Implementación de una webquest en historia y cultura, como apoyo a la competencia para el manejo de la información, con estudiantes de grado quinto de la Institución Educativa Byron Gaviria

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(10) $!1'(+,%+(&%n31 #[D^ (HQoE+g+%UKXETKJILH+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN+ + q:IKWQ+K+UK+)EUEFXIK+MQU+1IDUE+n!n. +. +. +. +. g>Y. (HQoE+=+!F[DQHQV+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN+. +. +. +. +. g>h. +. +. gg=. (HQoE+@+8ETFKNE+MQ+%HNTQOIVNK+KRUIJKME+KU+DTGRE+QoRQTIFQHNKU+. +. ggY. (HQoE+P+4pXTIJK+MQ+%OKUGKJILH+ +. +. (HQoE+ ,IKTIE+MQ+)KFRE+q!HNQTOQHJILH+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN+. +. +. +. +. gg?. (HQoE+Y+#TQNQVN+KJNIOIMKMQV+RKTK+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+. +. +. +. ggf. (HQoE+?+:KUETKJILH+MQU+#TQNQVN+ +. +. +. +. ggh. (HQoE+f+#EVNQVN+KJNIOIMKMQV+RKTK+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV++. +. +. +. g=g. (HQoE+h+:KUETKJILH+MQU+#EVNQVN++ +. +. +. +. g==. (HQoE+g>+#TQNQVN+QVNGMIKHNQ+DTGRE+JEHNTEU+cVGWQNE+gd+ +. +. +. g=@. (HQoE+gg+#EVNQVN+QVNGMIKHNQ+DTGRE+JEHNTEU+cVGWQNE+gd++. +. +. g=P. (HQoE+g=+#TQNQVN+QVNGMIKHNQ+DTGRE+QoRQTIFQHNKU+cVGWQNE+gPd++. +. g=Y. (HQoE+g +#EVNQVN+QVNGMIKHNQ+DTGRE+QoRQTIFQHNKU+cVGWQNE+gPd+. +. g=?. (HQoE+g@+8ENEV+MQ+UK+!HNQTOQHJILH^+. +. +. g=h. (HQoE+gP+#QTILMIJEV+MIDINKUQV+QUKXETKMEV+RET+QVNGMIKHNQV+ + MQU+DTGRE+QoRQTIFQHNKU+QH+QU+JEFRGNKMET^. +. g@@. +. +. +. g=. +. +. +. +. +.

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(12) ++'QFK+ q:IKWQ+ K+ UK+ )EUEFXIK+ MQU+ VIDUE+ n!nr+ c:%4+ (&%n3+ g+ \+ =d6+ ]GQ+ RQTFINIL KRE\KT+ UK+ )EFRQNQHJIK+ RKTK+ QU+ "KHQWE+ MQ+ UK+ !HZETFKJILH+ c)"!d6+ FQMIKHNQ+ GH NTKXKWE+ JEERQTKNIOE6+ JEFE+ XKVQ+ RKTK+ QHTI]GQJQT+ UEV+ RTEJQVEV+ MQ QHVQ`KHaKiKRTQHMIaKWQ^ %VNK+(JNIOIMKM+MQ+(RTQHMIaKWQ+/KVKMK+QH+UK+4QM6+VQ+MQVKTTEUUL+JEH+QVNGMIKHNQV+MQU DTKME+PiP+cDTGRE+QoRQTIFQHNKUd+MQ+UK+!HVNINGJILH+%MGJKNIOK+/\TEH+9KOITIK^+(U+FIVFE NIQFRE+ QU+ DTGRE+ PiY+ cDTGRE+ JEHNTEUd+ MQ+ MIJbK+ !HVNINGJILH6+ JEHNIHGL+ JEH+ UK+ FIVFK NQF[NIJK+RQTE+JEH+UK+MIZQTQHJIK+MQ+OQTUK+MQ+FKHQTK+NTKMIJIEHKU^+%H+GH+RTIHJIRIE+VQ KRUIJL+GH+#TQNQVN+K+KFXEV+DTGREV+QH+UKV+FIVFKV+JEHMIJIEHQV+\+KU+FIVFE+NIQFRE6 JEH+QU+ZIH+MQ+KHKUIaKT+QU+QVNKME+IHIJIKU+MQ+KFXEV+DTGREV+KHNQV+MQ+JEFQHaKT+UK (U+ZIHKUIaKT+QU+NTKXKWE+MQVKTTEUUKME+JEH+UK+.QX0GQVN6+VQ+KRUIJL+GH+#EVNQVN+K+KFXEV DTGREV+ VEXTQ+ MIJbK+ NQF[NIJK6+ UE+ ]GQ+ RQTFINIL+ EXVQTOKT+ KOKHJQV+ VIDHIZIJKNIOEV+ MQU DTGRE+QoRQTIFQHNKU+JEH+TQUKJILH+KU+DTGRE+JEHNTEU^+)KXQ+KHENKT+]GQ+NKHNE+QU+#TQNQVN JEFE+ QU+ #EVNQVN+ VQ+ QOKUGKTEH+ JEH+ QU+ FEMQUE+ /!9Y+ ]GQ+ QOKUpK+ UK+ )EFRQNQHJIK RKTK+QU+"KHQWE+MQ+UK+!HZETFKJILH+c)"!d^ (GH]GQ+ QVNK+ IHOQVNIDKJILH+ bK+ VIME+ MQ+ JETNQ+ JGKHNINKNIOE+ JEHVIMQTKFEV+ ERETNGHE TQJGTTIT+ K+ N_JHIJKV+ JGKUINKNIOKV+ JEFE+ QU+ MIKTIE+ MQ+ JKFRE+ c:%4+ (&%n3+ d+ \+ GHK QHNTQOIVNK+ ZIHKU+ c:%4+ (&%n3+ @d6+ \K+ ]GQ+ HEV+ RQTFINIL+ JEHEJQT+ UK+ ERIHILH+ \+ UK QoRQTIQHJIK+]GQ+NGOIQTEH+UEV+KUGFHEV+KU+NTKXKWKT+JEH+UK+.QX0GQVN6+UKV+MIZIJGUNKMQV6 \+UKV+OQHNKWKV+\tE+MQVOQHNKWKV+]GQ+RQTJIXIQTEH^+(Ve+FIVFE6+FQMIKHNQ+QU+TQDIVNTE+MQU MIKTIE+ MQ+ JKFRE+ bQFEV+ EXVQTOKME+ UK+ FENIOKJILH6+ QU+ IHNQT_V6+ UK+ JEHVNTGJJILH+ MQ JEHEJIFIQHNE+\+UK+JEERQTKJILH+QHNTQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV^ %H+ VeHNQVIV6+ VQ+ XGVJL+ MKT+ VEUGJILH+ K+ UK+ VIDGIQHNQ+ RTQDGHNK+ MQ+ IHOQVNIDKJILHA j)LFE+ IHZUG\Q+ UK+ IFRUQFQHNKJILH+ MQ+ GHK+ .QX0GQVN+ QH+ UK+ )EFRQNQHJIK+ RKTK+ QU "KHQWE+MQ+UK+!HZETFKJILH6+QH+bIVNETIK+\+JGUNGTK+JEH+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+MQU+DTKME+Pu+MQ /[VIJK+#TIFKTIK+MQ+UK+!HVNINGJILH+%MGJKNIOK+/\TEH+9KOITIKl6+JEHNKHME+JEH+UK+K\GMK MQ+JKMK+GHE+MQ+UEV+MITQJNETQV+MQ+DTGRE+MQ+UEV+DTKMEV+Pu6+QU+TQJNET+MQ+UK+!HVNINGJILH %MGJKNIOK+ /\TEH+ 9KOITIK6+ QU+ KVQVET+ \+ QU+ MITQJNET+ MQU+ RTE\QJNE+ MQ+ DTKME+ MQ+ _VNK IHOQVNIDKJILH^. g@.

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(17) =^ g. 3/7%'!:31 3/7%'!:3+9%&%4($. (RE\KT+ UK+ )EFRQNQHJIK+ RKTK+ QU+ "KHQWE+ MQ+ UK+ !HZETFKJILH6+ QH+ 2IVNETIK+ \+ )GUNGTK JEH+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ MQU+ DTKME+ Pu+ MQ+ /[VIJK+ #TIFKTIK+ MQ+ UK+ !HVNINGJILH+ %MGJKNIOK /\TEH+9KOITIK6+FQMIKHNQ+UK+IFRUQFQHNKJILH+MQ+GHK+.QX0GQVN^ =. 3/7%'!:31+%1#%)<8!)31. i,IVQ`KT+GHK+.QX0GQVN+RKTK+NTKXKWKT+QH+QU+KGUK+MQ+JUKVQ+UK+2IVNETIK+\+)GUNGTK+MQ )EUEFXIK+QH+QU+VIDUE+n!n6+XKWE+GHK+FQNEMEUEDeK+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+JEERQTKNIOE^ i!FRUQFQHNKT+ GHK+ .QX0GQVN+ QH+ QU+ KGUK+ MQ+ JUKVQ6+ JEFE+ KUNQTHKNIOK+ MIZQTQHNQ+ MQ KRTQHMIaKWQ6+ KRTEOQJbKHME+ UKV+ HGQOKV+ 'QJHEUEDeKV+ MQ+ UK+ !HZETFKJILH+ \+ UK )EFGHIJKJILH+QH+QU+[TQK+MQ+)IQHJIKV+1EJIKUQV^ i%OKUGKT+UK+IHZETFKJILH+\+TQVGUNKMEV+EXNQHIMEV6+K+NTKO_V+MQ+GH+RTEJQVE+MQ+KH[UIVIV MQNKUUKME+JEH+N_JHIJKV+Q+IHVNTGFQHNEV+]GQ+QOIMQHJIQH+UKV+OQHNKWKV+\tE+MQVOQHNKWKV MQU+ GVE+ MQ+ UK+ .QX0GQVN6+ JEFE+ KRE\E+ QH+ UK+ )EFRQNQHJIK+ RKTK+ QU+ "KHQWE+ MQ+ UK !HZETFKJILH^+. gh.

(18) ^. "%'3,3$39<(. %U+MIVQ`E+FQNEMEULDIJE+MQ+UK+RTQVQHNQ+IHOQVNIDKJILH+bK+VIME+JGKHNINKNIOE+MQ+JETNQ )GKVIi%oRQTIFQHNKU6 MEHMQ+ VQ+ QVNKXUQJIQTEH+ UKV+ VQFQWKHaKV+ \+ MIZQTQHJIKV+ QHNTQ UEV+DTGREV+cJEHNTEU+\+QoRQTIFQHNKUd^+#KTK+QVNE+VQ+JEHVIMQTKTEH+UKV+JKTKJNQTeVNIJKV+ TQUKJIEHKMKV+ JEH+ UKV+ OKTIKXUQV+ QVNGMIKMKV^+ &E+ EXVNKHNQ6+ VQ+ TQJGTTIL+ K+ KUDGHKV N_JHIJKV+JGKUINKNIOKV+JEFE+QU+,IKTIE+MQ )KFRE+c:%4+(&%n3+&u+ d+\+UK+%HNTQOIVNK c:%4+(&%n3+&u+@d6+JEH+QU+ZIH+MQ+JEFRTQHMQT+FQWET+QU+RTEJQVE+MQ+IHOQVNIDKJILH^+ #KTK+QVNQ+MIVQ`E+VQ+NEFKTEH+MEV+DTGREV+HKNGTKUFQHNQ+ZETFKMEV+MQU+DTKME+Pu+MQ RTIFKTIK+ MQ+ UK+ !HVNINGJILH+ %MGJKNIOK+ /\TEH+ 9KOITIK6+ ]GQ+ NIQHQH+ UKV+ FIVFKV JKTKJNQTeVNIJKV6+ \+ RET+ QHMQ+ VEH+ Q]GIOKUQHNQV^+ -HE+ TQJIXIL+ QU+ HEFXTQ+ MQ+ DTGRE %oRQTIFQHNKU+ \+ QU+ ENTE+ DTGRE+ )EHNTEU^+ %H+ KFXEV+ VQ+ TQKUIaL+ UK+ KRUIJKJILH+ MQ+ GH #TQNQVN+ \+ GH+ #EVNQVN+ QH+ IDGKUQV+ JEHMIJIEHQV+ \+ KU+ FIVFE+ NIQFREs+ + NQHIQHME+ QH JGQHNK+ ]GQ+ pHIJKFQHNQ+ QU+ DTGRE+ QoRQTIFQHNKU+ NTKXKWL+ JEH+ QU+ KRE\E+ MQ+ GHK .QX0GQVN+ QH+ QU+ [TQK+ MQ+ )IQHJIKV+ 1EJIKUQV+ c2IVNETIK+ \+ )GUNGTKd6+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ QOKUGKT+UK+)EFRQNQHJIK+RKTK+QU+"KHQWE+MQ+UK+!HZETFKJILH^ g. 2!#*'%1!1. @^g^g+2IRLNQVIV+MQ+'TKXKWEA -HK+.QX0GQVN+JEFE+TQJGTVE+QMGJKNIOE6+KRE\K+UK+)EFRQNQHJIK+RKTK+QU+"KHQWE+MQ UK+!HZETFKJILH6++ QH+ 2IVNETIK+\+ )GUNGTK+JEH+ UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+MQU+DTKME+Pu+ MQ+/[VIJK #TIFKTIK+MQ+UK+!HVNINGJILH+%MGJKNIOK+/\TEH+9KOITIK^ @^g^=+2IRLNQVIV+&GUKA -HK+ .QX0GQVN6+ JEFE+ TQJGTVE+ QMGJKNIOE6+ HE+ KRE\K+ + UK+ )EFRQNQHJIK+ RKTK+ QU "KHQWE+MQ+UK+!HZETFKJILH6++QH+2IVNETIK+\+)GUNGTK+JEH+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+MQU+DTKME+Pu MQ+/[VIJK+#TIFKTIK+MQ+UK+!HVNINGJILH+%MGJKNIOK+/\TEH+9KOITIK^ = :(4!(/$%1+%+!&,!)(,34%1 #KTK+MKT+TQVRGQVNK+K+UK+RTQDGHNK+MQ+IHOQVNIDKJILH6+VQ+VQUQJJIEHKTEH+UKV+VIDGIQHNQV OKTIKXUQV6+JEH+QU+RTERLVINE+MQ+TQKUIaKT+GH+QVNGMIE+JGKHNINKNIOE+MQ+UK+NQF[NIJK^ @^=^g+:KTIKXUQ+,QRQHMIQHNQA )3"#%'%&)!(+#(4(+"(&%73+,%+$(+!&834"()!*&A =>.

