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EN

This action is funded by the European Union

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of the Commission Implementing Decision on the Annual Action Programme 2016 (part III) for Environment and Climate Change under the Global Public Goods and

Challenges Thematic Programme, to be financed from the general budget of the European Union

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CTION

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OCUMENT FOR

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UILDING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY AND RESILIENCE OF THE FORESTRY SECTOR IN

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APE

V

ERDE

1. Title/basic act/

CRIS number

Building adaptive capacity and resilience of the forestry sector in Cape Verde

CRIS number: ENV/2016/39611 financed under Development Cooperation Instrument 2. Zone benefiting

from the action/location

Cape Verde, West Africa,

The action shall be carried out at the following location: Cape Verde (Santiago, Boavista, Fogo Islands)

3. Programming

document Global public Goods and Challenges – GPGC, Multiannual Indicative Programme 2014-2017

4. Sector of concentration/

thematic area

Environment and Climate Change DEV. Aid: YES

5. Amounts concerned Total estimated cost: EUR 5 000 000

Total amount of EU budget contribution EUR 5 000 000 6. Aid modality(ies)

and implementation modality(ies)

Project Approach:

Indirect management with United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 7 a) DAC code(s) 41010 - Environmental Policy– Environmental policy and administrative management

b) Main Delivery Channel

FAO- 41301 8. Markers (from

CRIS DAC form)

General policy objective Not

targeted

Significant objective

Main objective Participation development/good

governance

☐ X ☐

Aid to environment ☐ ☐ X

Gender equality (including Women In Development)

☐ X ☐

Trade Development X ☐ ☐

Reproductive, Maternal, New born and child health

X ☐ ☐

RIO Convention markers Not Significant Main

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targeted objective objective

Biological diversity ☐ X ☐

Combat desertification ☐ ☐ X

Climate change mitigation ☐ ☐ X

Climate change adaptation ☐ ☐ X

9. Global Public Goods and Challenges (GPGC) thematic flagships

Environment and Climate Change

10. SDGs

Main Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on the basis of section 4.1: 13

SUMMARY:The main project objective is to increase resilience and enhance key adaptive capacity to address the additional risks posed by climate change to desertification and land degradation in Cape Verde at national level.

In particular, this project strives to foster participatory forest management to adapt to climate change induced desertification and build community resilience in Santiago, Fogo and Boavista Islands (for their inherent specificities within the archipelago). In addition, this project aims at addressing national climate change mitigation targets, as indicated in Cape Verde INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions), by contributing to approximately 10% of the intended national reforestation target and CO2 removal. Finally, the main project objective supports national (terrestrial) biodiversity conservation by reinforcing current fragmented terrestrial ecosystems, decreasing habitat loss and encouraging natural regeneration.

The project expected results include (i) enabling framework development and capacity building for climate change adaptation policy in forest restoration and management at the national and local level, (ii) reducing Cape Verde desertification by climate change adaptation activities via participatory forest management in the islands of Santiago, Boavista and Fogo, (iii) knowledge creation and managements regarding climate resilient practices in Cape Verde.

The project will support national programmes to maintain economic development and reduce poverty. This project will ensure that, in selected local municipalities, forestry and agro-forestry practices continue to be sufficient through local climate change threats, thereby providing a basic resource for livelihoods, agriculture and local livelihoods. At the national level, this project will ensure that there is capacity to provide the services and ensure the national forestry policy and practices are in line with growing demands, and that water is not a constraint to development, tourism and poverty reduction. This project will also develop national capacity (in terms of policy, plans and planning, information systems) at a series of affected municipalities across Cape Verde (Santiago, Boavista and Fogo). The project will also demonstrate a series of climate change adapting technologies and practices at vulnerable and affected sites. These demonstrated practices will feed up into the capacity development processes. Finally, the project will ensure that lessons are learnt and disseminated, and that sustainable networks, platforms and information systems are operating.

1 CONTEXT

1.1 Country and sector context

Cape Verde is made up of ten islands and eight islets, located in the Atlantic Ocean, some 450 Km west of Senegal. It has a land area of 4,033 Km2 and a 700,000 Km2 Exclusive Economic Zone. The 10 islands are grouped into Windward islands (northern islands group) comprising Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santa Luzia, Sal, Boa Vista, and Leeward islands (southern islands group) consisting of Maio, Santiago, Fogo and Brava. Cape Verde has an estimated population of 524.832 inhabitants in 2015.

While the country’s contribution to global warming has been negligible, as a small island country and a dry Sahelian country with only 10% arable land area1, Cape Verde is particularly vulnerable to climate change and its impacts, ranging from extreme weather conditions to sea-level rise and the degradation of fish

1 About 85% of the arable land being rain fed/dryland area

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stocks. Changes in seasonal, weather and rain patterns are already showing. Along with a depletion of the country’s scarce natural resources, climate variability in Cape Verde will increase leading to more storms, floods and droughts, and an ever-shorter rainy season. With 80% of total population living in coastal areas, Cape Verde is particularly sensitive to sea-level rise and coastal hazards.

The islands of Cape Verde are of volcanic origin with a population of just over half a million. The country can be divided from the physiographic point of view into two groups: (1) islands with a more or less flat terrain not exceeding 450 m including sand dunes in the coastal areas (Boavista, Maio, Sal), and (2) islands with steep and rugged mountains up to 2,800 m (Brava, Fogo, Santo Antão, Santiago, São Nicolau, São Vicente). The islands in the second group display different ecological and climatic zones according to the altitude level. Cape Verde is marked by a hot and arid climate and poor soil conditions, characteristic of drylands. Rainfall is low and irregular and ranges from 50 to 600 mm per year dependent on the altitude, topography and wind exposure (country average ca. 270 mm/year). The rainy season is short; almost all the rain falls from August to October (i.e., the tree planting season). The rest of the year can result in extreme aridity due to an overall lack of water. Soils are generally shallow, have a high content of sand and stones and are poor in organic material; the majority of them are unsuitable for agricultural use. Furthermore, there are frequent strong winds from the north-west, which, in the absence of plant cover, contribute to soil degradation. Values of soil erosion may attain as high figures as 4,266 T/Km2/year at sub-watershed level in Santiago2.

