARI AL-. ANDALUSI, ALIAS LHMED BEN CA<;:IM BElARANO HIlO DE BHMED HIJO DB ALFAQuf CA<;:IM HIJO DEL SAIl·! EL HHACHARI A.."DALUZ. T. HE Spanish-born Muslim who forms the subject of this study is known to us from two sources. One is a translation which he made from Spanish into Arabic of a manual of gunnery, itself writ- . ten by another Morisco who was commandant of the Tunisian fortress of La Goulette. There exist at least six mss. 1 of this trea,I. Brockelmann in his Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. n, 465, and Supplemenrband I1, 714, mentions three mss., the one at Vienna and tv·,'O ID Algiers. Ahmed Zeki Bey in a communication to the XIllth IntematiOo nal Congress of Onentalists held at Hamburg in 1902 (see Verhandlun!:"~ pub!. Leiden. 1904. pp. 285-6) de"cribed the' work from mss. at Vbmla, Constantinople and Algiers. We have not been able to trace this Com;tan·. tinople ms~ Dr. Abdur Rahp1an laky in an article, «Military Literature of the Arabs» in Islamic Culture, Vo!. XXX, 1956; p. 163, mentions a ms. in the Nathmal Library, Cairo (Dar al·Kutub al-misriyya raqm 97 turusryya, according to Dr. A. R. Zaky). Further information on this Cairo ms. given by Dr. ZRKY in an Arabic foot note is confusing. He says that Ahmed Zeky Bey's remarks on the w01'k to the Hamburg Congress were based on the Cairo ms. Thts i8 possible al~ thC,tiglJ it i~ stl(;"l.-gf' that he ShO'l1d not lLve men"'iolll'>d tIle lad In his fomI!lImkation. But Dr. Zaky further says that the Cairo ms. was pubJis:hcd in u".:der. in 1904. We have b~en aBle to find no ·trace of a~y such edition, and it Sf!ell1S that De Zaty must have been thinking of th~ date of publication l. -. 67 -.

(2) tise. Fliigel has given a very full notice of one at Vienna (Die Arabi;chen Persi,che'1 tllld Tilrki.>chen Handschriften der Kai",,lich-K6niglichen llofbibliolhek zu Wien, 2. Band, p. 477 No. 14121. although, v"ry naturally, he gives more space to the author than to the transi.ltor. The author is, in fact, a very interesting person. His name was Ibrahim b. Ahmad Ghanim b. Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Andalusi, and he was called in Spanish, Rivas 2. Having been expell~d from Granada as a Morisco (presumably in 1570), he settled in Seville, where he came tn have a great affection for seafaring. He sailed with the silver-galleons to the West Indies, and f.eems to have picked up the art of gunnery from the troups carried un these ships. The Edict of Expulsion (of 1609) found him in pril'on, and it was with difficulty that he was able to get away to Tunis, where he was warmly welcomed the reigning Dey, Uthman. There after further adventures as a corsair, he was given command of La Goulette, where ha found the gunners so ignorant that he was moved to compose his Spanish mannal of instructions 3. of 'iP.; Verhartdlungen in which Ahmed Zeki Bey's comm·.11....:.ation appeared. It wa~ the Verhattdlungen and not the ms. wI1h:h was pub.i~~h(.·:i in 1904. ni'. S. M. Stern informs us that there is yet another rns. of this work jn tie Chester Beatty collection. 2. This l~st phrase haf> been something of .:l sturr~o.ljng-block. The A-a· bic is J:.~)~rL,.,J,~ ~I \SlC). l'ltigel hesitatea over the so/ec!sm m,<"ajiam, \vhich he took to be a proper name «Micdscham), It is pru'Jablv simply a vulgar graphy for muCajjiim. Such graphies were by no Ineans unknown mnongst Spanish Arabic speakers, c. f. M. AIarc6n, «earta de Abenaboo en arabe granadino», in Miscelanea de Estudios y textos arabes, Madrid 1915, especially p. 109. Fltigcl went on to amend J:.~) to J:.4) . in view of oar interpretation of muCajjiim as «known in the foreign (i. e. Spanish) tongue as ... » there is no justification for amending the reading. We may read Rivas, a perfectly possible Spanish name, or perhaps with the imata we should read Rives. 3. Ahffied Zeld Bey (op. cit) interprets the statement that the ma· nual was compo sed in cayani as meaning that it was composed in atjamia, «aI~a>Cdjami d. h. -in spanischer Spracl:ie, aber mit arabischen 13uchstaben geschdeben.» There seems to us no reason to suppose that this was so, in fact it would seem unlikely. Most of the works that have come down to us from Spanish-speakers writing in North Africa are in Spanish in Latin characters, aijamia was mainly a Peninsular phenomenon. AIJITIad ben Qilsim himself wrote Spanish in the normal way. Ibraim ben Ai).mad basad his manual on Spanisch wClrks, probably left behind from the Spanish occupation~ and it would have been far easier for him to write the. technical terms in Spanish than in aljamfa.. 68 -.