(19) 2KXIUIMKMQV6+JEHEJIFIQHNEV+\+KJNINGMQV6+]GQ+QU+QVNGMIKHNQ+MQXQ+REHQT+QH+RT[JNIJK RKTK+IMQHNIZIJKT+UE+]GQ+HQJQVINK+VKXQT+QH+GH+FEFQHNE+MKME6+XGVJKT+QZQJNIOKFQHNQ UK+IHZETFKJILH+]GQ+QVNE+TQ]GIQTQ6+MQNQTFIHKT+VI+QVNK+IHZETFKJILH+QV+RQTNIHQHNQ+RKTK TQVREHMQT+ K+ VGV+ HQJQVIMKMQV+ \+ JEHOQTNITUK+ QH+ JEHEJIFIQHNE+ pNIU+ RKTK+ VEUGJIEHKT #TEXUQFKV+ MQ+ !HZETFKJILH+ QH+ JEHNQoNEV+ OKTIKMEV+ \+ TQKUQV+ MQ+ UK+ OIMK+ JENIMIKHK^ c%MGNQmK+=>>?d^ 1-/:(4!(/$%A+(#4%&,!C(7% (JNIOIMKM+ VEJIKU+ MQ+ RTEMGJJILH+ \+ TQRTEMGJJILH+ MQ+ JEHEJIFIQHNE+ FQMIKHNQ+ QU+ JGKU VQ+ KVIFIUKH+ UEV+ FEMEV+ VEJIKUQV+ MQ+ KJNIOIMKM+ Q+ IHNQTKJJILH+ \+ QH+ UK+ QVJGQUK+ UEV ZGHMKFQHNEV+MQU+JEHEJIFIQHNE+JIQHNeZIJE+QH+IHNQTKJJILH+VEJIKU^+c$QO+:IDENVm\+JINKME RET+:[a]GQadd 'KHNE+ UK+ OKTIKXUQ+ )3"#%'%&)!(+ #(4(+ %$+ "(&%73+ ,%+ $(+ !&834"()!*&6 JEFE+UK+VGXOKTIKXUQ+(#4%&,!C(7%6+ZGQTEH+QOKUGKMKV+K+NTKO_V+MQ+GHK+FKNTIa+MQ OKUETKJILH+ c:%4+ (&%n3+ &u+ Pd6+ \+ QU+ FEMQUE+ /!9Y+ KMKRNKME+ KU+ #TQNQVN+ \+ #EVNQVN c:%4+(&%n3+&u+?+\+hd^ =. :KTIKXUQ+!HMQRQHMIQHNQ. .%/0-%1' (JNIOIMKM+ ETIQHNKMK+ bKJIK+ UK+ IHMKDKJILH+ t+ IHOQVNIDKJILH+ QH+ UK+ ]GQ+ RKTNQ+ E+ NEMK+ UK IHZETFKJILH+JEH+UK+JGKU+IHNQTKJNpKH+UEV+KRTQHMIJQV+RTEOIQHQ+MQ+ZGQHNQV+MQ+!HNQTHQN^ c/QTHIQ+,EMDQd^ +#3/$()!*& #KTK+UK+QWQJGJILH+ MQU+QVNGMIE+VQ++ VQUQJJIEHKTEH+Y@+QVNGMIKHNQV++MQU+ DTKME+]GIHNE MQ+RTIFKTIK+FKNTIJGUKMEV+QU+K`E+=>>?6+QH+UK+!HVNINGJILH+%MGJKNIOK+/\TEH+9KOITIK^+%U QVNGMIE+VQ+TQKUIaL+QH+QU+KGUK+MQ+VIVNQFKV+\+QH+QU+VKULH+RTIHJIRKU+MQ+JUKVQ+MQ+MIJbE JGTVE^ %VNK+IHNQTOQHJILH+VQ+MQVKTTEUUL+MGTKHNQ+GH+FQV+c(DEVNE+=@+K+1QRNIQFXTQ+=@d+ UEV MeKV+ FKTNQV+ MQ+ g=AP>+ K+ =AP>6+ \+ UEV+ WGQOQV+ MQ+ gAP>+ K+ AP>6+ MQXIME+ K+ VQT+ _VNQ+ QU bETKTIE+MQ+!HNQTHQN+VGFIHIVNTKME+RET+UK+QFRTQVK+)EFRKTNQU+RKTK+MIJbK+IHVNINGJILH^ $K+ REXUKJILH+ RKTK+ QVNK+ IHOQVNIDKJILH+ ZGQ+ JEHZETFKMK+ RET+ QU+ DTGRE+ PiP cQoRQTIFQHNKUd+ \+ PiY+ cJEHNTEUd6+ MQ+ UK+ !HVNINGJILH+ %MGJKNIOK+ /\TEH+ 9KOITIK6+ UK+ JGKU QVN[+ GXIJKMK+ QH+ QU+ VQJNET+ =P>>+ UENQV+ MQ+ UK+ JIGMKMQUK+ )GXK6+ MQ+ QVNTKNEV VEJIEiQJEHLFIJEV+MQ+HIOQUQV+g+\+=^. =g.

(20) @^@++"-%1'4( %U+ F_NEME+ QFRUQKME+ RKTK+ QU+ FGQVNTQE+ ZGQ+ q)KGVKU+ E+ !HJIMQHNKUr6+ QV+ MQJIT6+ VQ VQUQJJIEHKTEH+MITQJNK+Q+IHNQHJIEHKUFQHNQ+UEV+IHMIOIMGEV+MQ+UK+REXUKJILH6+GNIUIaKHME JEFE+FGQVNTK+UEV+IHMIOIMGEV+K+UEV+]GQ+VQ+NGOE+F[V+Z[JIU+KJJQVE^ #ET+JEHVIDGIQHNQ+VQ+NEFL+GHK+FGQVNTK+MQ+Y@+QVNGMIKHNQV+MQ+MEV+DTGREV+MQ+0GIHNE MQ+ RTIFKTIK+ MQ+ UK+ !HVNINGJILH+ %MGJKNIOK+ /\TEH+ 9KOITIK^+ 1Q+ NTKXKWL+ JEH+ GH I-09% LF9(-'.(+1"*+ MQ+ @+ QVNGMIKHNQV6+ JEH+ GH+ RTEFQMIE+ MQ+ QMKM+ MQ+ g=+ K`EV6+ JEH+ GHK F[oIFK+MQ+g@+\+GHK+FeHIFK+MQ+g>+K`EVs+MQU+NENKU6+GH+@@^gv+QTK+MQ+VQoE+ZQFQHIHE \+GH++PP^hv+QTK+MQ+VQoE+FKVJGUIHE^ (Ve+ FIVFE+ VQ+ NTKXKWL+ JEH+ GH I-09%# K%+1-%*+ MQ+ >+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ MQ+ UK+ FIVFK QVJGQUK6+ JEH+ GH+ RTEFQMIE+ MQ+ QMKM+ MQ+ g=+ K`EV6+ JEH+ GHK+ F[oIFK+ MQ+ gP+ \+ GHK FeHIFK+MQ+g>+K`EVs+MQU+NENKU6+GH++@ ^@v+QTK+MQ+VQoE+ZQFQHIHE+\+GH+PY^Yv+QTK+MQ VQoE+FKVJGUIHE^ @^P+!&1'4-"%&'31 #KTK+UK+IHOQVNIDKJILH+VQ+GVKTEH+UEV+VIDGIQHNQV+IHVNTGFQHNEVA @^P^g+8IJbK+MQ+OKUETKJILH+MQU+#TQNQVN+\+#EVNQVNA 8IJbK+TQKUIaKMK+K+RKTNIT+MQ+UEV+RKVEV+RUKHNQKMEV+RET+QU+FEMQUE+/IDY MQVKTTEUUKME RET+"ImQ+%IVQHXQTD+\+/EX+/QTmEkINa^+c:%4+(&%n31+?+\+hd^ @^P^=+#TQNQVN+\+#EVNQVN+KRUIJKME+K+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQVA %VNQ+IHVNTGFQHNE+VQ+KRUIJL+JEH+QU+ZIH+MQ+QVNKXUQJQT+VG+QVNKME+KU+IHIJIKT+\+ZIHKUIaKT+UK IHNQTOQHJILH^+c:%4+(&%n3+Y+\+fd^ %U+ "EMQUE+ /IDYc$EV+ 1QIV+ 9TKHMQVd+ MQVKTTEUUKME+ RET+ "ImQ+ %IVQHXQTD+ \+ /EX /QTmEkINa+VQ+RGQMQ+MQZIHIT+JEFE+GH+RTEJQVE+VIVNQF[NIJE+MQ+VEUGJILH+MQ+RTEXUQFKV MQ+IHZETFKJILH+KRE\KME+QH+QU+RQHVKFIQHNE+JTeNIJE^+'KFXI_H+REMTeK+MQZIHITVQ+JEFE UKV+ VQIV+ [TQKV+ MQ+ bKXIUIMKM+ HQJQVKTIKV+ RKTK+ UK+ VEUGJILH+ QZQJNIOK+ \+ QZIJIQHNQ+ MQ RTEXUQFKV+ MQ+ IHZETFKJILH+ cRGHNEV+ QVRQJeZIJEV+ \+ QVNTKN_DIJEV+ ]GQ+ K\GMKH+ K VKNIVZKJQT+ UKV+ HQJQVIMKMQV+ MQ+ IHZETFKJILHd+ E+ JEFE+ GH+ JGTTeJGUE+ JEFRUQNE+ MQ bKXIUIMKMQV+RKTK+QU+GVE+MQ+UK+XIXUIENQJK+\+QU+FKHQWE+MQ+UK+IHZETFKJILH^. ==.

(21) !"#$%"&%'( bNNRAttkkk^QMGNQmK^ETDtNQFKSFQV^RbR l'QFK!,x>>>h. )EH+TQUKJILH+ K+UE+KHNQTIET6+VQ+KMKRNL+QU+ FEMQUE+/IDY6+NKHNE+RKTK+QU+ #TQNQVN+JEFE RKTK+ QU+ #EVNQVN6+ NQHIQHME+ QH+ JGQHNK+ UK+ NQF[NIJK+ ]GQ+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ MQXeKH+ OQT MGTKHNQ+ QU+ NQTJQT+ RQTIEME+ KJKM_FIJE+ MQU+ RTQVQHNQ+ K`E6+ \+ MQ+ KJGQTME+ JEH+ UEV QVN[HMKTQV+RUKHNQKMEV+RET+QU+"IHIVNQTIE+MQ+%MGJKJILH+&KJIEHKU+RKTK+DTKME+JGKTNE \+]GIHNE+MQ+RTIFKTIK+QH+QU+[TQK+MQ+JIQHJIKV+VEJIKUQV^ @^P^ ^+%OKUGKJILH+MQU+NTKXKWE+MQVKTTEUUKME+JEH+UK+.QX0GQVNA %VNK+QOKUGKJILH+VQ+MQVKTTEUUL+K+NTKO_V+MQ+UK+FKNTIa+MQ+OKUETKJILH6+UK+JGKU+ZKJIUINK+UK )KUIZIJKJILH+MQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+QH+QU+[TQK+MQ+)IQHJIKV+1EJIKUQV+c2IVNETIK+\+)GUNGTKd QH+TQUKJILH+JEH+UK+)EFRQNQHJIK+RKTK+QU+"KHQWE+MQ+UK+!HZETFKJILH^+c:%4+(&%n3 &u+Pd^ %VNK+ FKNTIa+ MQ+ OKUETKJILH6+ REMTeK+ QoRUIJKTVQ+ JEFE+ GH+ UIVNKME+ MQU+ JEHWGHNE+ MQ JTINQTIEV+ QVRQJeZIJEV+ \+ ZGHMKFQHNKUQV+ ]GQ+ RQTFINQH+ OKUETKT+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ6+ UEV JEHEJIFIQHNEV+ \tE+ UKV+ JEFRQNQHJIKV6+ UEDTKMEV+ RET+ QU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ QH+ MIJbK KVIDHKNGTK^+ %V+ IFRETNKHNQ+ TQVKUNKT+ ]GQ+ VQ+ KMKRNL+ \tE+ FEMIZIJL+ UK+ RUKHNIUUK+ MQ KJGQTME+ K+ UEV+ JEHNQHIMEV+ OIVNEV+ QH+ UK+ .QX0GQVN6+ NQHIQHME+ QH+ JGQHNK+ JEFE JTINQTIEV+MQ+OKUIMQa+\+JEHZIKXIUIMKM6+UEV+%VN[HMKTQV+/[VIJEV+MQ+)KUIMKM+MQU+[TQK+MQ. =.