The original natural forest cover in the country has been severely degraded by natural and human induced events. Through the recorded restoration/reforestation efforts since 1920s, forest cover in the country has been raised to 85,000 ha or 21% of the national territory3. The generally harsh environmental conditions have a negative impact on the density and growth of planted trees largely affecting forest productivity and quality. Forests assume, however, essential environmental functions in Cape Verde notably the protection of soil and water. The production of wood and non-wood forest products also play a significant role in local economies. The major forest products are fuelwood and charcoal, fodder and to a very limited extent some timber from the highlands of Fogo and Santo Antão. The fuelwood production volume is estimated at 268,000 tons/year. All major timber needed for construction purposes and furniture are covered by imports and there is only a very small number of wood processing professionals or industries (e.g. carpenters).

To sustain the key ecosystem services and goods provided by the forests and address the threat of climate change induced desertification, urgent preventive measures need to be taken, especially protective and productive reforestation efforts, as they remain to be the most appropriate, sustainable and economical solution to fight current and future climate change threats in Cape Verde, as well to decrease land degradation in the country.

1.1.1 Public Policy Assessment and EU Policy Framework

This project is consistent with the National strategies and plans or reports and assessments under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and other relevant conventions. In particular, this project builds on priorities identified in the following national documents: National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), Cape Verde Agriculture Development Strategy and Action Plan, Cape Verde National Forestry Action Plan (NFAP) and Cape Verde Sustainable Development Plan, laying the foundation for a sustainable forest management and land use through expected climate change threats in Cape Verde.

The leading policy framework for Cape Verde’s forestry sector includes the Economic Transformation Strategy (TEE), which proposes, among others, the sustainable management of resources and the

2“Erosion des sols du Cap Vert : processus et quantification à l'échelle de trois Bassins Versants de l'île de Santiago”

Tavares & Amiotte-Suchet, 2009

3National Forest Inventory, 2015

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development of agro-forestry and the participatory management of forest areas, as well as the Cape Verde’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (DECRP) III – covering the years 2011-2016 – which argues for a

“better management of natural resources, including lands, water, fishing and floral resources” and for

“economic, social and physical resilience towards natural disasters and climate change related incidents to alleviate the associated risks” and finally the NFAP.

The project is aligned with the following national priorities:

National Forestry Action Plan (NFAP): The project is aligned with overall goal of “continuing the efforts against the country's desertification while striving for sustainable forest management and agro-forestry with and for the people”, with a view to facilitating poverty reduction, advancing human welfare and promoting sustainable development of the country. To achieve this goal the NFAP defines 5 strategic policy guidelines and 6 intervention areas including 15 priority actions. Those particularly relevant for the development of the forestry sector and to this project goals are:

a. Policy Guideline 1: Ensure an optimal forest cover in the country;

b. Policy Guideline 3: Ensure the viability and sustainability of forest plantations, agro- forestry and the value of forest products;

c. Policy Guideline 4: Ensure sustainable forage and self-sufficiency in woody energy for rural populations while reducing pressure on forests;

d. Intervention Area 1: Establish new plantations to protect and restore the soils;

e. Intervention area 4: Promote participatory management of plantation forests for the production of wood fuel (fuelwood, charcoal), fodder and timber (poles, posts).

Cape Verde’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy and the National Agricultural Investment Plan (PNIA): Both the documents clearly specify combating desertification, rehabilitating degraded landscapes and protecting forests as national priorities, this project’s overall objective and components are aligned with these priorities.

National Action Programme submitted to UNCCD: The project is aligned with the overall objective of the NAP ‘’to address the threat of desertification for sustainable development’’ and specific objectives ‘ensure effective participation of all stakeholders’ and ‘preserve and enhance natural resources’.

Second National Communication to UNFCCC: The document specifies the country’s aim to increase carbon sequestration through forest restoration, and improved management of existing forests through promotion of agro-silvo-pastoral systems as priority 3, 4, 7, 8.

The National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), among others, identifies the following set of priority interventions to be implemented in rural and forested areas:

- Reinforce actions to protect watersheds in order to improve food security.

- Diversify income-generating activities in rural areas.

- Invest in environmentally sustainable production techniques.

- Use varieties and species that are adaptable to changing climatic conditions.

- Stimulate production and establishment of endemic plants.

- Conserve and sustainably use medicinal species.

- Promote research on species that are threatened and vulnerable to the climate change.

In the NAPA it is also identified the priority need for the implementation of projects to ensure i) the reinforcement of capacities in terms of adaptation to the climate changes under the systemic, organizational and individual point of view; ii) Investment, conservation and field protection activities iii) Research-action for improvement of the resistance of populations and ecosystems.

Cape Verde's Intended National Determined Contributions (INDC): This document demonstrates Cape Verde´s continued commitment to sustainable, low-carbon and climate resilient policies and the country’s contribution to global efforts to reduce emissions by strengthening reforestation and agro-forestry activities

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in various islands. Cape Verde makes an unconditional long-term commitment to engage in new afforestation/reforestation (“A/R”) campaigns in the order of 10,000 hectares by 2030. With international support, Cape Verde seeks an A/R campaign area of around 20,000 hectares until 2030. The INDC report pledges a planting effort of 400 trees per hectare. If 20,000 hectares are successfully planted, this will generate a long-term sequestration gain of 360 tCO2eq per hectare sequestered after 30 years, corresponding to 7.2 mtCO2eq for 20,000 hectares after 30 years. Cape Verde also aims at eliminating three stone cooking stove (35% of households still use three-stone stove) through improved low-emissions cook stoves by 2025 at the latest, and thereby substantially removing demand for firewood. At the level of governance and institutional infrastructure, Cape Verde seeks to improve overall forestry governance by investing in inventory and land registry systems, designating priority afforestation/reforestation, and preparing long-term sustainable land management plans coupled with performance-based subsidies.

In addition to national strategy and action plans for various development sectors, the EU framework for Cape Verde bilateral aid, via the National Indicative Programme for Cape Verde, outlines the main focal sectors of the EU cooperation with the country during the period 2014-20 under the 11th European Development Fund. The Country Strategy Paper for Cape Verde (2014-2020) details the areas of cooperation. An envelope of €55 million is foreseen. It will be delivered mainly (91 %) through budget support. The priorities are:

1. Support to poverty reduction and growth,

2. Strengthen the special relationship between the EU and Cape Verde.

The project is in line with the Sustainable Development Goal n. 13 which aims the strengthening of resilience and adaptive capacity of vulnerable regions, such as Small Island states in order to combat climate change.

