3.4 El presente simple en forma interrogativa

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TEMA 3 :

3.1- El imperativo

3.2 – Los números ordinales

3.3 – Escribir la fecha

3.4 – El presente simple en forma interrogativa

3.5- There is / There are

3.6 – Actividades

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TEMA 3:

3.1 – El Imperativo:

Las oraciones imperativas, en inglés, son las únicas en las que no escribimos el sujeto. Diferenciamos entre:

- Órdenes: Open that door, please. (Abre esa puerta, por favor). En las órdenes se empieza directamente con el verbo.

- Prohibiciones: Don’t open that door, please. (No abras esa puerta por favor). En las prohibiciones usaremos primero el auxiliar don’t seguido del verbo. Podemos emplear la palabra please.

- Sugerencias: Let’s open that door. (Abramos esa puerta).

Cuando hacemos sugerencias la primera palabra es let’s, indicando que se incluye la persona que habla (Let’s = let us).

3.2 - Los números ordinales:

Esta es la lista de los números ordinales. Cuando queramos escribirlos con cifras, escribiremos el dígito acompañado de las últimas dos letras de la palabra escrita. First 1st primeiro, 1º Second 2nd segundo, 2º Third 3rd terceiro, 3º Fourth 4th cuarto, 4º Fifth 5th quinto, 5º Sixth 6th sexto, 6º Seventh 7th sétimo, 7º Eighth 8th oitavo, 8º Ninth 9th noveno, 9º Tenth 10th décimo, 10º

Eleventh 11th décimo primeiro, 11º Twelfth 12th décimo segundo,12º Thirteenth 13th décimo terceiro,13º Fourteenth 14th décimo cuarto, 14º Fifteenth 15th décimo quinto, 15º Sixteenth 16th décimo sexto, 16º Seventeenth 17th décimo sétimo, 17º

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3 Eighteenth 18th décimo oitavo, 18º

Nineteenth 19th décimo noveno, 19º

Fíjese en que las decenas (20º, 30º, 40º, 50º...) acaban todas en –tieth.

Twentieth 20th Thirtieth 30th Fortieth 40th Fiftieth 50th Sixtieth 60th Seventieth 70th Eightieth 80th Ninetieth 90th

3.3 - Escribir la fecha

Hay dos maneras de escribir y decir las fechas en inglés. Fíjese porque hay bastante diferencia con respecto al procedimiento que seguimos en gallego o en castellano.

Se Escribe Se dice

1 May 2011 The first of May, two thousand and eleven 1st May 2011 - 01/05/2011 May the first, two thousand and eleven

Cuando escribimos la fecha, los números del día pueden llevar o no las últimas letras del número ordinal. Cuando la decimos hablando, siempre utilizaremos el número ordinal para decir el día.

Los meses tienen que escribirse en mayúscula.

Hasta el año 2000 los años se dicen agrupando las cifras de dos en dos: 1990- nineteen ninety.

A partir del año 2000 lo más común es: 2020-two thousand and twenty.

3.4 - El presente simple en la forma interrogativa

En la unidad anterior vimos la formación del presente simple negativo: I work (afirmativo) I don’t work (negativo).

Para construir el presente simple en la forma interrogativa utilizamos también el auxiliar Do para todas las personas, excepto la tercera persona de singular, en la que utilizamos Does.

Fíjese que al utilizar el auxiliar Does el verbo ya no lleva añadido –s como en la forma afirmativa.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I work I don’t work Do I work?

You work You don’t work Do you work?

He works He doesn’t work Does he work?

She works She doesn’t work Does she work?

It works It Doesn’t work Does it work?

We work We don’t work Do we work?

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They work They don’t work Do they work?

El orden de la oración interrogativa:

Auxiliar + sujeto + verbo + complementos + ?

Recuerde que el signo interrogativo se coloca solo al final de la oración. Ejemplos:

– Do your parents work in this city? ¿Trabajan tus padres en esta ciudad? – Does Peter work in London?¿ Trabaja Peter en Londres?