(22) +)IQHJIKV+ 1EJIKUQV+ RKTK+ QU+ DTKME+ JGKTNE+ \+ ]GIHNE+ MQ+ RTIFKTIK6+ RGXUIJKMEV+ RET+ QU "%&+QH+QU+MEJGFQHNE+q8ETFKT+QH+)IQHJIKVA+y%U+,QVKZeEzr^ @^P^@+%HNTQOIVNKA %VNK+ QHNTQOIVNK+ VQ+ TQKUIaL+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ+ JEHEJQT+ QU+ IFRKJNE+ JKGVKME+ QH+ UEV QVNGMIKHNQV+MQU+DTGRE+%oRQTIFQHNKU+K+NTKO_V+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN^+c:%4+(&%n3+&u+@d^ @^P^P+,IKTIE+MQ+)KFREA %U+MIKTIE+MQ+JKFRE+VQ+TQKUIaL+JEH+QU+ZIH+MQ+RQTFINIT+GHK+FQWET+JEFRTQHVILH+MQ+UEV RTEJQVEV+ MQVKTTEUUKMEV+ MGTKHNQ+ UK+ IHNQTOQHJILH^+ %H+ QVNQ+ MIKTIE+ MQ+ JKFRE+ VQ TQDIVNTKTEH+ UEV+ JEFRETNKFIQHNEV+ EXVQTOKMEV+ QH+ UEV+ HI`EV+ \+ HI`KV6+ VGV QoRTQVIEHQV6+ ERIHIEHQV+ \+ UK+ KJNINGM+ MQU+ DTGRE+ QoRQTIFQHNKU+ QH+ TQUKJILH+ JEH+ QU NTKXKWE+TQKUIaKME^+c:%4+(&%n3+&u+ d^. =@.

(23) @^ g. "(4)3+'%34!)3i)3&)%#'-($ 34!9%&+5+,%8!&!)!*&+,%+$(+.%/0-%1'. $K+ TQOIVNK+ {%MGJKNIEH+ .ETUM{+ QH+ QU+ K`E+ =>>>6+ QHNTQOIVNL+ KU+ JTQKMET+ MQ+ UK .QX0GQVN6+ /QTHIQ+ ,EMDQ6+ ]GIQH+ TQVREHMIL+ K+ RTQDGHNKV+ TQUKJIEHKMKV+ JEH+ VG QoRQTIQHJIK+ MQ+ NTKXKWE+ K+ RKTNIT+ MQU+ K`E+ ghhP6+ JGKHME+ MIJNKXK+ GHK+ JUKVQ+ MQ 'QJHEUEDeK+ %MGJKNIOK+ QH+ UK+ -HIOQTVIMKM+ MQ+ 1KH+ ,IQDE^+ 1G+ EXWQNIOE+ RTIHJIRKU+ QTK QHVQ`KTUQV+K+VGV+QVNGMIKHNQV+GHK+VIFGUKJILH+QMGJKNIOK+UUKFKMK+{(T]GQNIRE{6+RQTE HE+ JEHNKXK+ JEH+ GHK+ JERIK+ MQU+ VEZNkKTQ+ E+ UEV+ FQMIEV+ RKTK+ FEVNTKTUE^+ #ET+ QVNQ FENIOE+,EMDQ+MQJIMIL+IFRTEOIVKT6+RQTFINIQHME+]GQ+NTKXKWKTKH+QH+DTGREV+TQOIVKHME GH+ DTKH+ HpFQTE+ MQ+ ZGQHNQV+ IHZETFKNIOKV+ ]GQ+ _U+ bKXeK+ JEHVQDGIME+ \+ TQOIVKME RTQOIKFQHNQ^+ $K+ NKTQK+ JEHVIVNIL+ QH+ TQRKTNIT+ QVNKV+ ZGQHNQV+ QHNTQ+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV6 IHNQDTKT+UK+IHZETFKJILH+\+MQJIMIT+VI+QU+RTEDTKFK+{(T]GQNIRE{+REMTeK+GVKTVQ6+\+MQ+]GQ FKHQTK6+QH+QU+JEUQDIE+MQU+JQHNTE+MQ+UK+JIGMKM6+MEHMQ+QUUEV+QVNKXKH+QHVQ`KHME^ ,IJQ+,EMDQ+]GQ+QVNK+JUKVQ+NGOE+GH+DTKH+_oINE6+qT'$,-01U#&".'+"+)%#9%-#(*#$"*/+#; ";0)"+)%#)%+)(#(-"#+(&($"-'%3#($&0&8"+)%#(*#<0.:')%#)(#*"$#&%+4(-$"&'%+($#" .()')"#E0(#*%$#($10)'"+1($#-(&%*(&1":"+#$0$#"+%1"&'%+($#;#1-"1":"+#)(#1%."-#0+" )(&'$'/+5# V".=$# *%$# 8":S"# ($&0&8")%# 8":*"-# $%:-(# *%$# 1(."$# )(# ."+(-"# 1"+ 9-%,0+)"# ;# .0*1',"&U1'&"5# WL$"# +%&8(# .(# )'# &0(+1"# E0(# U$1"# (-"# 0+"# ,%-." )',(-(+1(#)(#(+$(7"-#;#.(#(+&"+1/X>5# -HKV+VQFKHKV+MQVRG_V6+,EMDQ+MQHEFIHL QVNK+KJNIOIMKM+{.QX0GQVN{^ $K+.QX0GQVN+ETIDIHKTIKFQHNQ+ZGQ+ZETFGUKMK+K+FQMIKMEV+MQ+UEV+K`EV+HEOQHNK+RET /QTHIQ+,EMDQ+cghhPs+ghhfs+ghhhd+c-HIOQTVIMKM+MQ+1KH+,IQDEd+\+MQVKTTEUUKMK+RET 'EF+ "KTJb+ cghhfs+ =>>>d^+ ,Q+ KJGQTME+ JEH+ UEV+ KGNETQV6+ GHK+ .QX0GQVN+ QV+ GHK q"&1'4')")#%-'(+1")"#"#*"#'+4($1'I"&'/+#(+#*"#E0(#*"#.";%-#9"-1(#)(#*"#'+,%-."&'/+ E0(# $(# )(:(# 0$"-# ($1=# (+# *"# Y(:5# L$# 0+# .%)(*%# E0(# 9-(1(+)(# -(+1":'*'<"-# (* 1'(.9%# )(# *%$# ($10)'"+1($3# &(+1-"-$(# (+# (*# 0$%# )(# *"# '+,%-."&'/+# .=$# E0(# (+# $0 :P$E0()"#;#-(,%-<"-#*%$#9-%&($%$#'+1(*(&10"*($#(+#*%$#+'4(*($#)(#"+=*'$'$3#$S+1($'$#; (4"*0"&'/+>5 %H+QVNQ+VQHNIME+/QTHIQ+,EMDQ+\+'EF+"KTJb+JEH+UK+.QX0GQVN6+RTQNQHMQH+]GQ+UEV QVNGMIKHNQV+ MQMI]GQH+ F[V+ NIQFRE+ K+ GVKT+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH+ ]GQ+ K+ QHJEHNTKTUK^+ $K .QX0GQVN+QV+GHK+KJNIOIMKM+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+XKVKMK+QH+UK+TQM6+MEHMQ+QU+MEJQHNQ+VQ RUKHNQK+GHK+VQTIQ+MQ+EXWQNIOEV+\+UEV+RTQVQHNK+K+VGV+ KUGFHEV+FQMIKHNQ+GHK+NKTQK XIQH+ QVNTGJNGTKMK6+ VQDGIMK+ MQ+ GHK+ R[DIHK+ MQ+ TQJGTVEV+ RKTK+ UUQOKT+ K+ JKXE+ VG NTKXKWE^+. =P.

(24) #ET+ QVNK+ TKaLH6+ UEV+ MEJQHNQV+ QWQTJQH+ GH+ TEU+ MQ+ DGe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b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s+ QV+ MQJIT6+ RGQMQ+ NTKXKWKTVQ+ QH FKNQF[NIJKV6+ JIQHJIKV+ HKNGTKUQV6+ JIQHJIKV+ VEJIKUQV6+ UQHDGKWQ+ QHNTQ+ ENTKV+ [TQKV6 DQHQTKHME+ GH+ KFXIQHNQ+ F[V+ QHTI]GQJQMET+ NKHNE+ RKTK+ QU+ MEJQHNQ+ JEFE+ RKTK+ QU KUGFHE6+ KU+ MQVKTTEUUKT+ FQWETQV+ RTEJQVEV+ MQ+ QHVQ`KHaKiKRTQHMIaKWQ^+ %V+ GHK KJNIOIMKM+]GQ+KMQF[V+IHJETRETK+QU+!HNQTHQN+KU+KGUK+MQ+JUKVQ6+KJQTJKHME+KU+HI`E+KU FGHME+ TQKU6+ \+ RET+ QHMQ+ K+ UEV+ KOKHJQV+ NQJHEULDIJEV+ ]GQ+ HEV+ EZTQJQH+ UKV+ &GQOKV 'QJHEUEDeKV+MQ+UK+!HZETFKJILH+\+UK+)EFGHIJKJILH+c'!)Vd^. =Y.

(25) !"#$%"&%'A+bNNRAttkkk^QMGNQmK^ETDtJEFQHQMIN^RbR l)EF%M!,x>>g>. %VNK+ QVNTKNQDIK+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ MENK+ K+ UEV+ RTEZQVETQV+ MQ+ UKV+ bQTTKFIQHNKV HQJQVKTIKV+ RKTK+ GVKT+ UKV+ 'QJHEUEDeKV+ MQ+ UK+ !HZETFKJILH+ \+ )EFGHIJKJILH+ MQVMQ GHK+ RQTVRQJNIOK+ QMGJKNIOK6+ MQVKTTEUUKHME+ VGV+ RTERIKV+ IMQKV+ JEH+ TQUKJILH+ KU+ NQFK ]GQ+ QVN_H+ QHVQ`KHME6+ \K+ ]GQ+ JKMK+ MEJQHNQ+ RGQMQ+ IHHEOKT6+ \+ MIVQ`KT+ VG+ RTERIK .QX0GQVN+ MQ+ NKU+ ZETFK+ ]GQ+ VQK+ JTQKNIOK+ \+ ]GQ+ RUKHNQQ+ GHKV+ NKTQKV+ JUKTKV+ ]GQ TQVREHMKH+KU+EXWQNIOE+MQ+UK+JUKVQ^ ,QVMQ+ghhP6+JGKHME+/QTHIQ+,EMDQ+\+'EF+"KTJb+UE+MQVKTTEUUKTEH+RET+RTIFQTK+OQa6 QU+FEMQUE+.QX0GQVN+bK+VIME+IHJETRETKME+QH+JQHNQHKTQV+MQ+JGTVEV+MQ+QMGJKJILH \+QH+UEV+QVZGQTaEV+MQ+ZETFKJILH+MQ+RQTVEHKU+KMFIHIVNTKNIOE+K+HIOQU+FGHMIKU^ g )EFREHQHNQV+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVNA /QTHIQ+ ,EMDQ+ JEH+ UK+ JEUKXETKJILH+ MQ+ 'EF+ "KTJb6+ MIVQ`KTEH+ \+ MQVKTTEUUKTEH+ UKV .QX0GQVNV+ JEFE+ (JNIOIMKMQV+ MQ+ (RTQHMIaKWQ+ /KVKMKV+ QH+ UK+ 4QM6+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ K\GMKT+K+UEV+MEJQHNQV+MQ+MIZQTQHNQV+[TQKV+K+IHNQDTKT+QU+!HNQTHQN+JEH+QU+KRTQHMIaKWQ MQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV^+,Q+QVNK+ZETFK+VQ+XGVJK+]GQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+IHOIQTNKH+F[V+VG NIQFRE+QH+GVKT+UK+IHZETFKJILH6+\++HE+QH+XGVJKTUK^. =?.