(3) But his translator is aiso equally worthy of attention, and, moreover, we do not know him from one book only, for besides an autobiographical appendix which he wrote to his translation of the manual of gunnery (here given according to the text of the Vienna ms. F1iigel 1412), we also hear or him in a Spanish ms. preserved in the Library of Bologna University (ms. 56S J. This ms. was described by Saavedra in his «Indice de la Litera·· :urn AIjamiada» (Memorias de la Real Academia Espanola, Vol. VI. Madrid 1889. Ms. No. LXIX.), although the ms. is not in aijamia (L e. Spanish in Arabic characters) but in a clear 16 tll century Spanish hand, with only the bismillahis, etc. in Arabic in Arabic characters. These two works do not seem to have been connected hitherto. According to the Vienna ms. the translator's name was Al;tmad bnu Qasim Ibn Al;tmad Ibn al-Faqih Qasim Ibn al-Shaikh al-Hajarl fll-Andalusi, whereas in the Spanish ms. of Bologna. he appears as Ehmed ben Cac;:im Bejarano hijo de Ehmed hijo de alfaqui Ca9im hijo del Saih el Hhachari andalu~. Any shadow of doubt. that these two are one and the same person is completely removed by the statement in the Bologna ms. (p. 168) that ,<fue ynterprete del Rey Muley Zeidan y de sus hijos» which agrees with the Arabic of Vienna 1412 (p. 163) where we read that "he (L e. Ibrahim b. Al;tmad the author) knew that in the city of Marrakesh I had been interpreter for many years to Mulev Zaidan ... in the same way I was interpreter to the two Sultans his sons.» We may reconstruct the main outlines of Al)mad b. Qasim's biography from the indications furnished in the two works mentioned, especially fnm his autobiographical appendix to Ibrahim b. Ahamad's work on gunnery. In no case does any detail given in one source conflict with anything in the other. Al,lmad b. Qasim does not tell us where he was born, except to say that it was in Spain, and that there his mother tongue was Arabic (Vienna p. 169). This makes us suspect that it was in the Kingdoms of Granada or of Valencia, for these were almost the only areas where Arabic w~s 'commonly spoken in the Peninsula in the 16th century. If the frontier by 'Nhich he left Spain (thughur) is to be identified with Aragon (c. f. DOlY, Supplement aux Dictionnaires s. v. thaghr). it would seem more likely that he came from Valencia, However, he would appear to have left Spain by sea, and not by land via France, for he makes no mention of France in recoun-. 69 -.

(4) ting his escape. This together with the :lact that he went to Morocco perhaps indicates that he came from Granada. In the Spanish ms_ Bologna 565 he gives himself a Spanish surname, Bejarano. This was a common practice among the Muslims of Spain, who often seem to have used a family name of Spanish origin in combination with other Arabic names, for example a Mul;1ammad Rubio is mentioned in the same ms .. while the Vanegas family of course played a very important part in the history of the last years of the Na~rid dynasty in Granada. «Bejarano» would indicate that his family originated in Bejar, which is in the province of Salamanca. It does not necessnily indicate that he personally came from there, especially as it would seem most unlikely that he could have learnt Arabic as his first la:lguage in that part of the Peninsula in the 16th century. However. perhaps we should reject this claim of his; to have had Arabic as his mother tongue; his Muslim pride may h3\e prompted him to say that he learnt Arabic before Spanish when the opposite was the case. We do not know when Al;1mad b. Qasim was born, but if we assume that he cannot have come to his decision to escape l:rom Spain while still a very young child, and also remember that he says he subsequently spent many years studying Spanish, we may conclude that he was about of, perhaps eighteen when he escaped. As he says that he left Spain about forty years before translating the manual of gun:lelY, and as we know from p. 163 of the Vienna ms. that this took place in 1.048/.1638, we can surmise that he was born about 1580. As just mentioned, he puts his flight from Spain as about forty years before his translation of the manual. This gives us a choice of two dates. acccrding to whether we reckon forty lunar or forty solar years. 1048 minus 40 ',vould give us 1008 (1599-1600) or 1638 minus 40 would give 1598 (l006-1007). He made his way to the city of Marrakesh, where he does not seem to have experienced any great difficulty in finding a living, his command of Spanish standing him in good stead. «I afterwards realised that by reason of the studies I had undertaken .. there were opened to me. hecause of this forbidden knowledge, the doors of princes that were shut to most people_» Eventually he was &ppointed Spanish interpreter and Private Secretary to Muley Zaidan the Sherifian Sultan, who had a long and somewhat difficult reign 1016-1039. -. 70 -.

(5) He does not say exactly when he entered Muley Zaidan's service, but we must assume that it was not immediately upon the Sultan's accession, for he seems somewhat uncertain about events in the early years of the reign. However this may be, we find Al;tmad b. Qasim in Paris" by leave of Muley Zaidan» (Vienna p. 169) in early Rab. I 1021/ early May 1612 (Bologna p. 152). The very tact that he was dbleto make the journey, together with the letter that he wrote frr·m Paris to dos andaluces que asistian 0 bibian en Costantinopla» indicates that he enjoyed some sort of diplomatic privilege, if not that he was actually on a mission. Whatever his business in France, we know for certain that he visited Paris and the court (Bologna p. 152). and that he there became involved in religious disputations with monks and priests, and there, he chims, he read the Gospels and other works. His business concluded, he went on to Flanders, where he had further disputes with Jews, and read the Old Testament (Torah). This Torah was in Spani~h; he does not say what languaje the Gospels and other books were in, but as we have no incl'cation that he was literate in French or Latin, we may suppose that they were jn Spanish too. There had been several editions of the Old and New Testaments in Spanish by this date, so there is nothing surprising in his finding Spanish Bibles available, especially as many of them were printed and published in the low Countries. He does not mention the fact, but It is of course most probable that the Jews with whom he. had dealings were Sephardic Spanish-speakers. This would account for the existence of a Spanish Torah among them. Abmad b. Qasim does not tell us why he went to Flanders. Perhaps it was to take ship for Morocco, for the Low Countries had a busy commerce with North Africa at this time, and he does not mention returnin? to France on his way home. After this he must have been in the service of Muley Zaidan, and of his two sons 1/ cAbd al-Malik Abu'l-Marwan who came to the throne 1039/167-'1 and 2/ a! Walid who reigned 1044/16341635. As he does not mention the third son who reigned, Mubammad (IV) al-Saghir (1045-1064) we are led to believe thet Abmad b. Qiisim left Marrnke.h before Mul;ammad came to the throne, but after the accessIon (If al-Walid i. e. in 1044 or 1045 (1634 or 1635). This dat1ng is confirmed by the statement in the Bologna -. 71.