En caso de haber una palabra interrogativa:

What/where/how... auxiliar + suxeito + verbo + complementos + ?

Este tipo de oraciones se llama en inglés Wh questions Ejemplo:

– Where do you live? ¿Dónde vives?

Cuando utilizamos adverbios de frecuencia los colocaremos justo antes del verbo, no del auxiliar.

Recuerde que en los casos del verbo To be y Have got la interrogativa no se hace con el auxiliar “do” sino que hacemos una inversión del sujeto y el verbo: How old are you? - ¿Cuántos años tienes?

Where is the hotel? - ¿Dónde está el hotel?

What have you got in your handbag? - ¿Qué tienes en el bolso?

Los pronombres y algunas expresiones interrogativas son los siguientes

Who? – ¿Quién? When? – ¿Cuándo? What? – ¿Qué? / Cal? Why? – ¿Por qué? Where? – ¿Dónde? Whose? – ¿De quién? How? – ¿Cómo? What time? – ¿A qué hora? How often? – ¿Con qué frecuencia?

Which? – ¿Cuál? Ejemplos:

– Do they always work on Saturdays? ¿Trabajan siempre los sábados? – Does your mother usually drive? ¿Conduce normalmente tu madre? – Where do you often travel in summer? ¿A dónde sueles viajar en verano?

3.5 - There is / there are

Para expresar la idea de que hay o existe algo, utilizamos las expresiones there is (singular) there are (plural).

Singular

- Positive (afirmativa) – There is a lake (hay un lago ).

- Negative (negativa) – There isn’t a park (no hay un parque). - Questions (preguntas) – Is there a hotel? (¿Hay un hotel?).

- Short answers (respuestas cortas) – Yes, there is /No, there isn’t.(Si / No).

Plural

- Positive (afirmativa) – There are three children. (Hay tres niños). - Negative (negativa) – There aren’t two books. (No hay dos libros). - Questions (preguntas) – Are there two books? (¿Hay dos libros?).

- Short answers (respuestas cortas) – Yes, there are./No, there aren’t (Si / No).

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3.6 – Actividades:

1. Escriba los opuestos a estas órdenes o prohibiciones.

_ 1. Come here, please! [_______________________]

_ 2. Write this word in your notebook, please! [_______________________] _ 3. Don’t put on that pullover! [_______________________]

_ 4. Bring me that book, please! [_______________________] _ 5. Go to bed immediately! [_______________________]

2. Relacione las oraciones de la izquierda con las de la derecha.

_ 1. Write this exercise in your notebook, please. Don’t read now. _ 2. Wait for your brother, please. Don’t stand up. _ 3. Close that book, please. Don’t go alone.

_ 4. Sit down, please. Don’t write on your book.

3. Escriba el tipo de imperativo que corresponda:solo el verbo/ don’t /

let’s.

_ 1. [________] watch that film, it is very interesting.! It' s in Galician. _ 2. [________] close the window, please; it is very hot in here! _ 3. [________] start with it now, please; it is very late!

_ 4. [________] open the window, please; it is hot in here! _ 5. [________] visit our friends, they are not very well.

4. Complete con la forma adecuada: Study / Don’t go / Let’s play / Let’s

listen / Drink /Come / Don’t eat / Buy.

_ 1. [________] to that song! He is a good singer. _ 2. [________] that apple. It is for your brother.

_ 3. [________] a present for your friend. It is his birthday. _ 4. [________] that lesson. You have an exam tomorrow. _ 5. [________] to that shop, it is very expensive.

_ 6. [________] a glass of water! You are very hot. _ 7. [________] a tennis match!

_ 8. [________] here, please!

5. Complete los espacios vacios con la forma imperativa que corresponda y los siguientes verbos:

Don’t / Let’s Buy / Talk / Eat / Go / Wait / Stay / Visit _ 1. He is very funny. [________] go out with him. _ 2. I am very tired. [________] stay at home! _ 3. You are very fat. [________] eat that big cake.