These efforts go hand in hand with the component 1 of the project which intends the mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation into national strategies. Cape Verde demonstrates the political will to implement a “green” economy, clearly illustrated through its strong bet on renewable energies.

In 2008, Cape Verde graduated to middle-income status. However, the country’s lack of natural resources makes it economically vulnerable and poverty and inequality are prevalent. The government is spurring growth to improve the livelihoods of the most impoverished communities by building resilience to climate change. In addition to its membership of the Cotonou partnership, Cape Verde has a special partnership with the EU, shaped to strengthen dialogue and promote policy convergence. Cape Verde also benefits from the EU’s thematic programme for Non-State Actors and Local Authorities in Development, the instrument for the promotion of democracy and human rights and the ACP-EU Energy Facility, among others.

Finally, this project is consistent with the EU-GCCA+ priorities, namely mainstreaming climate change in national and local policy, building local climate change capacity and creating knowledge to support innovative and effective climate change adaptation and mitigation practices.

1.1.2 Stakeholder analysis

Most forest-land and forest resources belong to the national government represented by 13 district offices that are distributed over the islands. Public participation in forest management is low resulting in various land-use conflicts. Forestry field operations (e.g. soil preparation, planting of trees) are usually executed in cooperation with rural associations (associações rurais) which are organized on community level. NGO’s (e.g. Amigos da Natureza) play an increasing role in conserving the natural environment and combating desertification. Several of them have been created in recent years with environmental objectives linked to the fight against poverty and rural development.

The direct target groups of the project are smallholders and farmers living in rural areas. They will benefit from the transfer of knowledge and technology on the establishment and management of planted forests,

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including nursery and planting techniques, and the harvesting and marketing of forest and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). The quality of the rural environment will be improved through combating further desertification and land degradation and reducing soil erosion, all of which will have positive impacts on soil hydrology. The marketing of locally produced wood and non-wood forest products will contribute in the long term to generate new job opportunities and sources of income, and by that, contribute to alleviate poverty and improve the livelihoods of the rural communities. The project will further have an impact on government officials, local research organizations, rural extension structures and NGO’s as indirect target groups, which will be strengthened through the transfer of knowledge and technology on the responsible management of planted forests.

At the national level, the project beneficiaries will include Ministry of Agriculture and Environment (MAA) technical, management and administrative officials, and at the island level, MAA delegates (DMAA) as well as municipality and civil society representative. The project will support these personnel in further building their management and technical capacities to mainstreaming climate change in various forestry short and long-term interventions, as well as contributing in the current national forestry practice to become climate resilient.

The full list of the main stakeholders and their potential role in the project is given in Annex 1.

1.1.3 Priority areas for support/problem analysis

One of Cape Verde’s highest economic, environmental and climate change related priorities concerns the country’s forests. Forest vegetation and forest soils prove the most effective means to store and retain water, minerals and nutrients. They avoid erosion, soil degradation and desertification, thus securing agricultural land. They provide biomass sources; and increase resilience against long, increasingly often, periods of drought. Water availability is approximately 500 m3 a year per person, the second lowest of any country in sub-Saharan Africa. Further to centuries of degradation, Cape Verde has successfully engaged in reforestation and afforestation campaigns since the 1920s. Today’s forested area spans roughly a fifth of the national land territory, the vast majority of it planted (with about 400 trees per hectare). Despite considerable planting activities, management tools such as inventories and management plans remain at an infancy state. Deforestation rate revealed a positive evolution (i.e. increase in deforestation) during 1990- 2000, but a change to a negative trend during 2000-05 (i.e. less deforestation). Some trends are encouraging, but in some islands forest conditions are very poor and severe problems affect their management. For example, since 2004 in Fogo Island, averagely 77 ha of forest have been lost each year due to fires (Fogo holds approximately 1.700 ha of forest). These fires were always caused by human negligence. Further technical and management efforts are not fully optimized due to poor monitoring of extracting activities, lack of long term management practices and/or economic incentives, and alternative solutions at community level.

Degradation, too, continues. About 35% of households – virtually all of them located in rural areas – depend on firewood for cooking food. Most of the wood biomass – according to estimates some 400 tonnes/ year – originate from forested lands and is harvested with scarce regard to sustainable harvesting methods. Pressure from a growing population, unplanned urbanization, and non-sustainable grazing contribute to overall degradation. Together with a notable increase in drought years since the 1960s, this represents the most single threat to sustainable development in Cape Verde.

These given environmental and socioeconomic conditions in Cape Verde have a serious impact on the availability of water for agriculture, and consequently on the productivity of crop cultivation and animal husbandry. They affect the livelihood and food security of the vulnerable population especially in rural areas leading to ever increasing food aid and food imports from abroad. This situation is conducive to a lingering desertification process that manifests itself differently according to the physiographic characteristics of the different islands of the archipelago.

Increasing climate change threats in the archipelago, for example and recently the 7-year long drought staring from 2009, further exacerbate this desertification process. Climatic models ran during the NAPA assessment for the period 2008-2012 have shown that the country´s natural vulnerabilities, along with their

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social and economic implications, are very likely to be exacerbated by climate-related disruptions in the next decades. These include more frequent extreme events like storms, floods and droughts, as well as shorter rainy seasons, with immediate impacts on livelihoods, infrastructure, sanitary conditions, recharge of reservoirs, and crop productivity. For example, on Boavista, Maio and Sal, which are more or less flat and sandy islands, desertification is manifested by the loss of vegetation cover and the shifting of coastal sand dunes under the combined influence of all climatic factors, particularly the strong, north-westerly winds, and the overgrazing with goats, cows and donkeys. This situation can become a very serious threat for downwind settlements (e.g. Sal Rei on Boavista), if preventive measures are not taken in time. Some protective reforestation efforts have already been successfully undertaken on these islands and remain the most appropriate and economical solution in order to protect the rural and urban settlements and maintain the touristic value of the islands.