(6) ms. p. 168 that he went on the Pilgrimage «despues que pasa de Espafia treinta y sds anos» i. e. 1598 or 1599 plus 36 1634 or 1635. AI;lmad b. 01isim left Marrakesh and went to Salce and Rabat, .to take ship for the Pilgrimage to Mecca. He does not give us his route on the outward journey, but on completing the rites of the Hajj and visiting Medina, he went to Egypt. He would seem to have made this journey from Mecca to Egypt in the company of CAll al-Ujhiiri (Vienna p. 169), who must be the' Miiliki shaikh of al-Azhar mentioned in Blockelmann G. A. L. IT p. 317. It is not absolutely certain that al-Ujhiiri had made the Hajj in his company, for the phrasealogy is ambiguous: «The Iman cAli al-Ujhiiri asLed me in Egypt, after we had returned from Mecca .. " This l,ve may simply be intended to refer to Ahmad b. Qasim and his travelling companions, and not refer to him and the Shaikh at all. At all events he knew al-Ujliuri in Egypt, and was aSKed by him to write a book describing his experiences in France. We observe that AI.llnad b. Oasim mixed with the intellectual elite of his day in Egypt, amd was well considered by them. He also mentions that while in Egypt he read a book by Abmad al· Maqqari entitled AI-Jami" W taH'lirikh cala bila.d il-Andalus. This title is not hsted by BrockeImann, but it seems reasonably clear that Abmad b. Qiisim is referring to Nafh ai-rib. From Egypt he turned westwards to Tunis. and there he seems to have stllyed. At least we find no further mention of any travels, ~'nd, moreover in 10'10/1641 his son Mubammad Khoja is acting as his copyist, '0 that he would seem to have had at least part of his family with him in Tunis. We can date his arrival in this city t1pproximately. On p. 163 of the Vienna ms. we learn «After we had come to the citv of Tunis, our spiritual brother and friend, the author of the book, entreated me to translate it from Spanish into Arabic.» This does not seem to indicate any very long interval between his arrival in Tunis and his undertaking the translation. This task we learn (\'ienna ms. p. 164 at the bottom), was undertaken after Abii.1-Mubasin Mur~ld Dey had come to power. Murad ruled 1637-1640, so that we may put the arrival of AI;lmad b. Q~sim in Tunis as about 1637. We do know the exact date of the completion of the translation, 25th July 1638 (Vienna p. 156 21st Rab. I. 1042). He next turned hIS attention to translating from Arabic into Spanish, for in Bologna ms. Sf;.') we find him making a tn\nsla-. 72 -.

(7) 110n of a khuJba for J?al1ta(ia1l. He does not mention the author's name, so that we can onlv speculate whether thJ; «scrm(\n que hizo en aravigo un gran sabio, se entiende que fue en los fines del mes de ramadan» wag the w()rk of his friend al-Ujhiiri «Fi fac;la'il shahr Ramac;lan» mentioned in G. A. L. loco cit. This translation we find was commissioned by yet another Morisco, one Mul}ammad Rubio. Al}mad b. Qflsim explains that he made this translalion because most of the Andalusians understood Spanish better than literary Arahic. «Conozco que los mas de los andaluces espafioles entienden mas bien la lengua de rromiice que la lengua gramatical arabiga en que estan escritas »(Bologna p. 116). That a book should be produced in Spanish in Tunis in the 17th century should not surprise us. Tunisia was an area where the Moriscos were well rec.eIved after their expulsion from Spain, and we know of many villages that. were Morisco settlements, and which preserve a certain Spanish cachet to the present day. Jose"h Morgan. who was sometime chancellor to the British Consulate in Algiers mentions Musbms of SpQnish origin in Tunisia in his little work «Mohometism fully explained» London 1723-7. He it was who brought to England the ms. of Mohammed Rabadan's Spanish poem (now B. M. Har!. 7501 pub!. 1. R. tl. S. 1867-72, anther ms. of this same work written in Tunis in 1606 in the Bibliotht:quc Nationale, Paris). Morgan also mentions having seen and copied part of a Spanish work by one Abdalquerim Ali Perez (Morgan op. cit.). Jaime Oliver Asin has discussed this centre of Spanish culture in Tunis in an article in the first volume of ill-Andalus «Un morisco de Tullez admirador de Lope». There is mOrC(lVer a littb group of a'ss. in Spanish in Spanish characters in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid (9074, 9534, 9653, 9654, 9655) that are all works on Muslim doctrine of North African origin. The other pa"af'es in the Bologna ms. are in different hands but some at least are probably w::Jrks of Ahmad b. Qasim, especially the «Coronica y relacion de la esclarecida de~endencia xarifa ... y otras c()sas ... traducidas de arabigo en castelIano en tunez afio de 1049» (1639) (Bologna H. 1-116), for this is precisely the sort of text that would interest a man who had been in Sherifian service for most 'of bis life. Here then, we see h()w a member of the persecuted Morisco minority of Spain was able, when in a Muslim society, to deve!c'p his talents and successfully hold high appointn'ents. Once in -. 1~. -.