(26) -HK+ .QX0GQVN+ VQ+ JEFREHQ+ MQ+ VQIV+ RKTNQV+ QVQHJIKUQVA+ !HNTEMGJJILH6+ 'KTQK6 #TEJQVE6+4QJGTVEV6+%OKUGKJILH+\+)EHJUGVILH^ $(+ !&'43,-))!*&A+ #TEOQQ+ KU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH+ X[VIJK6+ UE+ ETIQHNK VEXTQ+ UE+ ]GQ+ UQ+ QVRQTK+ \+ VGVJINK+ VG+ IHNQT_V+ K+ NTKO_V+ MQ+ GHK+ OKTIQMKM+ MQ TQJGTVEV^+$K+FQNK+MQ+UK+IHNTEMGJJILH+QV+bKJQT+UK+KJNIOIMKM+KNTKJNIOK+\+MIOQTNIMK RKTK+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+MQ+NKU+FKHQTK+]GQ+UEV+IHNQTQVQ+\+FKHNQHDK+QVQ+IHNQT_V+K UE+UKTDE+MQ+UK+KJNIOIMKM^ $(+'(4%(A+%V+GHK+MQVJTIRJILH+ZETFKU+MQ+KUDE+TQKUIaKXUQ+Q+IHNQTQVKHNQ+]GQ+UEV QVNGMIKHNQV+ MQXQT[H+ bKXQT+ UUQOKME+ K+ JKXE+ KU+ ZIHKU+ MQ+ UK+ .QX0GQVN^+ %VNE REMTeK+VQT+GH+RTEMGJNE+NKU+JEFE+GHK+RTQVQHNKJILH+FGUNIFQMIK6+GHK+QoREVIJILH OQTXKU6+ GHK+ JIHNK+ MQ+ OIMQE6+ JEHVNTGIT+ GHK+ R[DIHK+ .QX+ E+ TQKUIaKT+ GHK+ EXTK+ MQ NQKNTE^ %$+#43)%13A+,QVJTIXQ+UEV+RKVEV+]GQ+QU+QVNGMIKHNQ+MQXQ+VQDGIT+RKTK+UUQOKT+K JKXE+ UK+ 'KTQK6+ JEH+ UEV+ QHUKJQV+ IHJUGIMEV+ QH+ JKMK+ RKVE^+ $K+ MQVJTIRJILH+ MQU RTEJQVE+MQXQ+VQT+TQUKNIOKFQHNQ+JETNK+\+JUKTK^ $31+ 4%)-4131A+ )EHVIVNQH+ QH+ GHK+ UIVNK+ MQ+ VINIEV+ .QX+ ]GQ+ QU+ RTEZQVET+ bK UEJKUIaKME+ RKTK+ K\GMKT+ KU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ K+ JEFRUQNKT+ UK+ NKTQK^+ %VNEV+ VEH VQUQJJIEHKMEV+RTQOIKFQHNQ+RKTK+]GQ+QU+QVNGMIKHNQ+RGQMK+QHZEJKT+VG+KNQHJILH QH+QU+NQFK6+QH+UGDKT+MQ+HKOQDKT+K+UK+MQTIOK^+ $(+ %:($-()!*&A+ %V+ GHK+ KMIJILH+ HGQOK+ KU+ FEMQUE+ MQ+ UKV+ .QX0GQVN^+ $EV QVN[HMKTQV+ MQXQH+ VQT+ WGVNEV6+ JUKTEV6+ JEHVIVNQHNQV+ \+ QVRQJeZIJEV+ RKTK+ QU JEHWGHNE+ MQ+ 'KTQKV^+ -HK+ ZETFK+ MQ+ QOKUGKT+ QU+ NTKXKWE+ MQ+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ QV FQMIKHNQ+GHK+RUKHNIUUK+MQ+QOKUGKJILH^ $(+ )3&)$-1!*&A+ 4QVGFQ+ UK+ QoRQTIQHJIK+ \+ QVNIFGUK+ UK+ TQZUQoILH+ KJQTJK+ MQU RTEJQVE+ MQ+ NKU+ FKHQTK+ ]GQ+ QoNIQHMK+ \+ DQHQTKUIJQ+ UE+ KRTQHMIME^+ %H+ QVNK VQJJILH6+ QU+ RTEZQVET+ RGQMQ+ KHIFKT+ K+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ RKTK+ ]GQ+ VGDIQTKH KUDGHKV+ ZETFKV+ MIZQTQHNQV+ MQ+ bKJQT+ UKV+ JEVKV+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ+ FQWETKT+ UK KJNIOIMKM^. =f.

(27) 1QDpH+,EMDQ+\+"KTJb6+QV+ZGHMKFQHNKU+NQHQT+QH+JGQHNK+GHK+VQTIQ+MQ+RTQDGHNKV+QH JKMK+GHE+MQ+UEV+RKVEV+MQ+GHK+.QX0GQVNA. 'EFKME+MQA bNNRAttkkk^JIXQTVEJIQMKM^HQNtJEHDTQV=>>YtDNVtJEFGHIJKJIE^RbRlUUQHDGKxQV|IMxg?h. )EFE+ REMQFEV+ OQT+ UKV+ .QX0GQVNV+ TQ]GIQTQH+ MQ+ GHK+ VQTIQ+ MQ+ RKVEV+ ]GQ+ UEV QVNGMIKHNQV+ MQXQT[H+ VQDGIT+ QH+ QU+ FIVFE+ ETMQH+ QH+ QU+ ]GQ+ KRKTQJQH6+ KGH]GQ+ QH JGKU]GIQT+FEFQHNE+RGQMQH+IT+K+ENTKV+VQJJIEHQV+MQU+NTKXKWE^+%H+RTIFQT+UGDKT+QH+UK VQJJILH+ {'KTQK{+ VQ+ QoRUIJK+ ]G_+ QV+ UE+ ]GQ+ VQ+ OK+ K+ bKJQT+ JEHJTQNKFQHNQ^+ %H+ QU {#TEJQVE{+ VQ+ RTQVQHNKH+ ETIQHNKJIEHQV+ MQNKUUKMKV+ MQ+ JLFE+ VQ+ MQXQ+ ETDKHIaKT+ UK IHZETFKJILH+ \+ JG[UQV+ VEH+ UEV+ NQFKV+ ]GQ+ VQ+ MQXQH+ IHOQVNIDKT^+ %H+ q4QJGTVEVr+ VQ =h.

(28) QHJGQHNTKH+ GHK+ VQTIQ+ MQ+ VINIEV+ QH+ !HNQTHQN+ cR[DIHKV+ .QXd6+ RKTK+ + QHJEHNTKT+ UK IHZETFKJILH+]GQ+VQ+HQJQVINQ^+%H+q%OKUGKJILH{+VQ+QoRUIJK+JG[UQV+VEH+UEV+KVRQJNEV ]GQ+ VQ+ QOKUGKT[H^+ 5+ ZIHKUFQHNQ+ QH+ {)EHJUGVILH{+ VQ+ RUKHNQK+ GHK+ TQZUQoILH+ ZIHKU KJQTJK+MQ+QVNQ+NTKXKWE+QH+Q]GIRE^ P^g^=+j)LFE+QUKXETKT+GHK+kQX]GQVNl )EFE+VERETNQ+RKTK+UK+TQKUIaKJILH+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN+]GQ+VQ+IFRUQFQHNL+JEH+QU+DTGRE QoRQTIFQHNKU+ MQ+ DTKME+ Pu+ MQ+ RTIFKTIK+ MQ+ UK+ !HVNINGJILH+ %MGJKNIOK+ /\TEH+ 9KOITIK6 HEV+ XKVKFEV+ QH+ QU+ MEJGFQHNE+ RGXUIJKME+ RET+ %,-'%}(+ QU+ >+ MQ+ 7GUIE+ MQU+ K`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aKT MGTKHNQ+QU+MQVKTTEUUE+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN^ %H+ KUDGHKV+ EJKVIEHQV6+ MQRQHMIQHME+ MQ+ UK+ JEFRUQWIMKM+ MQU+ NQFK6+ QV HQJQVKTIE+EZTQJQT+MQZIHIJIEHQV+XTQOQV+MQ+UEV+JEHJQRNEV+X[VIJEV+]GQ+VQ+OKH K+ FKHQWKT6+ RKTK+ ]GQ+ QU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ RGQMK+ JEFRTQHMQT+ MQ+ ]G_+ VQ+ UQ+ QVN[ bKXUKHME^ '(4%( ,QVRG_V+ MQ+ MIVQ`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

(29) 'KTQK6+ VEUE+ QV+ HQJQVKTIE+ MQVJTIXIT+ QH+ ]G_+ JEHVIVNQ+ UK+ KJNIOIMKM6+ QH+ ZETFK NKH+MQNKUUKMK+JEFE+VQK+REVIXUQ+RKTK+ZKJIUINKT+VG+JEFRTQHVILH^ -HK+MQVJTIRJILH+MQU+RTEMGJNE+ZIHKU+]GQ+MQXQ+QUKXETKT+\+MQ+UK+FKHQTK+JLFE MQXQ+RTQVQHNKTUE^ $KV+ bQTTKFIQHNKV+ IHZETF[NIJKV+ ]GQ+ VQ+ OKH+ K+ GNIUIaKT+ RKTK+ QUKXETKT+ QU RTEMGJNE+ ZIHKU+ \+ UK+ QVRQJIZIJKJILH+ MQ+ UKV+ JEHMIJIEHQV+ E+ RKT[FQNTEV+ ]GQ+ QU QVNGMIKHNQ+MQXQ+VQDGIT+RKTK+QUUE^ #43)%13 $K+VQJJILH+#TEJQVE+MQ+GHK+.QX0GQVN+MQXQ+IHJUGIT+UK+VIDGIQHNQ+IHZETFKJILHA ,QVJTIRJILH+ MQNKUUKMK+ MQ+ JKMK+ GHK+ MQ+ UKV+ VGXNKTQKV+ QH+ UKV+ ]GQ+ VQ QVRQJIZI]GQ+JUKTKFQHNQ+]G_+MQXQ+bKJQT+QU+QVNGMIKHNQ+\+JLFE+MQXQ+bKJQTUE cIHMIOIMGKUFQHNQ6+QH+DTGRE6+MQVQFRQ`KHME+GH+TEU6+QNJd^ !HMIJKT+ QVNTKNQDIKV+ RKTK+ FKHQWKT+ KMQJGKMKFQHNQ+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH RTEOQHIQHNQ+ MQ+ UEV+ 4QJGTVEV+ MKMEV+ ]GQ+ JEHMGaJK+ K+ UK+ VEUGJILH+ MQ+ JKMK VGXNKTQK^ (VRQJNEV+ QH+ UEV+ ]GQ+ QU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ MQXQ+ JEHJQHNTKT+ VG+ KNQHJILH+ RKTK TQVEUOQT+JEH+_oINE+JKMK+VGXNKTQK^ %VNTKNQDIKV+ KMQJGKMKV+ RKTK+ FKHQWKT+ KMQJGKMKFQHNQ+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH RTEOQHIQHNQ+MQ+UEV+4QJGTVEV6+]GQ+RQTFINKH+KU+QVNGMIKHNQ+TQKUIaKT+JEH+_oINE JKMK+ VGXNKTQK^+ #KTK+ QVNE+ RGQMQ+ KRE\KTVQ+ QH+ UEV+ pUNIFEV+ + RKVEV+ MQU "EMQUE+{/ID+Y{+RKTK+TQVEUOQT+RTEXUQFKV+MQ+IHZETFKJILH^ 1I+ UK+ 'KTQK+ RTEREHQ+ UK+ KVIDHKJILH+ MQ+ MIZQTQHNQV+ TEUQV6+ QV+ HQJQVKTIE MQVJTIXITUEV+MQNKUUKMKFQHNQ+\+QVRQJIZIJKT+JG[UQV+VEH+UKV+KJNIOIMKMQV+]GQ+UQ JETTQVREHMQH+K+JKMK+GHE+MQ+QUUEV^ 1I+QV+REVIXUQ6+RTQVQHNKT+GH+QV]GQFK+MQU+RTEMGJNE+ZIHKU^ 4%)-4131 4QVRQJNE+K+UEV+4QJGTVEV+VQ+QVRQTK+]GQA 1QKH+RQTNIHQHNQV+RKTK+QU+NQFK+MQ+UK+.QX0GQVN^ )EHNQHDKH+IHZETFKJILH+O[UIMK+\+VGZIJIQHNQ+RKTK+TQKUIaKT+UK+'KTQK6+UE+JGKU+HE ]GIQTQ+ MQJIT+ ]GQ+ UEV+ 4QJGTVEV+ MQXKH+ JEHNQHQT+ NQoNGKUFQHNQ+ NEMKV+ UKV TQVRGQVNKVs+ RET+ QU+ JEHNTKTIE6+ VQ+ QVRQTK+ ]GQ+ QU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ RTEJQVQ+ \ NTKHVZETFQ+ MQ+ KUDGHK+ FKHQTK+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH+ ]GQ+ VQ+ UK+ bK+ MKME6+ \+ ]GQ. g.

(30) JEHVNTG\K+ JEH+ QUUK+ NKHNE+ HGQOEV+ JEHEJIFIQHNEV+ JEFE+ RTEMGJNEV+ ]GQ+ UQ RQTFINKH+QWQJGNKT+UK+KJNIOIMKM+QZQJNIOKFQHNQ^ 3ZTQaJKH+ IHZETFKJILH+ ]GQ+ VQ+ KWGVNQ+ KU+ DTKME+ QVJEUKT+ QH+ QU+ ]GQ+ VQ+ OK+ K TQKUIaKT+UK+.QX0GQVN^ %:($-()!*& -HK+ ZETFK+ MQ+ QOKUGKT+ QU+ NTKXKWE+ MQ+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ QV+ FQMIKHNQ+ GHK+ "KNTIa+ MQ :KUETKJILH^+ %VNK+ FKNTIa+ JEHNIQHQ+ GH+ UIVNKME+ MQ+ KVRQJNEV+ QVRQJeZIJEV+ \ ZGHMKFQHNKUQV+]GQ+RQTFINQH+JGKHNIZIJKT6+JEH+XKVQ+QH+GHEV+JTINQTIEV+MQ+MQVQFRQ`E MQZIHIME6+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ6+ UEV+ JEHEJIFIQHNEV+ \+ UKV+ JEFRQNQHJIKV+ UEDTKMEV+ RET+ QU QVNGMIKHNQ+ MGTKHNQ+ QU+ MQVKTTEUUE+ MQ+ GHK+ .QX0GQVN^+ $K+ "KNTIa+ MQ+ :KUETKJILH RQTFINQ+KU+MEJQHNQ+QVNKXUQJQT+MIZQTQHNQV+HIOQUQV+MQ+JKUIMKM+RKTK+JKMK+GHE+MQ+UEV JTINQTIEV+MQ+MQVQFRQ`E6+\+MQVJTIXITUEV+JGKUINKNIOKFQHNQ^+$EV+JTINQTIEV+\+HIOQUQV+MQ GHK+ "KNTIa+ MQ+ :KUETKJILH+ MQXQH+ VQT+ WGVNEV6+ JUKTEV6+ JEHVIVNQHNQV+ \+ QVRQJeZIJEV6+ \ MQXQH+QVNKT+JEHVNKHNQFQHNQ+MIVREHIXUQV+RKTK+QU+QVNGMIKHNQ6+MQ+FKHQTK+]GQ+RGQMK OQTIZIJKT+RET+Ve+FIVFE+VI+VG+RTEJQVE+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+OK+RET+XGQH+JKFIHE^ $K+"KNTIa+MQ+:KUETKJILH+MQ+GHK+.QX0GQVN6+MQXQ+JEHNQHQT+JTINQTIEV+MQ+MQVQFRQ`E JUKTEV+TQVRQJNE+K+UEV+VIDGIQHNQV+KVRQJNEV+DQHQTKUQV+K+QOKUGKTA ,QVKTTEUUE+MQ+JEHEJIFIQHNEV+RTERIEV+MQU+NQFK+]GQ+VQ+QVN[+NTKXKWKHME+QH+UK .QX0GQVN^ ,QVKTTEUUE+ MQ+ JEFRQNQHJIKV+ \+ bKXIUIMKMQV+ HQJQVKTIKV+ RKTK+ GNIUIaKT KMQJGKMKFQHNQ+IHZETFKJILH+RTEOQHIQHNQ+MQ+!HNQTHQN^ -VE+ MQ+ 2QTTKFIQHNKV+ !HZETF[NIJKV+ RKTK+ RENQHJIKT+ UK+ JEHVNTGJJILH+ MQ JEHEJIFIQHNEV+ HGQOEV6+ \+ RKTK+ K\GMKT+ K+ RTEJQVKT+ \+ VIHNQNIaKT+ FQWET+ UK IHZETFKJILH^ )KUIMKM+\+RQTNIHQHJIK+MQU+RTEMGJNE+ZIHKU+VEUIJINKME+QH+UK+'KTQK^ )3&)$-1!*& $K+)EHJUGVILH+MQXQ+QoRTQVKTVQ+QH+GH+R[TTKZE+MQ+REJK+QoNQHVILH+\+QVN[+RQHVKMK RKTK+JGFRUIT+UEV+VIDGIQHNQV+EXWQNIOEVA 1Q`KUKT+ \+ TQVGFIT+ UEV+ KVRQJNEV+ MQ+ UK+ NQF[NIJK+ ]GQ+ VQ+ QVRQTKXK+ ]GQ+ QU QVNGMIKHNQ+MQVJGXTIQTK+FQMIKHNQ+QU+MQVKTTEUUE+MQ+UK+'KTQK^ %VNIFGUKT+UK+TQZUQoILH+MQU+QVNGMIKHNQ+VEXTQ+UK+IFRETNKHJIK+MQU+NQFK+RKTK+VG OIMK+JENIMIKHK+E+RKTK+QU+FQMIE+QH+QU+]GQ+OIOQ^ 3ZTQJQT+ GH+ JEFQHNKTIE+ ZIHKU+ VEXTQ+ UEV+ TQVGUNKMEV+ MQ+ UK+ KJNIOIMKM+ ]GQ+ VQ TQKUIaL6+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ+ TQNTEKUIFQHNKT+ KU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ E+ MQ+ IHOINKTUE+ K+ bKJQT. =.