_ 4. Those books are very interesting. [________] buy one. _ 5. You are in Santiago. [________] visit the Cathedral.

_ 6. There is a new student in our class. [________] talk to him/her. _ 7. John can’t go out. [________] wait for him.

6. Escriba en inglés los números ordinales correspondientes a estos cardinales.

1. Cuarenta e oito [_______________________] 2. Oitenta [_______________________]

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6 3. Dezasete [_______________________] 4. Cincuenta e un [_______________________] 5. Seis [_______________________] 6. Vinte e tres [_______________________] 7. Trinta e tres [_______________________] 8. Noventa e dous [_______________________] 9. Cen [_______________________] 10. Vinte e nove [_______________________]

7. Ponga en orden estas letras y forme los números ordinales.

1. t / n / f / e / i / e / h / f / t [_______________________] 2. t / i / s / y / x / - / i / h / d / t / r [_______________________] 3. t / y / r / f / o / - n / o / d / s / c / e [_______________________] 4. w / f / e / t / l / h / t [_______________________] 5. e / n / t / e / n / i / h / i [_______________________] 6. t / i / y / r / h / - t / r / h / d / i [_______________________] 7. t / n / e / e / e / v / h / l [_______________________] 8. t / n / s / e / e / v / y / - t / e / v / s / e / h / n [_______________________]

8. Escriba las siguientes fechas y su forma oral:

1. 01/01/1104 [__________________________________________] 2. 02/02/1212 [__________________________________________] 3. 13/05/2009 [__________________________________________] 4. 23/10/2011 [__________________________________________] 5. 31/11/1988 [__________________________________________]

9. Corrija las siguientes fechas:

1. 23nd Mai, 1990 [_____________________ ____________] 2. 2st July of. 2010 [_____________________ ____________]

3. 24th of. September 2016 [_____________________ ____________] 4. 5th, September 2017 [_____________________ ____________] 10. Escriba estas oraciones en forma interrogativa.

1. Mary usually studies with her brother.

[____________________________________________________] 2. The children generally play football at school.

[____________________________________________________] 3. The teacher speaks English everyday.

[____________________________________________________] 4. They like that film.

[____________________________________________________] 5. Peter knows all the answers.

[____________________________________________________] 6. That woman sometimes cooks in the evenings.

[____________________________________________________] 7. This student always goes home by bus.

[____________________________________________________] 8. I always buy at that supermarket.

[____________________________________________________] 9. His brothers usually watch TV in the mornings.

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[____________________________________________________] 10. We know all the answers.

[____________________________________________________] 11. Ponga en orden las siguientes oraciones.

1. do / go / to / they / usually / the / weekends / cinema / at / ? [____________________________________________________] 2. your / does / winter / visit / her / mother/ parents / in / ?

[____________________________________________________] 3. usually / Christmas / do / presents / you / the / buy / ?

[____________________________________________________] 4. write / you / do / word / in / that / English / ?

[____________________________________________________] 5. she / who (a quen) / love / does / ?

[____________________________________________________] 6. always / do / home / the / school / go / children/ after / ?

[____________________________________________________] 12. Corrija los errores.

1. That woman usually travel by plane. [_______________________] 2. Do your sister like this school? [_______________________]

3. My friends doesn’t come to my school. [_______________________] 4. We not study mathematics [_______________________]

5. Does people go to the cinema at weekends? [___________ _________] 13. Complete el siguiente diálogo. Utilice las palabras siguientes.

don’t haven’t do usually year that

hate It’ s are living twenty going

1. Peter: Susan, we [________] the same age!

2. Susan: I [________] know the [________] of your birth. 3. Peter: [________] 1991.

4. Susan: In [________] case, we are [________] years old. 5. Peter: Do you like [________] in this city?

6. Susan: Yes, I [________], but I dislike [________] by bus everywhere. 7. Peter: I [________] drive everywhere. Haven`t you got a car?