(8) North Africa, the MOrlSCOS frequently found that the more (Idvanced material culture they had acquired in Spain gave them an advantage 0\'<,1' their 1'\orth African-born fellow Muslims. We have a glimpse of a caste of Spanish-born North African functionaries, Ahmad ben Qa~im, the stat-.; secretary, Ibrahim ben Ahmad, the master gunner, Ja'TIiro al-Andalusi, the architect, together with Europeans, renegades from Christianity, like St. Mandrier, the master gunner and engineer in Morocco, and even Usta Murad Dey, the Genoese ruler of Tunis, 1637-1640. This is an aspect of the «Expansion of Europe» which has been little remarked upon, and has, indeed, gone almost unnoticed because in North Africa it was only the techniques 01' Europe that were adopted, and in their ways of thought these men SE'em to have been pious Muslims with no innovations to make. Ahmad ben Qasim is concerned to legitimise the science of artill"ry by reference to ahadit concerning archery, and thus we leap back a thousand years from the world of the European Counter-RE'formation to the world of the foundation of Islam. This W?S a critical point in the history of Islamic culture. To the Muslims, for long possessed of a superior material culture to that of Europe, it was nO\', clear that Europe was ahead in techniques, and yet the lead was not so great that the Muslim wurld C(fll:d not ha\'e made up the lost graund. The trea'lse on gunnery, «the first of its kind m Arabic, but God knows best» if it had not been an isolated rhenomen0n, but had been followed by other technical works, might lwve served to maintain a scientific and industrial equilibrium between Islam and Christendom. Of course it did not, the Kitilb al-cizz 1I'a'1-rntt11iific is a literary and scientific curiosity which had no repercussions, and it is only riow in the 20th century that Arab-speakers are beginning to plan to make up the technical leeway of five hundred years, This gi,"; a strangleY'contemporaneous note D th~ complaint of our interpeter Ahmad ben Qasim Bejarano, who struggled with techanical terms and almost despaired «because no Arabic words existed for them». He wa~ right, and it is only in our own days that the gap is being bridged.. -. 14 -.

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(20) TRANSLATION: In the N:lme of Allah the Merciful (etc.) The humble and contrite believer Al;lmad ben Qasim Ibn Al;lmad ibn al-Faqih Qasim Ibn al-Shaikh al Hajari al Andalus! says ~s follows: I came fro:n the land of al-Andalus to the city of Marrakesh (may God keep it sak' abont forty years before the present date '. I then left it and went to the Casbah of Sake and to Rabat. There I t00k ship, intending to make the Pilgrimage. AJlah vouchsafed that I was able to pay the debt of obligation at Mecca, that noble city, in the sacred house of Allah, and to abide in the exalted holy places consecrated to sacrifice. I pray God will receive many prayers. After ~ornpleting the rites of the Pilgrimage we went to \'ledina and offered up our prayers there over the noblest man who has appeared 011 the face of the earth. After we had come back to the city of Tunis (may God keep it safe), our spiritual brother and friend, the author of this book entreated me to translate it from the foreign (Spanish) language into Arabk. This was because he knew that in the city of Marrftkesh I had been interpreter for many years to Muley Zaidan 2. son of the Sultan Al;lmad Tbn Muiey Mul;lammad al Hasani, the Sage, the Noble one, m2y Allah rest his soul, and i was also his Private Secretary for the Foreign (L e. Spanish) Language. In the same way I was interpreter to the two Sultans 3, his sons, may Allah r~st their soul~, and pardon them. Now when I perused the book written in the foreign tongue that the rais (captain) had composed ar:d written ont in his own hand, and when I saw 1. According to page 156 of this ms. the book was composed in Spa. nish between 1040 and 1042 A. H. (1630·1632 A. D.). The translation of th. original Spanish v,"sion into Arabic was completed in 1048/163". !. Sultan of /.-:oocco, li)16·1039/1607-162~. 3. Presllm..lb.:y 'Ahd ai·Maiik AbG.·l·Man\'an, who came to th-: t!wone in 1')19/1629, and al·Walid, who reigned 104j·l045/1634-1635. As A\lInad h. Qiisirn does not me.orion the third son of Muley Zaidan, Mul.lammad IV (alAsghar), who relg;'lcd from l(I45~1064, we may' suppose that he ~eft on Ns Pilgri.nage before h', came to the throne, i. e. 1044·1045/1634·16 ,'i. The addition of the formula ra1;amahum allalut to the mention of the father and his two sons correctly indicates that they were dead at the time of the making of the trlOolation, 10'18/1638.. -. 86.

(21) how exceiier.t was h.i~ intention viz. that it should serve to the advantage ot the· JVluslims and to help them against the polytheist Unbelievers (for the Prophet, on whom be blessing and peace, said, «when a man dies, his good works are brought to an end, except these thrE'e:- n dowry given to a slave girl, and knowledge from which the people may derive advantage, and a righteous son who shall pray for him», and indeed the author says in the book that he did not expect to derive profit from it in this world, but rather in the sight of Allah Almighty, and so the book may be considered as a dowry given to a slave girl, and as knowledge from which the people may draw profit), I therefore resolved to put the book into Arabic. Allah entrusted the work to me, and confided to me the beginnings, thanks be to Him, Eternal in Bis Grace and bounty and generosity and help and benevolence. For the Prophet (etc) has said: whoso can make a sound prayer, let him pray for his Prince «0 Allah I beseech You by Your liinetynine names, those I know and those I do not know, and by Your potent names by which are opened the treasure chests of Your mercy and broken the seals of Your will and hastened the speed of your reply, I pray, for the sake of the excellence of our Lord M"l;1ammad (etc.) who was Your slave and Your Prophet that You bestow the victory on our Sovereign Lord the Caliph, the defender of the faith and Vicar of the Lord of the two worlds, Sultan of all the Sultans of Islam. our Master the Sultan Muriid " son of the Ottomar. Sultans, on whom may God have mercy and exalt to the highest mansion in heaven, sultan of the two continents and of Egypt and Syria and both Iraqs, keeper the Holy Places, may God strengtJ,en his arm by the might of His Victory, and extend hi<; realm with His aid and gladden him and make him to abide in the mention of His name. and assist him and his armies to victory in their going out, and in their return, for the sake of the holy men of God and the men of religion and of His scripture. May He give him the sanction of the sultans, his parents, ble.>sed with the gr~'::e of Allah ond of his forefathers whose renown God spread abroi!d in the em th so that finally fear of them was handed dO'c1ll in the hearts of the unbelieving Christian. of. 4.. Murad IV. 1032-1049/16231640. --. 87. -.