On the other islands, the combined effect of denudation, the steep volcanic terrain and the intensity of occasional torrential rainfall cause considerable surface runoff and soil erosion. The rapid surface runoff in the usually dry river valleys (ribeiras) towards the sea drives a worsening water shortage as the absence of soil infiltration causes a decrease in groundwater reserves suitable for food and agriculture. This ecological situation is further aggravated by (1) pressures on land from the rapidly growing population (e.g. through immigration from neighboring countries), (2) growing needs for wood-fuel that lead to increasing deforestation rates, (3) overgrazing, particularly by free-roaming goats that have a remarkable adverse impact on the forest vegetation in fragile, arid ecosystems and (4) the agricultural cultivation of steep slopes at high altitude (e.g. on Monte Verde, São Vicente) without sufficient erosion control measures.

These issues combined have far reaching consequences on human health, agricultural production, food security, economic activity, physical infrastructure, natural resources and the environment. More than 70 % of the population derives livelihoods from natural resources, while experiencing a dramatic combination of low agricultural yields, declining water availability and vegetation cover, high climate variability, recurrent droughts and erosion, and high population growth.

2 RISKS AND ASSUMPTIONS

Risk Rating Mitigation Measure Assumptions

Decrease in support for the project from the

government

Low The project fits into national development, forestry and environmental priorities. The responsible government agencies have fully backed the development of this concept, and all relevant government stakeholders will be fully involved in project preparation and implementation to ensure continued support.

The government technical and financial (in-kind or cash) support to building climate change resilience, and overall commitment towards

implementing INDCs priorities is and will remain a priority.

Low institutional capacity at national and local level hampering project progress

Medium Planned capacity building activities will support the gradual strengthening of technical and management skills of key institutional stakeholders.

MAA and other key stakeholders have sufficient human resources available for this project, and with moderate technical and administrative capacity to support project activities.

Project activities are implemented in a

compartmentalized fashion with little integration and coordination with all relevant government departments

Low to Medium

Under component 1, a national level multi- sectorial forum will be established, to ensure coordination between all relevant

government actors.

The various government departments involved in this project (forestry and environment) maintain their current information sharing and technical collaboration for forestry related programs.

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Risk Rating Mitigation Measure Assumptions

Reluctance of local communities to be involved and participate effectively in the project activities

Low to Medium

Local communities (through community and civil society representatives) will be

involved during the implementation, including decision-making, of some project sub-components. The project activities, especially livelihood improvement activities under Component 2 and the sustainable impacts generated, will ensure continued interest and participation of local communities.

Local communities are willing to participate and collaborate between each other in the project

Institutions traditionally responsible for forest management and plant production are not supportive of participatory approach to forest

resources management and involvement of private actors in plant production activity.

High

Capacity building under Component 1 will introduce information on good practices from experiences abroad. The selected co- management forest resource management model and the training activities addressed to community members will allow national institutions to fully participate and strongly influence management practices from the technical point of view.

The institutions with mandate for forest management understand and own the need for a wider sharing of benefits from the forest with different stakeholders, especially local communities.

Climate change has the capacity to affect productivity in forestry and agro-forestry

Medium to high

Plant and tree species used for restoration and agro-forestry will be chosen to ensure resilience to the most likely impacts of climate change in Cape Verde (e.g. drought, outbreaks of diseases and pests, etc.), acknowledging that Cape Verde has been experiencing a 7 years drought spell since 2009.

The success of previous current pilot exercise continues and is well communicated in order to clearly demonstrate the benefits of a decentralised approach.

The high level of centralisation means the municipalities may not fully support the project.

Medium

The project is to work with selected municipalities in Santiago, Boavista and Fogo to develop, and agree on project activities’ responsibility at local level. The formulation phase will identify the most appropriate and interested municipalities in these sites.

Local governments develop the capacity to assume their mandate as decentralisation progresses. Key stakeholders remain committed to decentralisation and support implementation of the decentralisation strategy to strengthen the forest management and governance.

Inability to achieve adequate consensus and cooperation between stakeholders

Medium

Effective reforestation and climate change adaptation activities will require changes in the activities of some local inhabitants (e.g.

grazing, fuelwood collecting, etc.). In addition, transitions to land tenure systems that incentivize sustainable resource management in adjacent landscape will be encouraged over some existing systems.

Technical consultations, partnership building between government institutions and local communities, public education efforts, and potential economic benefits will eliminate any initial resistance.

Furthermore, the following risks should also be considered in terms of the project sustainability after its completion:

Inadequate sectoral coordination and local level engagement: The threat to forests has clear linkages with other sectors (e.g. agriculture and livestock), and at present, there is limited coordination between the

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sectors at all levels in Cape Verde. At times, the policies developed and the initiatives delivered at the field level are conflicting (i.e. National Forestry Action Plan, Tourism Development Plan, INDC, NAPA) and indirectly influence the continuing degradation of forests. In addition, both at national and local levels there is no formal mechanism to ensure participation of civil society organizations and other stakeholders in planning and management processes in the context of forest management and restoration. This is a vital barrier to ensure sense of ownership among all relevant stakeholders in any restoration initiative and the envisaged results.

Lack of institutional and technical capacities: Lack of institutional capacities at all levels is at the core of the problem regarding effective implementation of sustainable forest management and forest restoration efforts in Cape Verde, and supporting local communities and other stakeholders in the uptake of the practices. This institutional weakness extends from developing effective restoration/ forest management plans as climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, conflict resolution to specific technical aspects like forest monitoring and sustainable harvest. This institutional weakness results in poor transfer of skills/capacities to local stakeholders including local communities.

Lack of opportunities for sustainable livelihoods: One of the most significant barriers in ensuring effective restoration and continued SFM is the lack of adequate livelihood opportunities for local communities living in and around the concerned forests. At this point, local communities’ complicity and participation in unsustainable resource extraction is due to this barrier, leading to increasing, local climate change vulnerability as more degradation. Though at present, at the proposed project sites in Santiago, Boavista and Fogo, communities are engaged in activities that provide them certain level of income, this is neither sustainable nor adequate and results in over- and unsustainable utilization of natural resources. Adequate economic incentives or access to improved social services could be proposed as strategically solution to increase local communities’ participation and engagement in sustainable management of natural resources and climate change adaptation activities in Cape Verde.