(31) VGDQTQHJIKV+ ]GQ+ RQTFINKH+ FQWETKT+ QU+ RTEJQVE+ MQ+ TQKUIaKJILH+ MQ+ UK .QX0GQVN^ %U+KH[UIVIV+TQKUIaKME+RET+%MGNQmK+QH+ QU+ FIVFE+MEJGFQHNE6+EZTQJQ+K+UEV+MEJQHNQV F[V+ \+ FQWETQV+ QUQFQHNEV+ ]GQ+ UQV+ RQTFINQH+ JEHVNTGIT+ \+ NTKXKWKT+ .QX0GQVN+ ]GQ QHTI]GQaJKH+ TQKUFQHNQ+ QU+ RTEJQVE+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ MQ+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV^+ ,QU+ NTKXKWE ]GQ+UEV+MEJQHNQV+TQKUIJQH+QH+QVNQ+VQHNIME6+MQRQHMQ+]GQ+QU+OKUET+RQMKDLDIJE+MQ+UKV .QX0GQVNV+ VQ+ IHJTQFQHNQ+ \+ RGQMK+ KRTEOQJbKTVQ+ RET+ UK+ FK\ET+ JKHNIMKM+ REVIXUQ MQ+QVNGMIKHNQV+QH+QU+FGHME^. !"#$%"&%'A bNNRAttkQX]GQVN^VMVG^QMGtMQVIDHVNQRVtIHMQo^bNFU. #ET+ JEHVIDGIQHNQ+ VQ+ NEFKTEH+ QH+ JGQHNK+ QVNKV+ JEHVIMQTKJIEHQV6+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ QUKXETKT+ GHK+ .QX0GQVN+ ]GQ+ VQ+ KWGVNKTK+ K+ UKV+ HQJQVIMKMQV+ MQ+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV6 RQTE+ KMQF[V+ IHHEOKT+ JEH+ QVNQ+ TQJGTVE+ QMGJKNIOE6+ ]GQ+ XGVJK+ KRE\KT+ UK )EFRQNQHJIK+ RKTK+ QU+ "KHQWE+ MQ+ UK+ !HZETFKJILH6+ K+ NTKO_V+ MQ+ UK+ XpV]GQMK6 VQUQJJILH6+UEJKUIaKJILH6+ETDKHIaKJILH6+\+QOKUGKJILH+MQ+UK+IHZETFKJILH^.

(32) !"#$%&'()*+$,'. ,QHNTE+ MQ+ UKV+ FpUNIRUQV+ MQZIHIJIEHQV+ ]GQ+ REMQFEV+ EXNQHQT+ VEXTQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ6 QHJEHNTKFEV+ ]GQ+ QV+ GH 9-%&($%# "# 1-"4U$# )(*# &0"*# $(# ")E0'(-(+# 8":'*')")($3 )($1-(<"$3# &%+%&'.'(+1%$3# &%.%# -($0*1")%# )(# *"# (F9(-'(+&'"3# *"# '+$1-0&&'/+# %# *" %:$(-4"&'/+>5 (Ve+FIVFE6+KU+bKXUKT+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+RQHVKFEV+IHFQMIKNKFQHNQ+QH+UK+ZETFK+JEFE QU+ VQT+ bGFKHE $(# "9-%9'"# )(*# &%+%&'.'(+1%3# (+# $0$# )'$1'+1"$# )'.(+$'%+($H &%+&(91%$3# 9-%&()'.'(+1%$3# "&1'10)($# ;# 4"*%-($>5 %U+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEHVIVNQ+ QH IHJETRETKT+K+Ve+FIVFE+bQJbEV6+OQTMKMQV+\+VQHVKJIEHQV+]GQ+KHNQV+QTKH+QoNQTIETQV \+bKVNK+MQVJEHEJIMKV+RKTK+HEVENTEV^ )EFE+ RUKHNQK+ (GVGXQU3# )0-"+1(# .0&8%# 1'(.9%# $(# &%+$')(-/# E0(# (*# "9-(+)'<"2( (-"# $'+/+'.%# )(# &".:'%# )(# &%+)0&1"3# ($1%3# 9%-E0(# )%.'+/# 0+"# 9(-$9(&1'4" &%+)0&1'$1"#)(#*"#*":%-#()0&"1'4"Z#$'+#(.:"-I%3#$(#90()(#",'-."-#&%+#&(-1(<"#E0( (*#"9-(+)'<"2(#80."+%#4"#.=$#"**=#)(#0+#$'.9*(#&".:'%#)(#&%+)0&1">5 1I+ XIQH+ QV+ JIQTNE+ ]GQ+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ QV+ F[V+ ]GQ+ GH+ JKFXIE+ MQ+ JEHMGJNK6+ QV HQJQVKTIE+ TQJEHEJQT+ ]GQ+ JGKU]GIQT+ bQJbE+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ VQ+ MK+ K+ NTKO_V+ MQ+ UKV QoRQTIQHJIKV+OIOIMKV+RET+UEV+VQTQV+bGFKHEV^+#EMQFEV+MQJIT+]GQ+UKV+QoRQTIQHJIKV6 VEH+UKV+]GQ+FEMIZIJKH+K+UKV+RQTVEHKV6+K+NTKO_V+MQ+UK++IHNQTKJJILH+JEH+QU+FQMIE+QH QU+ ]GQ+ QVN[H+ IHFQTVEV^+ #ET+ UE+ NKHNE6+ UKV+ JEHMGJNKV+ VQ+ MKT[H+ QH+ ZGHJILH+ MQ+ UKV QoRQTIQHJIKV+MQU+IHMIOIMGE+JEH+QU+FQMIE^ %H+ FGJbKV+ IHVNINGJIEHQV+ QMGJKNIOKV+ VQ+ VIDGQ+ QFRUQKHME+ QVQ+ F_NEME+ KHNIDGE JEHMGJNIVNK+ ]GQ+ UIFINK+ K+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV6+ IFRIMI_HMEUQV+ NQHQT+ + GHK+ QoRQTIQHJIK FQWET+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ6+EUOIMKHME+KMQF[V6+]GQ+JKMK+]GIQH+NIQHQ+VG+RTERIE+TINFE+MQ KM]GITIT+\+KRTERIKTVQ+MQU+JEHEJIFIQHNE^ $K+ IFRETNKHJIK+ MQU+ RKRQU+ MQU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ QH+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ VQ+ bK+ ZGHMKFQHNKME RTIHJIRKUFQHNQ6+QH+bKJQT+JGFRUIT+GHEV+EXWQNIOEV+KJKM_FIJEV6+RQTE+VIH+HIHDpH+NIRE MQ+TQZUQoILH+]GQ+M_+KU+QVNGMIKHNQ+QU+OQTMKMQTE+VQHNIME+\+RTERLVINE+MQ+KRTQHMQT^+%H MQZIHINIOK6+UK+NKTQK+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+bK+VIME+NEFKMK+cHE+RET+REJEV+MEJQHNQVd+JEFE KUDE+ FEFQHN[HQE+ \+ VIH+ HIHDpH+ OKUET+ RKTK+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV6+ QFRQaKHME+ RET+ UKV QoRQTIQHJIKV+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ ]GQ+ MQVMQ+ VIQFRTQ6+ VQ+ UQV+ bKH+ XTIHMKME+ QH+ UEV QVRKJIEV+QMGJKNIOEV^ "[V+KUU[+MQ+IHOINKT+KU+QVNGMIKHNQ+K+TQVEUOQT+RTEXUQFKV+MQ+JEHEJIFIQHNE6+UE+]GQ+VQ MQXQ+QV+RTERIJIKT+GH+KFXIQHNQ+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+QH+QU+]GQ+NQHDK+UK+ERETNGHIMKM+MQ RKTNIJIRKT6+VIQHME+KDQHNQ+KJNIOE+QH+UK+ZETFK+MQ+KRTERIKTVQ+MQ+UEV+JEHEJIFIQHNEV^. @.

(33) 'EME+ MEJQHNQ+ MQXQ+ ZEFQHNKT+ QVRKJIEV+ MQ+ TQZUQoILH+ MEHMQ+ QU+ KRTQHMIa+ QVN_+ QH JKRKJIMKM+ MQ+ MKT+ VG+ RTERIE+ RGHNE+ MQ+ OIVNK6+ \+ KVe+ FIVFE+ VQT+ QU+ TQVREHVKXUQ+ \ RTENKDEHIVNK+MQ+VG+RTERIE+KRTQHMIaKWQ^+#KTK+QUUE6+QU+MEJQHNQ+HQJQVINK+RTQRKTKTVQ6 JEHEJIQHME+ NEMEV+ UEV+ TQ]GQTIFIQHNEV+ HQJQVKTIEV+ RKTK+ JEHVQDGIT+ ]GQ+ UEV QVNGMIKHNQV+ RKVQH+ MQ+ NQHQT+ GH+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ FQFETeVNIJE6+ K+ GH+ KRTQHMIaKWQ VIDHIZIJKNIOE6+QV+MQJIT6+RKTK+NEMK+UK+OIMK^+ 1KUIHKV+ RUKHNQK+ ]GQ+ 1JbFQJm+ cJINKME+ RET+ 'TGZZQUUE6+ ghhfd6+ bK+ MQMIJKME+ VGV IHOQVNIDKJIEHQV+K+UKV+[TQKV+MQ+QVNTKNQDIKV+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ6+\+JEHJUG\Q+]GQ+QoIVNQH NTQV+MIFQHVIEHQV+MQU+FIVFEA Q-%,0+)% cIFRUIJK+TQKUIaKT+RTEJQVEV+MQ+JUKVIZIJKJILH6 JEFRKTKJILH6+JEHNTKVNKJILH6+KH[UIVIV+\+VeHNQVIV+MQ+UK+IHZETFKJILHd6 L*":%-"1'4%+cVQ TQUKJIEHK+ JEH+ UK+ FKHQTK+ MQ+ RTEJQVKT+ GHK+ IHZETFKJILH6+ MQ+ NKU+ ZETFK+ ]GQ+ VQ+ UK QHTI]GQaJK+\+VQ+bKDK+F[V+JEHJTQNKd6+ \# B09(-,'&'"*+cIFRUIJK+IHOQTNIT+FGJbE+NIQFRE TQRINIQHME+\+FQFETIaKHME+IHZETFKJILH+QH+VG+ZETFK+ETIDIHKUd^ 1JbFQJm6+JINKME+RET+1KUIHKV+c=>>@d6+IHJETRETK+KU+RTEJQVE+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ6+QU+RKRQU MQ+ UK+ FQFETIK6+ MIJQ+ ]GQ+ JGKHME+ GHK+ IHZETFKJILH+ VQ+ RTEJQVK+ RTEZGHMK+ \ QUKXETKNIOKFQHNQ6+ _VNK+ VQ+ TQJGQTMK+ FQWET6+ \K+ ]GQ+ QU+ RQHVKFIQHNE+ RTEZGHME IFRUIJK+MQMIJKT+Q+IHOQTNIT+F[V+NIQFRE+QH+QU+RTEJQVE^ %H+VeHNQVIV6+UKV+QoRQTIQHJIKV+OIOIMKV+RET+UEV+VQTQV+bGFKHEV6+VEH+MQNQTFIHKHNQV+QH QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ^+ ,Q+ Kbe+ UK+ IFRETNKHJIK+ MQ+ ZEFQHNKT+ QH+ UK+ QMGJKJILH+ KJNGKU6 QoRQTIQHJIKV+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+F[V+VIDHIZIJKNIOKV+RKTK+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV6+IHJQHNIOKHME QH+QUUEV+QU+MQVQE+MQ+KRTQHMQT+MQ+GHK+FKHQTK+RTEZGHMK6+JEH+UEV+FQMIEV+\+F_NEMEV F[V+KMQJGKMEV^. P.