(22) polytheists, the which may Allah send with their children to perdition and ccnfound and atflict them with the most dreadful of disasters. Now I have myself seen in very many Christian lands and m Christian books and I have noticed among their ruling classes af'd omonl!' the ccmm0n people that they are beset, night and day. by a C6'lseIess fear (of the Ottoman Sultans). Because of them the hope of the Christians that the Ottoman Empire would be brought to an end with the sixteenth Sultan " has been desIroyed, although they q\toted on that subject the saying of se John the disciple who wrote the fourth gospel, and then an allegorical book called Boqalibshi (the Apocalypse). They adduced certain of his prophedes for their own purposes, (for Allah demonstrated in the Quriin that their words are but vanity and lies.) The sultan who is in power today, may God strengthen him and give him the victory, is 6 the eighteenth sultan, the total has been passed and the error in their interpretation of the scripture exposed. Moreover the Christians (i. e. their leaders and learned men) say that for the Gospel ther'~ are three explicit graces; they said that in secret there was a blessing which was that Allah would divert the Ottoman Sultans fmm them. Allah said in the Quran, ,Pray to me and I will answer», and the Prophet of God said, «Prayer is one of God's arm:es.» He (The Prophet), said «0 son of the bounty of God, so often as God shall ins?lire you with prayer, know that he wishes to imrart this to YO'l»' 0 my God. blessings and might eternal upon the Ottorr.an Empire ar;c1 the Sultanate ever continuing among their descendan", until the Day of Judgement. May they be followers of God's religion and of the practice of the Prophet. May they and the Muslims prosper. Amen. I pray the unbelievers may be conquered under their yoke and utterly routed, their lands become the huitage and the booty of those who continued to pray in the name of our Lord Mul)ammad, on whom be the greatest of blessings. Amen, 0 Lord of the Two Worlds. 0 Allah make victorious all Ml1slim mltans over the unbelievers, the heretics, the bringers of innovations. I pray that whoso be Prince of the 5. 'Uthmiin II 1027-1031/1618-1622. 6. Muriid IV was, strictly speaking, the 17th in line (see A. D. Alderson, The Structur" of the Uttoman D:masf}. Oxford 1956), but the .15th Sult.m, Mustafa I, had a short second reign ':11 1622-3 after the 16th Sultall. If th!s is counted .15 a separate reign, MurJti was the 18th Ott:rrion ntl,er· -. 83 -.

(23) Muslim People and ReligIon may have eternal might and justice. Amen, 0 Loru of the Two Worlds.» Now I began the translation of this book after Abii-l Mul;tasin Murad Dey 7 (the noblest of Amirs, ruler among the excellent and the mighty) :ame to power in Tunis, may God make his rule eterIial and make his days joyous. Hc it was who put an end to many unseemly things, and so forth, among the best-known of which was the Winehol!f,e, that one could formerly enter to buy wine, in spite of what the Prophet said, {.: He put all evil in a house and made wine its key», and again, «A measure of wine is like an idolater.» Of all the things that I have seen and by which I have been greatly vexed W3f, the fact that in the Sunni communal mosoue, well-known for its holiness and renowned throughout the world. the Zayluna mosque while the iman was giving his sermon, 111e children were playing outside it, raising their voices so loud that if anvone were near them, he could not make out what the ;miim wa', saying in his sermon Yet Allah Almighty has said ", "You think it is a slight matter, but to Allah it is very grave». And I haw" never seen in all the Muslim lands I have visited,. nor have I aver hearc1 of sud. a thing ill the main mosques at the hour of the sermon or at any other time. Murad Dey forbade them 10 do it, and improved matters, may Allah increase his benefit and his continnanco in this world and in the next. He also levelled the places in the road that were bumpy by reason of the sand dunes, and gave clear view of the sea as one came out of the town, which was not so before. The biggest inegu!arity of ten-ain concerned was very near to the Sea Gate (Bab al Babr) and higher than the walls, so that if the enemy had got that far, and wished to break into the city, it woald have been very easy for him, because this mound was there. All men skilled in the wars \\'ho saw it before the mound was done away with bore ",·)tness to the daGger. Moreover for the benefit of the Muslims he had many fine buildings constructed in the port of Bizerta that ar,~ the wonder of all that see them. He sent to carry out this work the Engineer Captain (Rais) who in Algiers demonstrated his ability in putting the harbour in order. He brought 7. Usta Muriid Dey. 1637·1640. A Genoese renegade who fortified Porto Farina, which he 'Peopled with Spanish Mool s. (EL s.v. Tuni"ia.) ~. Quran. Sure 24.14. (f'lligel.). -. 119.