3 LESSONS LEARNT, COMPLEMENTARITY AND CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES

3.1 Lessons learnt

The Cape Verde government and other stakeholders continue to implement measures to achieve sustainable development with the available human resources and capacities. Given that Cape Verde has faced serious climatic variability threats for several decades, the management of such pressures is nothing new. Several lessons learnt have been recorded in the country when addressing the challenging task to build resilience via reforestation programs:

 Since the 1980s, the annual planning of the agricultural season and forest management activities in Cape Verde has taken the expected temporal and spatial variations in rainfall and water availability into account. Other climate change related initiatives include the already programmed construction and maintenance of dams and other water retention infrastructures with financial resource support from government and partners in Santiago, Santo Antão and Sao Vicente.

 The National Forestry Action Plan for the 2020 time-horizon, lead by the General Directorate of Agriculture and Rural Development (DGADR), highlighted the technical and management limitations to combat desertification and land degradation via exclusively reforestation programs (2.2.2, 2.2.3 and 2.2.4) without considering participatory approach to forest management;

 The National Environment Action Plan (PANA II), which is the umbrella Programme for reform and transformation within government of the natural resources management sectors and is lead by the General Directorate for the Environment, emphasized the need of local NRM to ensure building resilience to various ecosystems shocks (including climate change);

 A variety of development plans, programmes and projects at both the national and local levels, but also spontaneous initiatives at the village level, dealing with forestry and land management. These initiatives have highlighted the need for better conceptual, technical and management coordination for forestry activities at the commune and national level. The focal point for many of these initiatives within governmental is the MAA, which also has decentralised representations on the

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majority of municipal councils. The Agriculture Development Strategy and Action Plan for the 2020 is a positive lesson of technical and strategic cooperation among various governments departments and donors to produce long-term goals in the agricultural and forestry projects;

 Cape Verde INDC, addressing a various of climate change adaptation issues/needs based on lessons learnt from past government and international funded development projects in Cape Verde, such as the UNDP-GEF project to increase adaptive capacity for the water sector and the forestry.

The regional West Africa Shorelines Project (Responding to Coastline Change and its human dimensions in West Africa through integrated coastal management), financed by the GEF and implemented by UNDP and UNESCO or the multi-country project Mainstreaming Climate Change Issues into UN and Government Programming showed the importance for Cape Verde to be involved in decision-making processes related to climate change, event though the allocated budget to the country was small. While they are important for generating knowledge, experiences and raising awareness on climate change adaptation, these interventions have limited scope and are not focused on the urgent and immediate adaptation needs as identified through the NAPA.

This GCCA+ project will ensure that lessons learnt from previous reforestation projects, climate change capacity building projects, workshops, current strategic plans and target municipalities are systematically gathered and made available for others to finance in the future for replication to other parts of Cape Verde or elsewhere. The EUD will also ensure a contribution to global learning related to climate change adaptation and the required enabling environment for the implementation of community-based adaptation activities. The GCCA+ support will ensure that experiences and lessons generated at the pilot sites are systematically collected, analysed and disseminated throughout the country (with a specific emphasis on forestry and land management), and that existing institutions that support learning in the water sector have the capacity to promote learning on community-based climate change adaptation.

Where it adds value, the necessary link will be made with the Research and Innovation programme Horizon 2020 societal challenge 5 'climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials'. Relevant actions and results of research and innovation projects funded under this and previous EU research programmes might be considered and capitalised upon.

3.2 Complementarity, synergy and donor coordination

The European Commission has supported Cape Verde efforts to build institutional and community resilience to climate change program in relation to agriculture, energy, forestry and water sectors (supported by regional office in Dakar). Activities include boreholes drilling, management and water recycling in Santiago and São Nicolau, support for the establishment of GIS system for surface waters, support drip irrigation introduction in different island. The EU is supporting the climate change program development for energy policy in Cape Verde, and the establishment of a coordination committee among different international cooperation partners (Luxembourg, France, Portugal, Spain) interested in water- related, NRM and climate change issues.

This project will benefit from interactions with various bilateral aid agencies active in the country in the environment, NRM, climate change and energy. In particular, the French bilateral aid is interested in integrated water management and associated activities (forestry) with clear focus in building NRM capacities and management responsibility (i.e. Introduction of water tax/ system to ensure water management sustainability). The French bilateral aid is also interested in activities and programs (such as the one in this documents) addressing raising environmental and climate change awareness to eventually bilateral aid has been very active in supporting Cape Verde government towards the advancement of the government environment, water and climate change national goals. The Luxembourg bilateral aid is focused and interested in contributing to a more sustainable land management approach in Cape Verde, and strengthening decentralization support to local governments and actors for a variety of development activities, including agriculture and forestry. Spain has been active in cooperation on environmental issues since early 2000s. Interventions have been in multiple fields, also focusing in the conservation of the natural resources and the vegetation cover (e.g. in Maio Island). Furthermore, the Portugal bilateral aid has been supporting climate change adaptation initiatives in Cape Verde; for example, capacity building workshops to estimate climate change effects in local development have been carried out, and estimation of

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climate change costs to the Cape Verde economy. These bilateral initiatives will serve as lesson learnt and synergies to build local partnerships for the proposed GCCA+ intervention, and as an additional base during some of the outputs planning.

3.3 Cross-cutting issues

Environment and Climate Change: Climate change issues including mitigation and adaptation, as per Rio-marker definition, will be the major cross cutting theme addressed in all project components through various activities ranging from policy development, capacity building and field demonstration.

Environmental issues relating to water, biodiversity conservation and environmental awareness are pertinent to this project envisaged activities. Addressing the issues of water availability in Cape Verde is crucial to the country main livelihoods survival and to build climate change resilience. This project planned forestry activities will contribute in increasing water availability by stabilizing slope, decreasing erosion and increasing water retention in groundwater. Furthermore, the restoration and protection of available forest area will contribute towards terrestrial biodiversity conservation, supporting the overall ecosystems functioning. Environmental issues will also be taken into consideration in the rehabilitation and construction of environmentally friendly, agro-forestry structures. Finally, environmental and climate change awareness will also be a constant and recurrent activity of this project in various components.