8. Susan: No, I [________] and I [________] walking.

14. Rellene los huecos con is, are, isn’t ou aren’t.

1. There [________] three small animals. 2. There [________] a woman at the bus stop. 3. There [________] five people with John. 4. There [________] four dogs in the street. 5. There [________] an airport in my town. 6. There [________] beautiful houses. 7. There [________] a pretty girl here.

8. There [________] some water on the floor.

15. Corrija en caso necesario.

1. There is a new student in your class? 2. There isn’two English dictionaries

3. Is there a good film tonight? No, there is. 4. There is on that table?

5. There is people waiting for you. 6. Are there three tables in that room?

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8. There is an English exam?

16. Utilice los pronombres interrogativos para completar las siguientes oraciones y luego escriba una respuesta.

1. [______] are you from?

2. [______] do you have for breakfast? 3. [______] do you generally go to bed? 4. [______] does the cooking in your house? 5. [______] size do you want?

6. [______] is your phone number? 7. [______] is Helen happy?

8. [______] do you arrive home? 9. [______] do you relax after work? 10. [_____] do you do sport?

17. Relacione las oraciones de la izquierda con las de la derecha.

1. What does it mean? – ¿De quién es este lapiz? ¿Es tuyo? 2. Where do you live? – ¿Quién sabe la respuesta?

3. What time is it? – ¿Con qué frecuencia juegas al tenis? 4. What nationality are you? – ¿Por qué trabajas hasta tan tarde? 5. Who is that pretty girl? – ¿De qué nacionalidad es usted?

6. Who knows the answer? -¿Qué significa?¿Cuál es el significado? 7. Which of those do you like? – ¿Dónde vives?

8. How often do you play tennis? – ¿Qué hora es?

9. Why do you work late? – ¿Quién es esa chica tan guapa? 10. Whose pencil is this? Is it yours? – ¿Cuál de esas te gusta?

18. Escriba las preguntas correspodientes a estas respuestas utilizando las partículas interrogativas.

1. At about 9 o’clock p.m. 2. I’m a teacher.

3. On Saturday night. 4. The shop closes at ten. 5. In Sanxenxo.

6. I play computer games and watch TV. 7. She’s three.

8. I like jazz.

9. I don’t speak foreign languages, only Galician. 10. I go to work on foot.

3.7 – Ejercicios de autoevaluación:

1. [_____] a boy in the street.

a) is

b) there are c) there is d) is there

2. [_____] five books on that table?.

a) are b) there is c) are there d) is there

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3. [_____] write on that book, please!

a) do b) does c) don’t d) doesn’t

4. [_____] invite him to our party.

a) do b) let’s c) doesn’t d) does

5. Sheila [_____] get up early.

a) doesn’t b) don’t c) isn’t d) aren’t 6. 23rd May, 2011 a) twenty-three of May b) the twenty-three of May c) the twenty-third of May d) May the twenty-three

7. [_____] the children study at the library?

a) does b) do c) are d) is

8. 6th June, 7th June, 8th June, [_____]

a) 9nd June b) 9rd June c) 9th June d) 9 June

9. Does he live in London?

a) Yes, he lives b) No, he does c) Yes, he does d) No, he don’t

10. Do you like swimming?

a) Yes, I like b) No, I do c) Yes, I don’t d) Yes, I do

3.8 - Vocabulario básico de la unidad:

Jobs / Oficios o profesiones

Lawyer - Abogado Actor - Actor Actress - Actriz Architect - Arquitecto Firefighter/Fireman - Bombero Waiter/Waitress - Camarero/a Carpenter - Carpintero Cook - Cocinero

Shop assistant - Dependiente Unemployed - Desempleado Doctor - Doctor

Electrician - Electricista Nurse - Enfermero/a Engineer – Ingeniero/a

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Student - Estudiante Civil servant - Funcionario Bricklayer- Obrero

Clerk - Oficinista Baker - Panadero

Hairdresser – Peluquero/a

Police officer - Policía Taxi driver - Taxista Vet - Veterinario

Journalist - Periodista Judge – Juez

Figure

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Referencias

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