(24) a plenteo~,s ".vater -sl'ppiy there and to the new edifices, Tilis was nl-Hajj MUH knc-w~ as Jamiro al·Andalus! al-GharnatL He undertook the repair of the port at BJzerta on the orders of the Dey, may Allah make him content, he also set in order everything necessary for !:hips and galleys to put in there and to repel the unbelievers. Furthermore the Dey gave orders for the building of a fortress in Gar al-Malb (Salt Cave\ to prevent the Christians from entering the haroour, and to provide a haven there for Muslim vessels. This was 'all of the greatest advantage to Islam, because the Christians med to attack with galleys and boats there, and capture the l\iIuslirn., and their vessels, His good fortune and wealth were displayed in these his acti.,~s and in what happened to him in the e\ents of the twentieth Fama,lan of the year 1034 (27th June 1625). He was «Coptain» or a squadron of six of the Tunisian ga· lleys >.vhen they put to sea. Five Maltese galleys put out from Sidly and gave chase. A fierce battle ensued and on both sides very ,11any died. Ailah granted "ictory to the captain and to the Mus!ims. They took 1WO galkys from the Christians, One, called Patrona, was actin/! as flag-ship, the other was called San Francisco. He was so sllccessful in his attack on the galley in which the Christian commander was sailing that he thought he would be able to capture him, but lh" Christiau fled and got away. In the two captured vessels were foune about 5)0 Mnslims, who were exceedingly joyous to be ,et free. Also there was near Wadi'l-Mall; which lies between Bizerta and Tabarqa, a castle built by the Frankish Christians with permission so as ·to be able to ship out wheat, butter, and other things, i. e taking things from thc Muslim lands to Christian lands. This state of affairs lasled many years, and by reason of the great quantity of grain they exporte.1, the Muslims living near the fort went short. When the Dey came to power he forbade them to continue and the Christians lost the hopes that they had formerly held. All that 1he Dey did demonstrated his goodness in this world, and the next, so ple.'1se Allah Almighty. I pray Allah that his good actions may prove acceptable and that He may aid him. Among all his other benefactions is that I have been able to finish the translation of this book and edit it with the author's appendices. He explained to me that this is the first book to be composed in Arabic on this subject (though Allah knows best). What -. >9 -.

(25) we have mentioned is sufficient to indicate the purity of his motives. I o Allah make us of use to Muslims in his righteousness and help him to vindicate the right$ of the Muslims, and return to him (a reward) for his goodness. both in himself and his wealth and In his family, give him and us the wealth and prosperity we seek, and grant eternal felicity to us and him and to the author of the book. After having occupied myself some days with the translation of the book, I gave up the task because of the technical terms of gunnery and connected subjects, for no Arabic words existed for lhem, so that I caST my pen aside and determined to leave it. But then I called to mind dreams that I had had previously in which I read in my sleep the Word of Allah 9 "for those who were mean and recommended meanness to others.» This strengthened my determination to aba.ldon meanness myself. I set to work and from that hour Allah made my way an easy one until I finished. If level: h1d ~my d011bts I would ask the Rais to explain the matter tome, which he did, gh ing direct explanations to all my queries. I came to see that everything mc))tioned and written in the book has a practical and verbal explanation, and that it is of the great est use fur one who is translating from one language to another if he understands what he is translating, and the meaning if possible. The day j decided to complete the translation of the book into Arabic I arose from sleep in the morning with these words from the Quran on my lips, «Today we have completed for you your religIOn, and ha'!e perfected our goodness towards you, and it has pleas,~d us to grant yot' Islam as your religion» 1'. I. understood from this \ erse that Allah Almighty acceptE'd the book anCI was pleased with it. I pray Allah it may be of profit to us in this world and the next, and of use to the Muslims, by the grace of Muhammad our MastE'r, on whom be blessing and peace. I have entitled the book, with the leave of the Rajs who wlOte it ", «Handbook for :hose 1.. ho undertake the Holy War with artillery». The Holy War h:ls always been one of the pillars of our faith. 9. Quran. 4.41 (H) , 10. Quran. 55. m.) 11. KiUib al'-izz wa'}-ml1nafi" lil-mujahidin fi sabil illah bi11-madafi', -. 91. -.

(26) The Prophet even, on whora be blessing and peace, said. «No trib~ ever abandoned the ::-egular exercise of the Holy War but it ha~ come to naught.» Of this there have been many examples in this world, and Holy War is of great benefit, and there are sayings and vctions of our Prophet to support this view, for he personally took part in about 20 raids in accordance with the orders of God. His ,;ompanions likewise, may God grant them his grace,and one has only to consider their conquests and the lands they occupied. Similarly with sornl' Muslim rulers, Allah rest their souls, who kept up the Holy War in this \vorld and the next, killing unbelievers to exalt the word of Allah, who granted them the victory and strengthened their feet by having them walk in His ways and follow the Sunna (practice) of his Prophet, who has said, «Allah Almighty said, «If you aid Allah, He will aid you, and will set your feet firmly on the earth.»» In the ,history books \,hich have been compiled by theillustrious scholar Al;lluad al Maqqarl " in his book which is in Egypt "Complete Historv of the land of Spain» (AI jami< li tawarikh cala bilad il-Andalus.), may Allah return it to Islam, it is stated that AI-Mansnr (i. e. Almanzor) Ibn Abi-Amir was in the city of Cordova and made fifty two raids against the unbelievers in the course of twenty-six years. Each year he raided twice, once in summer and again in winter, and he was never defeated. Among the ancient works I have consulted at Tunis is one called Mishkat al Mapbth 13, where in the chapter on the preparation of the holy war there is a tradition related on the authority of «Uqba Ibn <Amir, the companion who said, «I heard the Prophet, on )whom be blessing ~nd peace, say, while he was in the pulpit, «Prepare fer them what stl'engtb you can; behold, strength is in shooting, b,'hold strength is in shooting, behold, strength. !2. GAL.n. 290. S. n. 401 Thi., title does not figure among. al-Maqqa· ri's llsted works, but Al).ad .~. Oasim \vould seem to' have b:.~en -ref0rring. to Nafl:z al~Tib when AlmanzDr's raids are mentioned in almost Ihe :;ame wods. See NatJ:z od. 'Abd al-Hamid, Cairo 1367:9/1949. Vol. I, p. 378. last. line. 13, GAL. 11. 364, The a'lthor i3 al-Kh"tib al Tibrizi. fl, c. 737/1336. Edited in Calcutta in 1938 by Al Ha. Maulana Fazlul Karim under the title of Al-J-ladis. An E' ~gtish tran31ation and commentary with vowel pointed Arabic text of Mishkiit ul Masdb'h, -. 92.