Good governance: This project intention is to improve governance of the forestry sector through capacity development both at central level (MAA) and at district and commune level as well as supporting the decentralised forest management that the Government is now prioritizing as a national climate change adaptation strategy. Strengthening the governance at community and district level will foster local decision- making and, in turn, increasing local resilience to current and future climate change risks.

Gender: Gender issues are incorporated into project programming and activities implementation through the adoption and use of participatory approaches in all management and implementation decisions under the project formulation phase. The project design will also ensure that adequate representation of both genders is achieved in all project components. Reporting on project activities, outputs and outcomes will also be disaggregated by gender (where applicable), so that performance in this respect can be monitored.

Gender issues will be promoted and closely monitored. By the nature of traditional activities at the project sites, it is expected that women will play an important role in all project activities, including management, training and establishment of alternative livelihood-forestry related options, enabling them to reach and maintain sustainable levels. Furthermore, the project will ensure mainstreaming genders issues into the works of communication, advocacy and develop of learning management system.

4 DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTION

4.1 Objectives/results and options

The main project objective is to increase resilience and enhance key adaptive capacity to address the additional risks posed by climate change to desertification and land degradation in Cape Verde at the national level. In particular, this project strives to foster participatory forest management to adapt to climate change induced desertification, and build community resilience in Santiago, Boavista and Fogo Islands. In addition, this project aims at addressing national climate change mitigation targets, as indicated in Cape Verde INDC, by contributing to approximately 10% of the intended national reforestation target and CO2

removal. Finally, the main project objective supports national (terrestrial) biodiversity conservation by reinforcing current fragmented terrestrial ecosystems, decreasing habitat loss and encouraging natural regeneration.

The project expected results include (i) enabled framework development and capacity building for climate change adaptation policy in forest restoration and management at the national and local level, (ii) reduced Cape Verde desertification by climate change adaptation activities via participatory forest management in the islands of Santiago, Boavista and Fogo, (iii) knowledge creation and managements regarding climate resilient practices in Cape Verde. These expected results clearly relate to the main GCCA+ priorities to mainstream climate change in national development plans, to build community resilience to anticipated

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climate change threats and to create innovative and update knowledge on climate change issues across various thematic sectors.

The project will support national programmes to maintain economic development and reduce poverty. This project will ensure that, in selected islands, forestry and agro-forestry practices continue to be sufficient through local climate change threats, thereby providing a basic resource for livelihoods, agriculture and local livelihoods. At the national level, this project will ensure that there is capacity to provide the services and ensure the national forestry policy and practices is in line with growing demands, and that water is not a constraint to development, tourism and poverty reduction. This project will also develop national capacity (in terms of policy, plans and planning, information systems) at a series of affected municipalities across Cape Verde (Santiago, Boavista and Fogo). The project will also demonstrate a series of climate change adapting technologies and practices at vulnerable and affected sites. These demonstrated practices will feed up into the capacity development processes. The project, where possible, will develop and build upon traditional water management practices and technologies. Finally, the project will ensure that lessons are learnt and disseminated, and that sustainable networks, platforms and information systems are operating.

This project could be replicated, with the necessary adaptations, in the islands that are not covered at this stage.

This programme is relevant for the Agenda 2030. It contributes primarily to the progressive achievement of SDG Goal 13. This does not imply a commitment by the country benefiting from this programme.

4.2 Main Activities

The project objective will be delivered through the following components.

Component 1. Climate change risks and resilience are integrated into forestry policy frameworks, and adaptive institutional and individual capacity is strengthened for climate resilient forestry.

Output 1.1 Three islands (Santiago, Fogo and Boavista) climate resilient, forest management plans developed, and partly applied;

Output 1.2 Existing, national forestry and land management policy frameworks (National Forestry Action Plan (NFAP), and other planning tools as applicable) revised to integrate climate change risks and adaptation.

Output 1.3 Local, national government officials trained (and training of trainers) on climate risk analysis, adaptive policies and planning for climate change adaptation (including the forestry sector), and co- management of natural-forest resources.

Output 1.4 Establishment and implementation of a national and island climate change forums (including forestry, integrated watershed management, coastal protection) among government, civil society and private sectors.

This component will build sustainable capacities required for implementing forest restoration, SFM as climate change adaptation and mitigation in Cape Verde. At least 50 staff from the DGADR (including the 13 district offices) would be trained in technical issues related to SFM and forest restoration, and other important aspects like conflict resolution. 50 staff for other relevant government departments (including agribusiness, animal husbandry, agriculture, etc.) will be trained to understand policy and field level issues related to climate change adaptation practices for SFM and forest restoration, to aid them in planning and devising programmes and plans in their respective sectors that take into account concerns related to forest management and restoration. This component will also prioritize the development of a national level multi- sectoral forum for agro-forestry, agriculture and natural resource management issues. The forum would ensure national level inter-sectoral coordination in devising policies, programmes and initiatives related to agriculture and natural resource management (including SFM and forest restoration). One of the main objective is to ensure that all islands take into account Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) in forest management via, among other activities, a detailed capacity needs assessment of various forestry actors and a risk matrix analysis of detailed climate change threats to the forestry sector in all islands. Under the

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national level forum, 13 district forums would be formed ensure inter-sectoral coordination at the field level. The consultations at the field level would feed into the national level forum.

Activities linked to Output 1.1 Indicative activities:

 Develop climate resilient, forest management plans in the target islands (forums created under this Component will ensure the plans are developed in an integrated manner and with participation from civil society and local community representatives);

 Integrate climate resilient techniques and policy recommendations included in the plans;

 Conduct, strategies and actions for fires prevention and control to be incorporated in Island Forest Management Plans.

Activities linked to Output 1.2 Indicative activities:

 Conduct detailed stocktaking assessment, climate change and capacity on existing, national forestry and land management policy frameworks (National Forestry Action Plan (NFAP), and other planning tools as applicable);

 Gap analysis on the implementation and effectiveness of the current forestry policy frameworks, related strategies, plans and instruments;

 Further consultations on reviews required for integration of CC into forestry-related policies;

 Modification of existing policy instruments for CC integration, establish clear linkages with related policy frameworks.