(34) P^=^g+(RTQHMIaKWQ+JEERQTKNIOEA %U+(RTQHMIaKWQ+JEERQTKNIOE+QV+GHK+QVNTKNQDIK+FQNEMEULDIJK+MQ+QHVQ`KHaK+MQ+OINKU IFRETNKHJIK+QH+UK+QMGJKJILH+KJNGKU6+ RGQVNE+]GQ+XGVJK+TEFRQT+ JEH+ GH+RKTKMIDFK MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ IHMIOIMGKUIVNK+ QH+ QU+ JGKU+ VEUE+ QoIVNQ+ GHK+ FENIOKJILH+ QoNQTHK+ RET RKTNQ+MQU+QVNGMIKHNQ^++%VNQ+NIRE+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+q($#0+"#,%-."#)(#1-":"2%#(+#I-09% :"$")%# (+# *"# &%+$1-0&&'/+# &%*(&1'4"# )(# &%+%&'.'(+1%3# E0(# 9(-.'1(# "9-(+)(-# &%+ %1-%$#;#)(#%1-%$>5 )EH+TQUKJILH+KU+NTKXKWE+QH+DTGREV6# !%$#($10)'"+1($#"9-(+)(+#.=$3#*($#"I-")"#.=$ *" ($&0(*"3# ($1":*(&(+# .(2%-($# -(*"&'%+($# &%+# *%$# )(.=$3# "0.(+1"+# $0 "01%($1'."# ;# "9-(+)(+# 8":'*')")($# $%&'"*($# .=$# (,(&1'4"$# &0"+)%# 1-":"2"+# (+ I-09%$#&%%9(-"1'4%$#E0(#"*#8"&(-*%#)(#."+(-"#'+)'4')0"*'$1"#;#&%.9(1'1'4">5 #ET+ QVNQ+ FENIOE6+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEERQTKNIOE+ WGQDK+ GH+ RKRQU+ ZGHMKFQHNKU+ QH+ QU RTQVQHNQ+QVNGMIE6+MQXIME+K+]GQ+JEFE+UE+RUKHNQKH+/QTHIQ+,EMDQ+\+'EF+"KTJb GHK MQ+ UKV+ ZETFKV+ MQ+ RTKJNIJKT6+ MQ+ ZETFK+ QZQJNIOK+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEERQTKNIOE6+ QV+ K 1-"4U$# )(*# 0$%# )(# C+1(-+(1# ;# Y(:D0($15 %VNK+ pUNIFK6# 0$"# (*# .0+)%# -("*3# ;# 1"-("$ "01U+1'&"$#9"-"#.%1'4"-#"#*%$#"*0.+%$Z#$0#($1-0&10-"#($#&%+$1-0&1'4'$1"#;#9%-#1"+1% ,0(-<"#"#*%$#"*0.+%$#"#1-"+$,%-."-#*"#'+,%-."&'/+#;#(+1(+)(-*"Z#$0$#($1-"1(I'"$#)( "9-(+)'<"2(# &%%9(-"1'4%# ";0)"+# "# *%$# ($10)'"+1($# "# )($"--%**"-# 8":'*')")($# ;# " &%+1-':0'-#"*#9-%)0&1%#,'+"*#)(*#I-09%5 ,Q+ QVNK+ FKHQTK6+ VQ+ XGVJK+ RTEFEOQT+ UK+ JEERQTKJILH+ \+ QU+ NTKXKWE+ DTGRKU+ QH+ UK IHNQTOQHJILH+ JEH+ QU+ TQJGTVE+ QMGJKNIOE+ .QX0GQVN6+ \+ KVe6+ RTERETJIEHKT+ K+ UEV QMGJKHMEV+GH+QVNIUE+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+]GQ+VGRUK+VGV+HQJQVIMKMQV+K+HIOQU+KJKM_FIJE^ %H+ UK+ bIVNETIK+ MQ+ UK+ QMGJKJILH+ QHJEHNTKFEV+ MQ+ FKHQTK+ IHVIVNQHNQ+ QVNTKNQDIKV+ MQ KRTQHMIaKWQ+]GQ+QHZKNIaKH+QH+QU+[FXINE+IHMIOIMGKU6+IFRIMIQHME+KVe+]GQ+QU+QVNGMIKHNQ QoRTQVQ+GHK+MQ+VGV+MIFQHVIEHQV+MQ+MQVKTTEUUE+F[V+IFRETNKHNQV+JEFE+VQT+VEJIKU^ ,IJbK+ MIFQHVILH+ QV+ HQNKFQHNQ+ MQ+ IHNQTKJJILH+ VEJIKU6+ \+ QVN[+ NKFXI_H+ TQUKJIEHKMK JEH+QU+KRTQHMIaKWQ^ :IDENVm\+JINKME+RET+1G[TQa+9GQTTQTE+c=>>@d6+RUKHNQK+]GQ+{(*#"9-(+)'<"2(#)($9'(-1" 0+"#$(-'(#)(#9-%&($%$#(4%*01'4%$#'+1(-+%$##&"9"&($##)(##%9(-"-##$/*%##&0"+)%##(* +'7%##($1=##(+##'+1(-"&&'/+##&%+##*"$#9(-$%+"$#)(#$0#(+1%-+%#;#(+#&%%9(-"&'/+#&%+ "*IP+#$(.(2"+1([5+%VNK+RTQFIVK6+HEV+MK+GHK+HGQOK+OIVILH+ZTQHNQ+K+UE+]GQ+bKJQFEV JEH+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV+QH+QU+KGUK+MQ+JUKVQ6+IHOIN[HMEHEV+K+TQRUKHNQKT+HGQVNTK+ZGHJILH JEFE+MEJQHNQV+RKTK+MQWKT+MQ+UKME+GHK+QMGJKJILH+IHMIOIMGKUIVNK6+\+RET+QU+JEHNTKTIE6 ZEFQHNKT+QU+NTKXKWE+QH+Q]GIRE+QHNTQ+QVNGMIKHNQV^. Y.

(35) %H+ QU Q-%I-"."# R"&'%+"*# 69-(+)(-# L+$(7"+)%6+ VEXTQ+ QU+ NQFK+ MQ 69-(+)'<"2( K%%9(-"1'4%6+ VQ+ VGVNQHNK+ ]GQ+ QH+ UKV+ KJNIOIMKMQV+ MQ+ QVNQ+ NIRE+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ6+ QU RKRQU+ MQU+ MEJQHNQ+ QV+ VQT+ GH+ 9GeK+ ]GQ+ KJEFRK`K+ QU+ MQVKZeE6+ MQVJGXTIQHME+ QU FKNQTIKU+ JEH+ QUUEV6+ NTKHVFINIQHME+ UK+ QHVQ`KHaK+ K+ NEME+ QU+ JGTVE6+ RKTK+ RTQVQHNKT+ \ QoRUIJKT+ JEHJQRNEV+ \+ bKXIUIMKMQV+ X[VIJKV6+ KMQF[V+ MQ+ ZKJIUINKT+ QU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ QH GHK+MIH[FIJK+]GQ+VQ+MITIWK+K+NEME+QU+JGTVE+E+QH+GHK+MIH[FIJK+MQ+DTGREV+RQ]GQ`EV^ ,IJbE+ RTEDTKFK6+ RUKHNQK+ KMQF[V+ ]GQ6+ QU+ NTKXKWE+ K+ HIOQU+ JEERQTKNIOE+ VQ+ RGQMQ TQKUIaKT+ JEHA+ QU+ KDTGRKFIQHNE+ MQ+ UEV+ KUGFHEV6+ UK+ QoRUIJKJILH+ MQ+ JEHVIDHKV+ \ EXWQNIOEV+MQ+NTKXKWE6+\+UK+JEHVNTGJJILH+MQ+GH+VQHNIME+\+TQVREHVKXIUIMKM+MQU+NTKXKWE QH+Q]GIRE^+%U+MEJQHNQ+TQKUIaK+QU+FEHINETQE+\+VG+RKTNIJIRKJILH+VQ+MK+QH+VINGKJIEHQV RKTNIJGUKTQV6+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ+ MKT+ UEV+ QVRKJIEV6+ RKTK+ ]GQ+ VQKH+ UEV+ KUGFHEV+ ]GIQHQV TQKUIJQH+QU+NTKXKWE6+JEHVNTG\KH+\+JEFRTQHMKH+RET+QUUEV+FIVFEV+UEV+JEHNQHIMEV+]GQ VQ+IHNQHNKH+NTKHVFINIT^ 1QDpH+ 7EHVEH+ \+ 7EHVEH+ cghh@d+ \+ 2EUGXQJ+ cghh d+ JINKMEV+ QH+ QU+ MEJGFQHNE q(RTQHMIaKWQ+ )EERQTKNIOEr+ MQU #TEDTKFK+ &KJIEHKU+ (RTQHMQT+ %HVQ`KHME6+ QU MEJQHNQ+JGFRUQ+VQIV+TEUQV+QH+QU+KRTQHMIaKWQ+JEERQTKNIOE g^. %VRQJIZIJK+UEV+EXWQNIOEV+MQ+UK+KJNIOIMKM^. =^. 'EFK+MQJIVIEHQV+RTQOIKV+K+UK+QHVQ`KHaK+TQVRQJNE+MQ+UK+MIH[FIJK+MQ+NTKXKWE^. ^. %oRUIJK+UK+NKTQK+\+QVNTGJNGTK+UEV+EXWQNIOEV+MQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV^. @^. #EHQ+QH+FKTJbK+UK+KJNIOIMKM+JEERQTKNIOK^. P^. )EHNTEUK+ UK+ QZQJNIOIMKM+ MQU+ NTKXKWE+ MQU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEERQTKNIOE6+ Q+ IHNQTOIQHQ JGKHME+QV+HQJQVKTIE^. Y^. %OKUpK+UEV+UEDTEV+MQ+UEV+KUGFHEV6+\+UEV+K\GMK+K+MIVJGNIT+JLFE+bK+TQVGUNKME+UK JEUKXETKJILH+QH+QU+JGTVE^. )EH+ TQUKJILH+ KU+ TEU+ ]GQ+ WGQDK+ QU+ KUGFHE6+ QVNQ+ RTEDTKFK+ c(RTQHMQT+ %HVQ`KHMEd6 RUKHNQK+ UK+ IFRETNKHJIK+ MQ+ MKTUQ+ GH+ RKRQU+ KJNIOE^+ %U+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEERQTKNIOE TQ]GIQTQ+ ]GQ+ QU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ VQ+ TQVREHVKXIUIJQ+ RET+ VG+ RTERIE+ KRTQHMIaKWQ^+ %VNQ EXWQNIOE+ VQ+ KUJKHaK+ bKJIQHME+ ]GQ+ KJNpQ+ JEFE+ MEJQHNQ+ \+ JEFE+ KUGFHE VIFGUN[HQKFQHNQ6+ \+ K+ VG+ OQa6+ KRTQHMK+ K+ QoRUIJKT6+ JEFRTEFQNQTVQ6+ HQDEJIKT+ \ FENIOKT+K+UEV+MQF[V6+JGKHME+RKTNIJIRK+JEFE+FIQFXTE+MQU+JGTVE^+%U+JTQJIFIQHNE+MQ QVNKV+ bKXIUIMKMQV+ MQ+ IHNQTKJJILH+ VEJIKU6+ NKU+ OQa+ VQK+ GHE+ MQ+ UEV+ TQVGUNKMEV+ F[V IFRETNKHNQV+MQ+UKV+KJNIOIMKMQV+MQU+KRTQHMIaKWQ+JEERQTKNIOE^. ?.

(36) %U+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEERQTKNIOE6+ TQ]GIQTQ+ ]GQ+ UEV+ KUGFHEV+ NTKXKWQH+ QH+ JEUKXETKJILH bKJIK+FQNKV+JEFGHQV6+UE+]GQ+DQHQTK+QU+MQVKTTEUUE+MQ+bKXIUIMKMQV+]GQ+NIQHQH+]GQ OQT+ JEH+ UKV+ TQUKJIEHQV+ bGFKHKV6+ VQFQWKHNQV+ K+ K]GQUUKV+ ]GQ+ VEH+ pNIUQV+ NKFXI_H ZGQTK+MQU+JEUQDIE^+$KV+TQUKJIEHQV+JEH+UEV+RKTQV6+JEH+UEV+KMGUNEV6+QU+MQVKTTEUUE+MQ+UK JEFGHIJKJILH+ZUGIMK6+ZKOETQJQT+UK+JKRKJIMKM+MQ+KRTQHMQT+K+NTKXKWKT+XKWE+UK+ULDIJK MQ+KUJKHaKT+GH+JEHVQHVE+\+QU+MQVKTTEUUE+MQ+GHK+KJNINGM+JTeNIJK+\+TQZUQoIOK^ ,Q+ KJGQTME+ K+ UE+ QoRGQVNE+ RET+ 1KHNKFKTeK6+ QVNQ+ NIRE+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ MQ+ FKHQTK DQHQTKU+VQ+TQUKJIEHK+\+ZKJIUINK+JEH+UEV+VIDGIQHNQV+RTEJQVEVA )*+#TEJQVEV+)EDHINIOEVA K^+)EUKXETKJILH+QHNTQ+IDGKUQV^ X^+4QDGUKJILH+K+NTKO_V+MQU+UQHDGKWQ^ J^+"KHQWE+MQ+JEHNTEOQTVIKV^ +*+#TEJQVEV+"ENIOKJIEHKUQVA K^+(NTIXGJIEHQV^ X^+"QNKV^ ,*+#TEJQVEV+(ZQJNIOEi4QUKJIEHKUQVA K^+#QTNQHQHJIK+KU+DTGRE^ X^+(GNEQVNIFK^ J^1QHNIME ,IJbEV+ RTEJQVEV+ RGQMQH+ NTKXKWKTVQ+ MQ+ FKHQTK+ NTKHVOQTVKU6+ KU+ KRUIJKT+ GHK FQNEMEUEDeK+ MQ+ JUKVQ+ ]GQ+ IHJUG\K+ GH+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ JEERQTKNIOE6+ RTEFEOIQHME+ QU MQVKTTEUUE+ MQ+ JKMK+ GHE+ MQ+ QUUEV6+ \+ UK+ QVNIFGUKJILH+ QH+ NEMKV+ UKV+ MIFQHVIEHQV+ MQU VQT+bGFKHE^. f.