(27) is in shooting (Tradition according to Muslim) 14. And another nadition on the same authori.1y says, «I heard thE Prophet of Allah say, «The Rum will seel to win the day over you, but Allah will ce your help, so none of you should be weak in archery with his arrows.» (Muslim). 15 Yet anothf'r tr~dition on the same authority says,«He who is accustomed to shooting, and then abandons it, is not one of us, -or according to "nother version- is' accustomed to shooting, and then abandons it, is disobedient». (Muslim) 16, According to Abu Huraira, the Prophet of Allah said, «There are a hundred different mansions in Paradise, 'which Allah has prepared fol' those who fight the Jihad (Holy War). It is as far from one mansion to another as it is from Heaven to Earth.» 17 Abu Huraira also reported the following tradition: the 'Prophet of Allah said «A man Jightingthe Holy War is like one who .keeps his fast and rouses himself in prayer to the verses of Allah's Quran without interruptinl; his fast or his prayers till the warrior comes back from the Hol~'War» (agreed) '". Another tradition on the authority of Anas says that the Prophet of Allah said, «To gu out in the morning to fight the Holy War or to go in the evening is better than the world and everything in it» (agre{'d) H From Sulaiman al-Farisi there is a tradition, «I heard the Prophet of APah saying: To serve at one's post .on the Holy War for one day and one night is better than to have fasted for a month with all the atter..dant !,:ood works and prayers. If a man dies while serving, he :'cceivcs the benefit of what he had been doing; and as much again, and sustenance, and he will be safe from mischiefmakers». (Muslim) 20, Abu ~Abs said that the Prophet said, "No servant of mine who has got his fee~dw:ty on the path of the Holy:War will have them touched by Hell·iiril.» (AI Bukhari) 21, According to Abu Huraira the Prophet said, "No unbeliever and the man th~.t kilIed him will ever meet in Hell-fire,» (Muslim) 22. Zayd bnll Kh31id reported that the Prophet said, «If anyone 14, 15 and 16. 17 and 18. Op D. Op. cil p. 20, 21 and 22.. See ,\l·Hadi5, Book 2, p. 371. cil. p. 343. 344. Op. <it, p. 345,.

(28) arms a man for a raid in the Holy War, it is as though he himself had made a raid, and if any man takes up th~ family responsibilities of another who is away on the Holy War, it is as though he himself were at war.» (agreed) 23. Buraida s~,id that the Prophet said, «The wives of th08e away on service in the Holy War are to be considered as sacrosanct by those who have stayed behind, as if they were their own mothers. And if it should rnpp<"n that a CIa" wo had not gone out to the Holy War and who har! undertaken tG lock after the family of one who had gone out, should betray the fighting man's trust, when Judgement Day comes, he will have to stand waiting while his good deeds are taken away from him. What do you expect?» (Muslim) "'. Jabir bnu Samura reported a tradition that the Prophet said, (, There will always be a !'TOUP of Muslims to fight for their faith until the Last Hour ccmes». (Mu,lim) 2•• According to Ana8, the Prophet said. (,No one who enters Paradise would want to eotre back to the world, even to possess every· thing on ea.th, e'cept f.)f a m::trtyr in the Holy War who would wish to return to meet his martyrdom ten times over for the sake ef the ble,sings it wiil bring him». (Agreed) >6. Abil Mii~a said that a man :ame to the Prophet and said, «One man went out to fight for the sake of the booty, and another to gain renown, and yet another to show off his position, who then was fighting in tbe path of Allah (in the Holy War)? The Prophet I eplied, "Whoever fights to exalt the Word of Allah is in th<1 path of Allah (agreed) 27. This is the end, but there are very many other traditions in the ~,ame sense. Sultan Muley Zaidan had a great deal of artillery at Marrakesh, capital of the Maghreb. When Muley cAbdallah 28" his nephew, son of Muley Sheikh, Sultan of Fe7, revolted aginst him in 1015. 11 and 24. Up dt. p. 346. 25 and 26. O~. <it. p. 347. :7. OP. cit. p. 353. 28. For this 'J\hdallc.h's pla(':'! in the Sherifian family tree, ~i'e dc Castrks, Les sourcet inedites de thistoire du Maroc de 1530 a 1845, Ier3 rene Anglaterre, \'Jme I, p. 256. Plnnche HI. He is No. 31 in the glTealogical table. I -. 94. -.

(29) (1606) 29 or thereabouts, Muley Zaidan gave orders to bring up the artillery to the camp. I have it on more than one authority that the complete train consisted of eighty cannons. Some time later there was a Chr~stian Captain in his service. He was a Frenchman called Smandirs a master gunner and enginee~. One day he told the Sultan certain of the secrets of th'3 art of gunn,ery., (the Arabic text here is obscure). For this the Sultan praised him, :mc! made him a close companion. If this book had then existed in Arabic how would such a thing have been possible? I have done what I can to remedy my ignorance in thi' translation, but if it should ,~ome into the hands of one who knows more about this art than I, and he finds points where I have failed, and notices them it would be a good action on his part to correct them in writing or orally. If anyon~ should say, «How c!a you know how to read Spanish, when a man should on!y busy himself with what concerns him?» My answer is that the language T first spoke in Spain was Arabic, but we leRrnt to read Spanish by constant intercourse. Then Allah inspired me with the idea of leaving that country for the lands of the Muslims. Now when I found out that the 'unbelievers at the frontiers made a practice of investigating everyone that passed to see if they could find a Spanish Muslim in disguise, SO as to be able to ,end IJim for tri,d, (for they hac! forbidden Muslims 10 approach the frontiers so as to prevent them from fleeing to Muslim territory) I studied for many years to learn their speech d'ild to pick t,p their writing, so th2t, when I came to their country on my way to Muslim lands to escape, they would think me one of them, When I reached the sea-coats where there was a strong coastguard. I stayed among them, and nothing they saw in me gave them any cause to doubt, either in my speech or my manners, or my way of w,iting,. 3'". 29. Fol' thesf; civil wars in Morocco, ~(~e de Castries, Source;. Iere serie. Anglaterre, tome Il, especially, A True H.istorical discourse,.. Chaps. 12, 13, 14, 15, reprinted on pp, 361-375. 30. Antoines ae Sallettes, ::;l!!UI de SaIf'! MW1drier, see, de Ca&tries, Sources, Iere serL~, Angleterre, tome H, p. 5,)), note 3, and Iere se-fie, .Ff'lnee, ~0me Ill, pp XXXIX~XLVH. He enteru:J Muley Zaidan's ser';ke on August 6th, 1614, ~md wa~; behcad-.:,ct after an (ittempt 10 escape, April 14th, 1626. He sometimes spelt his name S1. Mnnari.§s, see Sources, H!l'! seric, Franco, tome Ill, o. 19, 9.'5. -.