 Application of modified policy frameworks and instruments in the upland and lowland demonstration sites, capturing of feedback experience to inform policy process, introduce further adjustments;

 Drafting revised policy documents, final consultations;

 Official approval process of revised policies (by Cabinet).

Activities linked to Output 1.3. Indicative activities:

 Workshops and technical briefs for MAA and other relevant departments related to the above output areas, tools and strategies, including:

 Training on interpretation of climate change scenarios, stakeholder interactions, support for policy planning and provision of climate information services (protocols and scheduled delivery methods for climate-forestry bulletins and advisories, and delivery pathways to all relevant stakeholders);

 Training on vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning techniques, sustainable land use and forest management techniques;

 Training on awareness raising on financial and livelihood support policy tools and mechanisms continued feedback on the application of the above techniques and tools at the demonstration sites through knowledge management activities (as in Outcome 3);

 Compilation of guidance notes on the natural resources management, adaptation, financial and livelihood support policy tools and mechanisms in forestry and agro-forestry sectors.

Activities linked to Output 1.4. Indicative activities:

 Set up a policy dialogue and national and local forum with the participation of relevant institutions to discuss climate change adaptation issues in Cape Verde (including forest management) and agree on mainstreaming targets and approaches.

 Set up a dialogue with higher level policy making and planning circles, in order to create linkages with the various policy implementation and climate change adaptation in the country.

Component 2. Desertification and land degradation is reduced in target islands via reforestation, re- naturalization of forested areas and strengthened participatory approach to forest resources management.

Output 2.1: Structured and standardised systematic planning of forest reforestation and restoration interventions for efficient climate change adaptation and mitigation is applied in the target islands;

Output 2.2: Reforestation and restoration activities are implemented by local actors to increase forest

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cover’s quality and quantity, and the availability of differentiated forest products;

Output 2.3: Climate resilient forestry and agro-forestry practices are demonstrated in various agro- ecological environments;

Output 2.4: Forestry fire control plans are elaborated and implemented at each target island;

Output 2.5: Participatory approach to forest resource management is introduced and adopted at 6 pilot sites (4 in Santiago, 2 in Fogo).

Under this component, three forest reforestation and restoration intervention plans (one for each targeted island), as climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy, will be developed. The implementation of the plans will increase forest cover through tree planting and assisted natural regeneration. These activities will also be linked to the implementation of social and environmental measures including grazing control measures, land-usage area zoning, and local forestry co-management committees responsible to implement local co-management plans. The implementation of the co-management plans will include providing on the ground training to local community, CSOs and local NGOs. Agro-forestry practices will be also implemented. To enhance local livelihoods at least 3 NTFPs value chains will be chosen, activities will aim to improve primary and secondary processing, and value addition (some of the indicative NTFPs are, fodder, medicine, oil). These NTFPs value chains will be designed to enhance sustainable forest management by implementing seasonal and rotatory harvests of various wood, no-ligneous products and derivatives. Furthermore, capacity building for local farmers in wood and no-wood business plans, monitoring and evaluation of extractive rates and transformation efficiency will be delivered in targeted communities contributing to sustainable forest management. Fire prevention and management techniques will be implemented across existing forests and the areas to be restored.

Activities linked to Output 2.1: Under this component, in each one of the target islands (Santiago, Boavista and Fogo) will be developed a forest climate change adaptation and mitigation reforestation and restoration intervention plan. The core component of each intervention plan will be a GIS-based systematic territorial analysis, structured on a uniform methodology and selection criteria to be adopted at national level (i.e.

replicable in every island). To ensure multidisciplinary and inter-institutional collaboration, the island intervention plans will be prepared by a three-member team (involved institutions: DGADR, DNA and General Directorate of Land Planning (DGOT), supported by one international and one national expert, which will collaborate with the technicians of the Delegations of the MAA (DMAAs) at local/island level.

A key output of each plan will be a list of prioritized intervention sites for reforestation and forest re- naturalization. The intervention plan will also indicate in each selected site which is the best set of species and field techniques to be used according to the local environmental conditions in order to reach adaptation and mitigation objectives. The intervention plans developed within this output, will be incorporated into the climate resilient Island Forest Management Plans developed under Component 1. The forums created under Component 1 will ensure the plans are developed in an integrated manner and with the participation from institutional and civil society stakeholders.

Activities linked to Output 2.2: Previous to the implementation of the intervention plans developed within Output 2.1, the project will support the upgrading of one nursery owned and managed by the MAA at each target island. These upgraded nurseries will serve as main centers of plants production for reforestation/restoration activities within project framework. In order to boost plant production capacity, spread project benefits and support self-organization of civil society and private sector, local families, community-based associations and private companies at selected reforestation and re-naturalization sites will be involved in growing the seeds/plants the MAA nurseries will supply them. If necessary, further increase in plant production will be reached by involving in the activity other DMAAs’ nurseries. The NGOs Platform will support the MAA to identify and select community-based associations, or similar non- profit organizations, suitable to carry out reforestation/restoration works at each intervention site. The NGOs Platform will also train organizations in project and budget management, ensuring they will comply with project mandatory standards. The technicians of the DGADR and DMAAs will train the members of involved organizations in the techniques for forest plantations, and will assist, coordinate and follow-up the reforestation/restoration activities. At least 50% of the intervention area will be dedicated to restoration interventions (e.g.: restoration of vegetation underbrush layer compounded by native and Cape-Verdean endemic species under the forest tree layer dominated by exotic species; repopulation of degraded native vegetation, including with rare/endangered Cape-Verdean slow-growth endemic species). Forest re-

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naturalization will be based on the guidelines and inputs prepared by an international expert. In reforestation/restoration interventions, at least 50% of replanted plants will belong to fodder species, and at least 30% of replanted plants will provide NTFPs appreciated by local markets.

Activities linked to Output 2.3: In this output, various climate resilient and agro-forestry practices will be demonstrated at selected sites. Agro-forestry practices will aim to improve diversification of the farmer’s livelihoods. Specific agro-forestry practices suitable for national context will be identified and incorporated into intervention guidelines prepared by an international expert. Line planting in agricultural areas will be promoted: 1) to protect agricultural crops from winds and reduce evapotranspiration; 2) for animal browsing and shadow 3) for provision of wood and the end of the rotation period 4) to improve soil quality (e.g. Casuarinas are salt resistant species and can ameliorate the soil through the fixation of nutrients as nitrogen). Fruit trees will be distributed to farmers, and their planting followed-up by the DMAAs.