(37) P^=^=+)EHVNTGJNIOIVFE+\+%MGJKJILHA $K+NQETeK+)EHVNTGJNIOIVNK+QV+UK+NQETeK+]GQ+RTQMEFIHK+QH+QU+KRTQHMIaKWQ+JEERQTKNIOE6 \+VQ XKVK+QH+UK+EXTK+MQ+#IKDQN6+:IDENVm\+\+ENTEV+NQLTIJEV^ J%)"#9%$'&'/+#K%+$1-0&1'4'$1"#-($&"1"#"*#$02(1%#&%I+'1'4%3#;#$0-I(#&%.%#%9%$'&'/+#" &%+&(9&'%+($# &%+)0&1'$1"$# (# '++"1'$1"$5# !%# E0(# 9-(1(+)(# -($&"1"-# ;# )(,(+)(-# (* &%+$1-0&1'4'$.%# ($# E0(3# (+# -("*')")3# (*# $02(1%# ($# 0+# &%+$1-0&1%-># "&1'4%# )(# $0$ ($1-0&10-"$#)(#&%+%&'.'(+1%>. %U+JEHJQRNE+JEHVNTGJNIOIVNK6+bKJQ+TQZQTQHJIK+K+GH+MQVKTTEUUE+QOEUGNIOE6+QH+QU+JGKU+VQ MQXQH+HENKT+UEV+RTEDTQVEV+MQU+VGWQNE6+QH+UK+ZETFK+QH+]GQ+_VNQ+OK+JEHVNTG\QHME+VG JEHEJIFIQHNE^+(MQF[V6+VQ+IHNQTQVK+RET+JEHNQVNKT+UKV+RTQDGHNKV+KJQTJK+MQ+j]GI_H JEHEJQl6+ jJLFE+ JEHEJQl6+ j]G_+ JEHEJQl6+ \+ j]G_+ JEHEJQTl+ (]Ge6+ VQ+ UQ+ MK+ F[V IFRETNKHJIK+KU+MQVKTTEUUE6+\+KU+JKFXIE+MQ+QVNTGJNGTKV+MQ+JEHEJIFIQHNE+]GQ+VQ+MKH QH+QU+VGWQNE^ %H+ QVNQ+ VQHNIME6+ QU+ )EHVNTGJNIOIVFE+ VQ+ ZGHMKFQHNK+ QH+ RQTFINIT+ ]GQ+ QU+ QVNGMIKHNQ MQVQFRQ`Q+GH+TEU+KJNIOE+QH+UK+JEHVNTGJJILH+MQ+VG+RTERIE+JEHEJIFIQHNE^+#QTE+RKTK QVNE6+QV+HQJQVKTIE+JEHVIMQTKT+KU+QVNGMIKHNQ+JEFE+GH+VQT+]GQ+VIQHNQ6+RIQHVK6+KJNpK RET+ Ve+ FIVFE+ \+ QV+ JKRKa+ MQ+ KRETNKT+ HGQOKV+ JEVKV+ K+ VG+ DTGRE+ VEJIKU6+ \+ HE JEHVIMQTKTUE+JEFE+GHK+bEWK+QH+XUKHJE+QH+UK+JGKU+REMQFEV+QVJTIXIT+\+MQWKT+bGQUUK VIH+MKT+UGDKT+K+HIHDpH+NIRE+MQ+IHNQTKJJILH^+$EV+QVNGMIKHNQV6+K+MIZQTQHJIK+MQ+UE+]GQ FGJbEV+ JTQQH6+ QVN[H+ QH+ JKRKJIMKM+ MQ+ KRETNKT+ IMQKV+ HE+ VLUE+ K+ VGV+ JEFRK`QTEV6 VIHE+NKFXI_H6+K+VGV+FIVFEV+RTEZQVETQV^ %VNK+ NQETeK+ NKFXI_H+ VQ+ EREHQ+ K+ UK+ QMGJKJILH+ NTKMIJIEHKU6+ QH+ UK+ JGKU+ UK+ ZIDGTK+ MQU MEJQHNQ+QV+MQ+KGNETINKTIVFE+\+UQWKHeK6+\+UK+MQU+QVNGMIKHNQ+QV+VLUE+MQ+TQJQRJILH+MQ VKXQTQV^++)EHNTKTIE+K+QVNE6+HKJQ+QU+JEHVNTGJNIOIVFE6+JKGVKHME+DTKH+IFRKJNE+QH+UK QMGJKJILH+ KJNGKU6+ MEHMQ+ KGH]GQ+ HE+ VQ+ KRUI]GQ+ JEFRUQNKFQHNQ6+ Ve+ bK+ bQJbE TQZUQoIEHKT+K+FGJbEV+MEJQHNQV+KJQTJK+MQ+VG+UKXET+RQMKDLDIJK^ (+JEHNIHGKJILH+VQ+RTQVQHNK+GHK+NKXUK+]GQ+RQTFINQ+IMQHNIZIJKT+UKV+MIZQTQHJIKV+QHNTQ GH+ VKULH+ MQ+ JUKVQ+ NTKMIJIEHKU+ \+ + GH+ VKULH+ MQ+ JUKVQ+ JEHVNTGJNIOIVNK^. h.

(38) -$./0&%'&1.$2'&34$%515"0$.. -$./0&%'&1.$2'&1"023461357523$. %U+ JGTTeJGUE+ QV+ RTQVQHNKME+ MQ+ UE+ RKTNIJGUKT K+ UE+ DQHQTKU6+ JEH+ _HZKVIV+ QH+ JEHJQRNEV X[VIJEV^. %U+ JGTTeJGUE+ QV+ RTQVQHNKME+ MQ+ UE+ DQHQTKU+ K+ UE RKTNIJGUKT6+JEH+_HZKVIV+QH+JEHJQRNEV+DQHQTKUQV^. %V+ FG\+ IFRETNKHNQ+ ]GQ+ UEV+ KUGFHEV+ VIDKH KU+ RIQ+ MQ+ UK+ UQNTK+ UE+ RTQVQHNKME+ QH+ QU JGTTeJGUE^. %V+ FG\+ IFRETNKHNQ+ ]GQ+ UEV+ KUGFHEV+ VQ JGQVNIEHQH^. $KV+KJNIOIMKMQV+JGTTIJGUKTQV+VQ+QHJGQHNTKH XKVKMKV+ QH+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH+ RTQVQHNKMK+ QH UEV+UIXTEV+MQ+NQoNE^. $KV+ KJNIOIMKMQV+ JGTTIJGUKTQV+ VQ+ QHJGQHNTKH XKVKMKV+QH+ZGQHNQV+MQ+IHZETFKJILH+RTIFKTIK+\+QH UK+FKHIRGUKJILH+MQ++FKNQTIKUQV^. $EV+ QVNGMIKHNQV+ VEH+ OIVNEV+ JEFE JGKMQTHEV+ QH+ XUKHJE+ QH+ MEHMQ+ UEV FKQVNTEV+MQREVINKT[H+NEMK+UK+IHZETFKJILH^. $EV+ KUGFHEV+ VEH+ OIVNEV+ JEFE+ VQTQV+ RQHVKHNQV ]GQ+JGQHNKH+JEH+VGV+RTERIKV+NQETeKV+KJQTJK+MQU FGHME^. $EV+ FKQVNTEV+ VEH+ UEV+ ]GQ+ NTKHVFINQH+ QU JEHEJIFIQHNE+ K+ UEV+ KUGFHEV6+ UEV+ KUGFHEV VEUE+VEH+TQJQRNETQV^. $EV+ FKQVNTEV+ NTKXKWKH+ MQ+ FKHQTK+ IHNQTKJNIOK6 VITOIQHME+ JEFE+ FQMIKMETQV+ MQU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ MQ UEV+KUGFHEV^. $EV+ FKQVNTEV+ XGVJKH+ QVJGJbKT+ UK TQVRGQVNK+ JETTQJNK+ RET+ RKTNQ+ MQ+ UEV KUGFHEV6+RKTK+OKUIMKT+VG+KRTQHMIaKWQ^. $EV+ FKQVNTEV+ XGVJKH+ VKXQT+ UEV+ RGHNEV+ MQ+ OIVNK MQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV^. $K+ QOKUGKJILH+ MQU+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ MQ+ UEV QVNGMIKHNQV+ VQ+ JEHVIMQTK+ JEFE+ KUDE VQRKTKME+ MQ+ UK+ QHVQ`KHaK+ \+ EJGTTQ DQHQTKUFQHNQ+K+NTKO_V+MQ+UKV+RTGQXKV^. $K+QOKUGKJILH+MQU+KRTQHMIaKWQ+MQ+UEV+QVNGMIKHNQV QVN[+ QHNTQUKaKMK+ JEH+ UK+ QHVQ`KHaK+ \+ EJGTTQ+ K NTKO_V+ MQ+ UK+ EXVQTOKJILH+ MQU+ FKQVNTE+ KU MQVQFRQ`E+MQ+UEV+KUGFHEV+\+MQ+UK+RTQVQHNKJILH ]GQ+ UEV+ KUGFHEV+ bKJQH+ MQ+ VGV+ NTKXKWEV cRETNKZEUIEd^. $K+ FK\ET+ RKTNQ+ MQU+ NIQFRE+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV NTKXKWKH+IHMIOIMGKUFQHNQ^. $K+ FK\ET+ RKTNQ+ MQU+ NIQFRE+ UEV+ QVNGMIKHNQV NTKXKWKH+QH+DTGREV+JEUKXETKNIOEV^. 9TQHHEH+\+/TEEmV+cghhhd6+NTKMGJIMEV+RET+:%9(6+"KTIK+#KNTIJIK^+)GKMTE+NEFKME+MQ+:%9(6 "KTIK+#KNTIJIK^+4QM+"KQVNTEV+MQ+"KQVNTEV^. %U+TQNE+QH+UK+QMGJKJILH+KJNGKU+IHJUG\Q+JKFXIKT+HGQVNTE+FEME+MQ+RQHVKT+\+MQ+bKJQT UKV+JEVKV+QH+QU+KGUK+MQ+JUKVQ6+RGQVNE+]GQ6+QHNTQ+ENTKV+JEVKV6+QU+VQT+bGFKHE+NIQHMQ K+KJNGKT+JEFE+bKH+KJNGKME+JEH+_U6+UE+]GQ+HEV+UUQOK+K+RQHVKT+]GQ+HE+QV+Z[JIU+NQHQT GH+JKFXIE+TKMIJKU6+JGKHME+RET+NKHNE+NIQFRE+VQ+bK+KJNGKME+MQ+UK+FIVFK+FKHQTK^ %H+QVNK RTERGQVNK6+VQ+XGVJK+VQT+GH+RTKJNIJKHNQ+MQU+JEHVNTGJNIOIVFE+QH+QU+VQHNIME MQ+ RTERIJIKT+ HGQOEV+ KFXIQHNQV+ MQ+ KRTQHMIaKWQ6+ ]GQ+ RQTFINKH+ KU+ QVNGMIKHNQ+ NQHQT GHK+RQTVRQJNIOK+MIZQTQHNQ+VEXTQ+QU+FIVFE+bQJbE+MQ+QMGJKT^. @>.