(30) I came flOm .their country to Muslim territory, and it was .for this purpo! e tbat I studied and attained proficiency in their way of writing -and all men are to be judged by their intentions. I afterwards realised that by reason of the studies I had undertaken with purpose of drawing near to Allah and to be able to approach the land of the Muslims, there were opened to me, because of tUs forbidden knowledge, the doors of princes that were .• hut to many people, also the translation of this book which, Allah willing, will ae of great benefit to the Muslims. Moreover the Chief Tmam Ali ~II Ujhuri 31 asked me in Egypt, after we had returned from Mesca, that I should write a book about what had befallen me 1hat was outstanding in the land of France, for Jmade a journey there on business with the leave of the Sultan of Morocco. Priests in ('rders there came to talk with me about their religion, which they praised, and they cast blame on our religion, so I read the Gosoels and other works,so as to be able to answer them from their own scripture, and God gave me the victory over them time andti'lle again. In l\iloroc co the Cadi of the M.uslil1ls CIsa Ibn Abdarrahman alSakati said to me. «The Jihad consists of making·war on the unbelievers and in giving them an answer for all the lies they spread ~bout our religion and about their own". Because of that I rejoiced when we disputed with them. The Jews came to me both in France and Flanders, for after I had concluded my lmsiness I travelled there. It is a northerly land domin"'ted by th,· celestial Pole, and it is situated in latitude fifty-two degrees The Jl'WS praised their religion. but I found the Torah written in Spanish, and I real it all, and it consists of twentyfour books; I found 'in it in many places m2terial with which to answer them in defence of our rdigion as I had found in the Gospels, praise be to Allah, Who gnided us and made us l\iluslims, I have finished the bool; that the scholar sought from me in Egvpt, z·nd I have, called it "The Conqueror of Religion against' the Unbelievers» 32, and I have written out a copy of it here, and I have not achieved all this I:x~ept by reason of my learning to read Spanish, for the purpose of escaping from the territory of the Unbe21. See GAL. n. 317. .:2 Na~ir alwdin 'als'wlwqawm il-kafhin. I um find no trace of t1I::'; book in any bibIiograph; _.. 96 -.

(31) liever to this land. I pray by the Grace of Muhammad, the Holy Prophet, that AllDh may deal kindly with me in both this world, and the next, and aIm with all Muslims. Amen. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Two Worlds. Blessing and peace on Mul;lammad and his family and Companions. This is v,hat the Mufti, SRYjid Ahmad al Sharif al-Hanafi wrote dter reading the whole book, «Praise be to Allah, who has furnished his w'uds with the ;words of those who undertake the Holy War and has bestowed his good fortune on all grades of them. He has given his peace to the martyrs for the faith of those who perform the pra)cr" Greetings to the most holy Prophet, his tamilv and companions. » The :nte'preter Ahroad ben Qasim ben Ahmad Ibn al Faqih Qa,im Ibn al-Shaikh al-Hajari aJ..il.ndalllsi, (may Allah grant him grace and bestow on him the best of gifts) who has translated this book called "Handbook for those engaged in the Holy War by 1 he use of Arlill"'ry and Cannon> >, 33. c[,mpiled by Rais Ibriihim bnu Ghanim bnn Mul;l'lmm'ld buu Zakariya al-Andalusi, may Allah have mercy on his parents, has r"(1Uestd me to examine it I have read it and found it of gre~t use to Muslims, and a iuide to men of learning and to Muslim students of artilkry and gunnery. The Faqir Amad al Sharif al Hanafi." May Allah deal with him with grace and favour, Praise be to Allah. The copying 01 this manuscript was completed on the 16th of DIll! I Qa'da of 1050 (27th Feb. 1(41) by the hand of Muhammad Khoja, son of the tramlator of the beok, Ahmad bnn Qasim bnu Ahmad bnn-al-Faqih, O;isim bnn al-Shaikh al-Hajari' al-Andalusi. He wrote it in the city of Tunis, may Allah prctect it, for the «uthor of the book, may God accept him, blessings on J\1ul;lam mad, etc. L. P. Harvey ?-3, Kitab al-'icz wal mani'fi' Jil mujiihidin fi sabj] illall bi alat il-l.lUriib wa'l rnadftfi', Acknowledgement. We would lib to thank oolh Profesor A.F .L. Beest0D and Or. S,M. Stern for reading oa1"t of thi.; study in a draft form, and for offering valuable suggestions We would hasten to add that these gentlemen ,1re in. no way responsib:c for any errors or omissions to be found in these pages. -. 97. -.

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