Furthermore, this output will strive enhancing local livelihoods by 3 NTFPs value chains aimed at primary and secondary processing, and value addition (some of the indicative NTFPs are improved fodder quality, medicine, oil). These NTFPs value chains will be designed to enhance sustainable forest management by implementing seasonal and rotatory harvests of various wood, no-ligneous products and derivatives.

Activities linked to Output 2.4: A fire control and fire-related impact reduction programme will be also implemented in Fogo and Santiago islands. The programme will include the elaboration of a specific island forestry fire control plan, including high-priority activities to be urgently implemented (e.g. in Fogo). Fire prevention and management techniques will be carried out in existing forests and areas to be restored, based on selected priorities activities. These techniques will include and develop the preparation of forests roads, the establishment of new water points, the cleaning up of the plants belonging to invasive species that crowd the shrub layer of the forest, and other management measures as needed. The forest fire control plans developed within this output, will be incorporated into the climate resilient Island Forest Management Plans developed under Component 1.

Activities linked to Output 2.5: Co-management of forest resources will be established and implemented at six pilot sites (4 in Santiago and 2 in Fogo). The six pilot sites will be selected based on i) the importance of the area for climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies; ii) the availability and suitability of forest and related natural resources (e.g. there are no major constrains in terms of land tenure structure);

and iii) the willingness of the local community to take part in the co-management initiatives. At each pilot site, a participatory process open to the whole local community will be carried out. Up to six national organizations/companies will be hired by the project as service providers in order to facilitate, follow-up, prepare the outputs of the six co-management processes, and finally to raise awareness and to spread knowledge among the community about the established co-management instruments. The service provider organizations will be trained (during the activities under Component 1) and supported during field implementation by an international expert in co-management of natural resources. The activities will also benefit from the FAO experience to identify, standardize and disseminate good practices in supporting extension, government officials and development partners together with farmer associations, herders, local communities, smallholders, entrepreneurs and civil society organizations.

The consensus-driven co-management process will lead to the preparation of a co-management plan for the forest resources at each pilot site. The plan will include a simple zoning use scheme and agreed management roles for natural resources. A local co-management committee will be also established at each pilot site. It will comprise representatives of the local community-based associations and elected community members as well (a minimum 30 % of women and 20 % under-30 years old committee members will be ensured). It is anticipated that the local co-management committees will comprise also institutional members from the local DMAA, from the Environmental office of the local Municipality, and possibly also members belonging to other relevant stakeholders according to the site-specific context (e.g.

protected areas, tourism enterprises, etc.). It is supposed that the local communities will also benefit from

“Community Concessions” (sensu Forestry Law 1998) on forest resources. Capacity building for community members of the local committees will be also provided in wood and no-wood business plans, monitoring and evaluation of extractive rates and transformation efficiency, and more in general on natural resources sustainable use. Community capacity building activities will be implemented by technicians from the DMAAs, and from the Environmental offices of the Municipalities, in turn trained as trainers in

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capacity building activities under Component 1. The initial phase of co-management plans implementation will be supported by awareness raising campaigns among involved communities carried out by the service provider organizations.

Component 3. Knowledge and lessons learned are captured, analyzed and disseminated.

Output 3.1 Development of forestry-tailored climate early warning and information systems, and support to the existing environmental database (SIA) to include climate change data.

Output 3.2 Lessons learned and best practices are generated and shared between local communities, and national and regional stakeholders through appropriate mechanisms, including project website, newsletter, mobile messaging, etc.

Output 3.3 Project experience in forestry adaptation is transmitted to technical, policy and education institutions to incorporate knowledge generated in training materials, curricula, policy programs.

Outputs and activities under this outcome principally serve to facilitate the systematic capturing, codification and dissemination of lessons learnt from project implementation from early stages of assessments, consultations and planning throughout the policy changes and delivery of on-the-ground actions. A range of knowledge products will be developed and disseminated tailored to different user groups, based on a communication strategy. The communication strategy will aim at broad distribution of technical experience and good practices amongst end users (farmers in the demo areas, and more broadly through farmers‟ and NGO networks, extension services and other means), linked with capacity building and technical assistance delivered by the project and related initiatives, in order to facilitate uptake and replication of knowledge generated. Importantly the experience and lessons generated will be systematically fed to the policy mainstreaming processes, informing national planners and policy makers, in order to ensure top-down and bottom up linkages between efforts to create an enabling policy and institutional environment and to implement community-based adaptation measures. Knowledge management activities form key part of the project sustainability and replication strategy, through engaging grassroots networks and education institutions. Under this component, project results, key lessons learnt and achievements will be documented and disseminated for replication and scaling up. This component will also ensure project’s progress is tracked and periodic evaluations are conducted for adaptive management.

Furthermore, the implementing partner would be responsible to design and implement the project Monitoring Reporting and Verification (MRV) aspect in collaboration with government counterpart and the Commission. In particular, within the designed MRV, the implementing partner would be responsible to define and determine CO2 emissions baseline and to enhance inventory and data collection on the carbon sequestration.

Activities linked to Output 3.1: Indicative activities:

 Adjustment of current climate services, knowledge and infrastructure to forestry use (based on work undertaken during the ongoing NAPA, INDC, etc.);

 Development of additional data collection capacity for forestry application (installation of automated weather stations for data recording in selected forestry areas, establishment of forest climate risk database);

 Development of climate-forest knowledge and application tools (such as Cyclone Track Atlas, Fire-weather index, GIS map layer analysis, GIS forest-climate reference and display tool, etc.);

 Technical support to the existing environmental database (SIA) to include climate change data, and to create effective integration with existing web-based forest databases, especially for CC- related issues.

Activities linked to Output 3.2: Indicative activities:

 Incorporation of project case studies and technical reports into agriculture and forestry related professional training (readings, exercises, research, etc.); 


 Undertaking of collaborative research and training activities in the demonstration areas; 


 Incorporation of forestry related adaptation experience and general awareness raising materials into climate change curricula development;

 Conducting Climate Change and forestry related education activities in primary and secondary

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