(39) P^=^ +)EHVNTGJNIOIVFE+1EJIKU+MQ+:IDENVm\A $K+EXTK+MQ+:IDENVm\+VQ+XKVK+QH+UK+RTQFIVK+MQ+]GQ+QU+JEHEJIFIQHNE+QV+KUDE+VEJIKU6 ]GQ+ VQ+ JEHVNTG\Q+ K+ RKTNIT+ MQ+ UEV+ QVZGQTaEV+ JEERQTKNIOEV+ RKTK+ KRTQHMQT6 JEFRTQHMQT+\+TQVEUOQT+RTEXUQFKV^ qK%%9(-"-# 9"-"# "9-(+)(-# $0(*(# .(2%-"-# *"# %-'(+1"&'/+# $%&'"*# )(# *%$# "9-(+)'&($Z# "$S &%.%# 8"&(# .=$# 9-%:":*(# *"# "9"-'&'/+# )(# 0+"# .%1'4"&'/+# '+1-S+$(&"# 9%-# (* "9-(+)'<"2(# %# )($(%# )(# "9-(+)(-3# ,"4%-(&'(+)%# (*# "9-(+)'<"2(# &%+$1-0&1'4%3# *" -(,*(F'/+#;#*"#1%."#)(#&%+&'(+&'"#$%:-(#(*#9-%9'%#"9-(+)'<"2(>5. #KTK+ :IDENVm\+ QU+ JEHEJIFIQHNE+ QV+ RTEMGJNE+ MQ+ UK+ IHNQTKJJILH+ VEJIKU+ \+ UK+ JGUNGTK6 NKHNE+ KVe6+ ]GQ+ UEV+ RTEJQVEV+ RVIJEULDIJEV+ VGRQTIETQV+ cUQHDGKWQ6+ TKaEHKFIQHNE6 JEFGHIJKJILHd+VQ+KM]GIQTQH+QH+IHNQTTQUKJILH+JEH+UEV+MQF[V^+#KTK+QVNQ+RVIJLUEDE6 UE+]GQ+GH+IHMIOIMGE+RGQMQ+KRTQHMQT6+MQ+KJGQTME+K+VG+HIOQU+TQKU+MQ+MQVKTTEUUE6+OKTeK QOIMQHNQFQHNQ+ VI+ TQJIXQ+ UK+ DGeK+ MQ+ GH+ KMGUNE+ E+ RGQMQ+ NTKXKWKT+ QH+ JEHWGHNE+ JEH ENTEV+JEFRK`QTEV^ 1ING[HMEVQ+ QH+ GH+ JEHNQoNE+ MQ+ QHVQ`KHaKiKRTQHMIaKWQ+ \+ MQVKTTEUUE+ JEDHINIOE6 :IDENVm\+JINKME+RET+1KUIHKV+c=>>@d6++RTQVQHNK+VG+NQETeK+VEXTQ+UK \%+"#)(#T($"--%**% Q-/F'.% cC,#d6+]GQ+JEHVIVNQ+QH+JEHVIMQTKT+q(* 9-%&($%#)(#(+$(7"+<"]"9-(+)'<"2(3 +%#&%.%#"*I%#($1=1'&%3#$'+%#)'+=.'&%#;#.0*1',"&1%-'"*3#($#)(&'-3#8";#0+"#)',(-(+&'" (+1-(# *%# E0(# 90()(# (*# "*0.+%# "9-(+)(-# 9%-# $S# $/*%# ;# *%# E0(# 90()(# *%I-"-# &%+# *" ";0)"#)(#0+#&%.9"7(-%#.=$#&"9"&'1")%#%#0+#")0*1%>5 +$E+ KHNQTIET6+ HEV+ FGQVNTK+ UK+ IFRETNKHJIK+ MQ+ UK+ IHNQTKJJILH+ QHNTQ+ UEV+ FIVFEV QVNGMIKHNQV+ \+ QHNTQ+ RTEZQVETiQVNGMIKHNQ+ NKHNE+ QH+ QU+ KGUK+ MQ+ JUKVQ6+ JEFE+ QH JGKU]GIQT+QVRKJIE+QMGJKNIOE6+RGQV+QV+KUUe+QH+MEHMQ+VQ+MK+QU+OQTMKMQTE+KRTQHMIaKWQ^ 1IH+ QFXKTDE6+ JEFE+ KJUKTK+ :IDENVm\6+ RKTK+ ]GQ+ bK\K+ KRTQHMIaKWQ+ HQJQVKTIKFQHNQ NGOE+ ]GQ+ bKXQT+ RTQOIK+ FKMGTKJILH+ E+ MQVKTTEUUE+ QH+ UEV+ VGWQNEV6+ RQTE+ HGHJK+ QU KRTQHMIaKWQ+OK+K+VQT+JEHVQJGQHJIK+MQ+_U^++%V+MQJIT6+HE+VQ+MQWK+MQ+UKME+QU+RTEJQVE MQ+MQVKTTEUUE+HKNGTKU+MQU+IHMIOIMGE6+RQTE+NKFREJE+VQ+JEHVIMQTK+]GQ+K+FQMIMK+]GQ VQ+ OK\K+ RKVKHME+ MQ+ GHK+ QNKRK+ K+ ENTK6+ VQ+ KM]GIQTK+ QU+ KRTQHMIa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g.

(40) %H+QVNQ+VQHNIME6+JEFE+MQVNKJK+:QDK+JINKHME+K+:IDEVNm\6+bK\+]GQ+VQ`KUKT+]GQ+QH UK+ NQETeK+ JEHVNTGJNIOIVNK+ VEJIKU $/*%# (+# *"# '+1(-"&&'/+# $%&'"*# $(# *%I-"# "9-(+)'<"2( $'I+','&"1'4%>5 %H+ QU+ MEJGFQHNE+ q%U+ )EHVNTGJNIOIVFEr6+ QUKXETKME+ RET+ UK+ MEJQHNQ+ "KTIK+ #KNTIJIK :QDK6+VQ+QHGHJIK+]GQ+QU+IHMIOIMGE+JEHVNTG\Q+VG+JEHEJIFIQHNE+RET]GQ+QV+JKRKa+MQ UQQT6+QVJTIXIT6+RTQDGHNKT+K+ENTEV6+\+RTQDGHNKTVQ+K+Ve+FIVFE+VEXTQ+K]GQUUEV+KVGHNEV ]GQ+UQ+IHNQTQVKH^+(pH+F[V+IFRETNKHNQ+QV+QU+bQJbE+MQ+]GQ+QU+IHMIOIMGE+JEHVNTG\Q+VG JEHEJIFIQHNE+ HE+ RET+ ]GQ+ VQK+ GHK+ ZGHJILH+ HKNGTKU+ MQ+ VG+ JQTQXTE6+ VIHE+ RET]GQ UINQTKUFQHNQ+ VQ+ UQ+ bK+ QHVQ`KME+ K+ JEHVNTGIT+ K+ NTKO_V+ MQ+ GH+ MI[UEDE+ JEHNIHGE+ JEH ENTEV+VQTQV+bGFKHEV^ %H+RKUKXTKV+MQ+:QDK6 R%#($#E0(#(*#'+)'4')0%#9'(+$(#;#)(#"8S#&%+$1-0;(3#$'+%#E0( 9'(+$"3# &%.0+'&"# *%# E0(# 8"# 9(+$")%3# &%+,-%+1"# &%+# %1-%$# $0$# ')("$# ;# )(# "8S &%+$1-0;(5#T($)(#*"#(1"9"#)(#)($"--%**%#'+,"+1'*3#(*#$(-#80."+%#($1"#&%+,-%+1"+)% $0$#&%+$1-0&&'%+($#.(+1"*($#&%+#$0#.()'%#".:'(+1(>5. @=.

(41) P^ +'%)&3$39<(1+,%+$(+!&834"()!*&+5+$(+)3"-&!)()!*&+c'!)Vd )GKHME+ bKXUKFEV+ MQ+ UKV+ 'QJHEUEDeKV+ MQ+ UK+ !HZETFKJILH+ \+ UK+ )EFGHIJKJILH6 IHFQMIKNKFQHNQ+ RQHVKFEV+ QH+ KTNQZKJNEV+ NQJHEULDIJEV+ ]GQ+ QU+ bEFXTQ+ bK+ IME MQVKTTEUUKHME+ JEH+ QU+ ZIH+ MQ+ VKNIVZKJQT+ UKV+ HQJQVIMKMQV+ ]GQ+ MQFKHMK+ UK+ VEJIQMKM KJNGKU6+GHK+VEJIQMKM+XKVKMK+QH+QU+JEHEJIFIQHNE6+UK+IHHEOKJILH6+UK+IHOQVNIDKJILH6+\ RET+JEHVIDGIQHNQ+GHK+VEJIQMKM+]GQ+TQ]GIQTQ+]GQ+NEMEV+QVNQFEV+KU+MeK+JEH+ QVNKV &GQOKV+NQJHEUEDeKV^ !"$#JCK$#90()(+#$(-#1"+1%#1-")'&'%+"*($3#&%.%#*"#-")'%3#*"#1(*(4'$'/+#;#*%$#.()'%$ '.9-($%$3#&%.%#+0(4"$3#0+#&%+20+1%#)(#.()'%$#;#8(--".'(+1"$#&%.%#*%$#$"1U*'1($3 *"# &%.901")%-"3# *"# '+1(-+(13# (*# &%--(%# (*(&1-/+'&%3# *%$# &(*0*"-($3# *%$# -%:%1$# (+1-( %1-%$>5. )EFE+ JGQHNK+ (UFITLH+ c=>> d6+ 2QTXQTN+ "KTVbKUU+ "J$GbKH+ ZGQ+ QU+ RTIFQT+ KGNET+ QH bKXUKT+ MQU+ FGHME+ JEFE+ GHK+ qKUMQK+ DUEXKUr+ \+ MQ+ UK+ bGFKHIMKM+ JEFE+ GHK+ qNTIXG RUKHQNKTIKr+K+TKea+MQ+VGV+KH[UIVIV+MQ+UEV+FQMIEV+MQ+JEFGHIJKJILH^+(+RQVKT+MQ+HE UUQDKT+ K+ JEHEJQT+ !HNQTHQN+ HI+ UK+ TQOEUGJILH+ IHZETF[NIJK6+ VGV+ KH[UIVIV+ TQVGUNKTEH RTEZ_NIJEV^+ $EV+ FQMIEV+ MQ+ JEFGHIJKJILH+ MQ+ FKVKV+ bKH+ JEHOQTNIME+ KU+ RUKHQNK+ QH GHK+KUMQK6+QH+UK+JGKU+VG+TQKUIMKM6+VQ+TQJEHVNTG\Q+\+MQVNTG\Q+K+NTKO_V+MQ+UEV+FQMIEV MQ+JEFGHIJKJILH^+#ET+NEME+QUUE6+UK+KUMQK+DUEXKU+MQVJTINK+RET+"J$GbKH6+bK+VIME+GHK KUMQK+MQ+VGFIVILH+JEHVGFIVNK+F[V+]GQ+MQ+MQVKTTEUUE+FQHNKU^ $K+qKUMQK+DUEXKUr6+MQVJTINK+RET+QU+KGNET6+FGQVNTK+GHK+TQKUIMKM+]GQ+HEVENTEV+JEFE IHMIOIMGEV+ RQTNQHQJIQHNQV+ K+ GHK+ VEJIQMKM6+ QVNKFEV+ OIOIQHME6+ \K+ ]GQ+ FGJbKV OQJQV+HEV+IHNQTQVK+QU+QFRUQE+MQ+UKV+HGQOKV+NQJHEUEDeKV6+F[V+JEFE+QUQFQHNEV+MQ MIOQTVILH6+]GQ+JEFE+GH+IHNQT_V+IHNQUQJNGKU^ 1IH+ QFXKTDE6+ OIOIFEV+ K+ UK+ OKHDGKTMIK+ MQ+ UK+ IHZETFKJILH+ \+ UK+ JEFGHIJKJILH6+ QU bQJbE+ QV+ VKXQT+ GNIUIaKTUKV6+ RKTK+ ]GQ+ VQKH+ GH+ FQMIE+ ]GQ+ HEV+ JEHQJNQ+ JEH+ UK TQKUIMKM6+RKTK+RKTNIJIRKT+QH+UK+NEFK+MQ+MQJIVIEHQV6+RKTK+IHZETFKTHEV+\+QVNKT+KU+MeK MQ+ UE+ ]GQ+ VGJQMQ+ QH+ QU+ FGHME^+ ,QXQFEV+ UEDTKT+ QU+ JKFXIE+ MQ+ HGQVNTE+ VIVNQFK QMGJKNIOE+ \+ KFEUMKTUE+ K+ QVNK+ TQKUIMKM+ KJNGKU6+ JEH+ UK+ QVRQTKHaK+ MQ+ JEHVNTGIT+ GH FGHME+F[V+WGVNE+\+Q]GINKNIOE6+NQHIQHME+QH+JGQHNK+]GQ+QVN[+QH+WGQDE+QU+ZGNGTE+MQ HGQVNTK+VEJIQMKM+\+MQ+UK+QMGJKJILH^+ %H+ QVNQ+ JEHNQoNE+ REMQFEV+ MQJIT+ ]GQ# !"$# JCK# $%+# # '+$1-0.(+1%$# ;# 9-%&($%$ 01'*'<")%$# 9"-"# -(&09(-"-3# "*."&(+"-3# %-I"+'<"-3# ."+(2"-3# 9-%)0&'-3# 9-($(+1"-# ( '+1(-&".:'"-#'+,%-."&'/+#9%-#.()'%$#(*(&1-/+'&%$#;#"01%.=1'&%$>5. @.

(42) !"#$%"&%'(+bNNRAttkkk^QNIJ^XEt)KRINGUEgt1EJIQMKM^bNF. #ET+QVNQ+FENIOE+bQFEV+IHJETRETKME+UKV+'!)V+QH+HGQVNTK+IHOQVNIDKJILH6+IHNQDTKHME MQ+ FKHQTK+ NTKHVOQTVKU+ QU+ JEFRGNKMET+ \+ QU+ [TQK+ MQ+ )IQHJIKV+ 1EJIKUQV+ c2IVNETIK+ \ )GUNGTKd6+K+NTKO_V+MQ+GHK+KJNIOIMKM+MQ+KRTQHMIaKWQ+XKVKMK+QH+UK+TQM+]GQ+ZKOETQJQ QU+GVE+MQ+IHZETFKJILH+F[V+]GQ+UK+XpV]GQMK^+%VNK++KJNIOIMKM+QV+RTQJIVKFQHNQ++UK .QX0GQVN^ q%H+TQVGFQH6+UKV+'!)V+VEH+K]GQUUKV+NQJHEUEDeKV+]GQ+RQTFINQH+NTKHVFINIT6+RTEJQVKT \+ MIZGHMIT+ IHZETFKJILH+ MQ+ FKHQTK+ IHVNKHN[HQK^+ 1EH+ JEHVIMQTKMKV+ UK+ XKVQ+ RKTK TQMGJIT+ UK+ /TQJbK+ ,IDINKU+ VEXTQ+ UK+ ]GQ+ VQ+ NIQHQ+ ]GQ+ JEHVNTGIT+ GHK+ 1EJIQMKM+ MQ+ UK !HZETFKJILH+\+GHK+%JEHEFeK+MQU+)EHEJIFIQHNEr^. @@.

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Figure

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Referencias

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