Evaluacion Motor 3306 Generator Set 85Z03764-UP(SEBP2007 - 39) - Sistemas y Componentes

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Cerrar SIS Pantalla anterior

Producto: GEN SET ENGINE

Modelo: 3306 GEN SET ENGINE 85Z11827

Configuración: 3306 Generator Set 85Z03764-UP

Pruebas y AjustesPruebas y Ajustes

3304B & 3306B GENERATOR SET ENGINES3304B & 3306B GENERATOR SET ENGINES

Número de medio -SENR2797 -02Número de medio -SENR2797 -02 Fecha de publicación -01/04/1988Fecha de publicación -01/04/1988 Fecha de actualización -11/10/2001Fecha de actualización -11/10/2001

Testing and Adjusting

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting can be difficult. The Troubleshooting Index gives a list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference to the cause and correction on the pages that follow.

This list of problems, causes and corrections will only give an indication of where a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more or other repair work is needed beyond the recommendation in the list.

Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part, but by the relation of one part with other parts. This list is only a guide and cannot give all possible problems and corrections. The

serviceman must find the problem and it source, then make the necessary repairs.

Troubleshooting Index

1. Engine Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On. 2. Engine Will Not Start.

3. Misfiring Or Running Rough. 4. Stall At Low rpm.

5. Sudden Changes In Engine rpm. 6. Not Enough Power.

7. Too Much Vibration. 8. Loud Combustion Noise.

9. Loud Noise (Clicking) From Valve Compartment. 10. Oil In Cooling System.

11. Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine. 12. Fuel Consumption Too High.

13. Loud Noise From Valves Or Valve Operating Components.

14. Little Movement Of Rocker Arm And Too Much Valve Clearance. 15. Valve Rotocoil Or Spring Lock Is Free.

16. Oil At The Exhaust.

17. Little Or No Valve Clearance. 18. Engine Has Early Wear.

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19. Coolant In Lubrication Oil. 20. Too Much Black Or Gray Smoke. 21. Too Much White Or Blue Smoke. 22. Engine Has Low Oil Pressure.

23. Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil. 24. Engine Coolant Is Too Hot.

25. Exhaust Temperature Is Too High. 26. Starter Motor Does Not Turn. 27. Alternator Gives No Charge.

28. Alternator Charge Rate Is Low Or Not Regular. 29. Alternator Charge Is Too High.

30. Alternator Has Noise.

31. Shutoff Solenoid Does Not Stop Engine.

Problem 1: Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On Probable Cause:

1. Battery Has Low Output:

Make Reference to Problem 27.

2. Wires Or Switches Have Defect:

Make Reference to Problem 27.

3. Starter Motor Solenoid Has A Defect:

Make Reference to Problem 26.

4. Starter Motor Has A Defect:

Make Reference to Problem 26.

5. Inside Problem Prevents Engine Crankshaft From Turning:

If the crankshaft cannot be turned after the drive equipment is disconnected, remove the fuel nozzles and check for fluid in the cylinders while the crankshaft is turned. If fluid in the cylinders is not the problem, the engine must be disassembled to check for other inside problems. Some of these inside problems are bearing seizure, piston seizure, wrong pistons installed in the engine, and valves making contact with pistons.

Problem 2: Engine Will Not Start Probable Cause:

1. Slow Cranking Speed:

Make reference to Problem 27.

2. No Fuel In The Housing For The Fuel Injection Pumps:

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the bleed valve.

3. Dirty Fuel Filter:

Install new fuel filter.

4. Dirty or Broken Fuel Lines:

Clean or install new fuel lines as necessary.

5. No Fuel To Cylinders:

Put fuel in fuel tank. "Prime" (remove the air and/or low quality fuel from the fuel system).

6. Bad Quality Fuel:

Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.

7. Fuel Has "Cloud Point" Higher Than Atmospheric Temperature ("Cloud Point" = Temperature

Which Makes Wax Form In Fuel):

Drain the fuel tank lines, and fuel injection pump housing. Change the fuel filter. Fill the tank with fuel which has the correct "cloud point" and remove the air from the system with the priming pump.

8. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make adjustment to timing.

9. Overfueling Spring Not Inltalled:

Install overfueling spring.

Problem 3: Misfiring Or Running Rough Probable Cause:

1. Air In The Fuel System:

Find air leak in the fuel system and correct. Remove air from fuel system. See Fuel System in Testing and Adjusting.

2. Fuel Pressure is Low:

Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends in the fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel system. Check fuel pressure at the fuel injection pump housing. If fue pressure at high idle is lower than 105 kPa (15 psi), install a new filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, check the pumping spring and the check valves in the fuel transfer pump.

3. Leak or Break in Fuel Line Between Injection Pump and Injection Valve:

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4. Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) or Injection Pump(s):

Run engine at rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then loosen a fuel line nut on the injection valve for each cylinder, one at a time. Find the cylinder where loosening the fuel line nut does not change the way the engine runs. Test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder. Install new parts where needed.

5. Fuel System Not Timed Correctly to Engine:

Make adjustment to timing if necessary.

6. Wrong Valve Clearance:

Make adjustment, See the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

7. Bent or Broken Push Road:

Replacement of push rod is necessary.

8. Worn Valve Seat or Face of Valve:

Reconditioning of cylinder head is needed.

Problem 4: Stall At Low rpm Probable Cause:

1. Idle rpm Too Low:

Make adjustments to governor so idle rpm is the same as given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

2. Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) or Fuel Injection Pump(s):

Run engine at rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then loosen a fuel line nut on the injection pump for each cylinder, one at a time. Find the cylindr where loosening the fuel line nut does not change the way the engine runs. Test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder. Install new parts where needed.

Problem 5: Sudden Changes In Engine Speed (rpm) Probable Cause:

1. Failure of Governor or Fuel Injection Pump:

Look for damaged or broken springs, linkage or other parts. Remove the governor. Check for free travel of the fuel rack. Be sure fuel injection pumps are installed correctly. Check for correct governor spring. Install new parts for those that have damage or defects.

Problem 6: Not Enough Power Probable Cause:

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1. Air In The Fuel System:

Find air leak in the fuel system and correct. Remove air from fuel system. See FUEL SYSTEM in Testing and Adjusting.

2. Fuel Pressure Is Low:

Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks, or bad bends, in the fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel system. Check fuel pressure at the fuel

injection pump housing. If fuel pressure at high idle is lower than 105 kPa (15 psi), install a new fuel filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, check the pumping spring and the check valves in the fuel transfer pump.

3. Bad Quality Fuel:

Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.

4. Constant Bleed Valve Stays Open or Closed:

Install new parts if needed.

5. Leaks in Air Inlet System:

Check the pressure in the air inlet manifold. Look for restrictions in the air cleaner.

6. Governor Linkage:

Make adjustment to get full travel of linkage. Install new parts for those that have damage or defects.

7. Wrong Valve Clearance:

Make adjustment, See the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting

8. Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) or Fuel Injection Pump(s):

Run engine at rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then loosen a fuel line nut on the injection pump for each cylinder, one at a time. Find the cylinder where loosening the fuel line nut does not change the way the engine runs. Test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder. Install new parts where needed.

9. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make adjustment to timing.

10. Fuel Setting Too Low:

Make reference to the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

11. Turbocharger Has Carbon Deposits or Other Causes of Friction:

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Problem 7: Too Much Vibration Probable Cause:

1. Loose Bolt in Nut Holding Pulley or Damper:

Tighten bolt or nut.

2. Pulley or Damper Has A Defect:

Install a new pulley or damper.

3. Fan Blade Not in Balance:

Loosen or remove fan belts and operate engine for a short time at the rpm that the vibration was present. If vibration is not still present, make a replacement of the fan assembly.

4. Engine Supports Are Loose, Worn, or Have a Defect:

Tighten all mounting bolts. Install new components if necessary.

5. Misfiring or Running Rough:

Make reference to Problem 3:

Problem 8: Loud Combustion Noise (Knock) Probable Cause:

1. Bad Quality Fuel:

Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.

2. Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) or Fuel Injection Pump(s):

Run engine at rpm that gives maximum combustion noise. Then loosen a fuel line nut on the

injection pump for each cylinder, one at a time. Find the cylinder where loosening the fuel line nut stops the combustion noise. Test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder. Install new parts where needed.

3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make adjustment to timing.

Problem 9: Loud Noise (Clicking) From Valve Compartment Probable Cause:

1. Damage to Valve Spring(s) or Locks:

Install new parts where necessary. Locks with defects can cause the valve to slide into the cylinder. This will cause much damage.

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2. Not Enough Lubrication:

Check lubrication in valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of oil at engine high rpm, but only a small flow of oil at low rpm. Oil passages must be clean, especially those sending oil to the cylinder head.

3. Too Much Valve Clearance:

Make adjustment. See the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

4. Damage to Valves:

Make a replacement of the valve(s) and make an adjustment as necessary.

Problem 10: Oil In Cooling System Probable Cause:

1. Defect In Core of Oil Cooler:

Install a new core in the oil cooler.

2. Defect in Head Gasket:

Install a new head gasket.

Problem 11: Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine Probable Cause:

1. Failure of Bearing For Connecting Rod:

Inspect the bearing for the connecting rod and the bearing surface on the crankshaft. Install new parts when necessary.

2. Damage to Timing Gears:

Install new parts where necessary.

3. Damage to Crankshaft:

Make replacement of the crankshaft.

Problem 12: Fuel Consumption Too High Probable Cause:

1. Fuel System Leaks:

Large changes in fuel consumption may be the result. Inspect the fuel system for leaks and make repairs as necessary.

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Small increases in fuel consumption may be the result of fuel nozzles with defects, rough running, or factors causing loss of power. See Problem 3 and Problem 6:

3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make an adjustment to fuel injection timing.

Problem 13: Loud Noise From Valves Or Valve Drive Components Probable Cause:

1. Damage to Valve Spring(s):

Make replacement of parts with damage.

2. Damage to Camshaft:

Make replacement of parts with damage. Clean engine thoroughly.

3. Damage to Valve Lifter:

Clean engine thoroughly. Make a replacement of the camshaft and valve lifters. Look for valves that do not move freely. Make an adjustment to valve clearance. See the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

4. Damage to Valve(s):

Make a replacement of the valve(s) and make an adjustment as necessary.

Problem 14: Little Movement Of Rocker Arm And Too Much Valve Clearance Probable Cause:

1. Too Much Valve Clearance:

Make adjustment. See the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

2. Not Enough Lubrication:

Check lubricant in valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of oil at engine high rpm, but only a small flow at low rpm. Oil passages must be clean, especially those sending oil to the cylinder head.

3. Rocker Arm Worn at Face That Makes Contact With Valve:

If there is too much wear, install new rocker arms. Make adjustment of valve clearance, see the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

4. End of Valve Stem Worn:

If there is too much wear, install new valves. Make adjustment of valve clearance, see the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

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If there is too much wear, install new push rods. Make adjustment of valve clearance, see the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

6. Valve Lifters Worn:

If there is too much wear, install new valve lifters. Make adjustment of valve clearance, see the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

7. Damage to Valve Lifters:

Install new valve lifters. Check camshaft for wear. Check for free movement of valves or bent valve stem. Clean engine thoroughly. Make adjustment of valve clearance, see the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

8. Worn Cams on Camshaft:

Check valve clearance. Check for free movement of valves or bent valve stems. Check for valve lifter wear. Install a new camshaft. Make adjustment of valve clearance, see the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

Problem 15: Valve Rotocoil Or Spring Lock Is Free Probable Cause:

1. Damage to Locks:

Locks with damage can cause the valve to fall into the cylinder. This will cause much damage.

2. Damage to Valve Spring(s):

Install new valve spring(s).

Problem 16: Oil At The Exhaust Probable Cause:

1. Too Much Oil in the Valve Compartment:

Look at both ends of the rocker arm shaft. Be sure that there is a plug in each end.

2. Worn Valve Guides:

Reconditioning of the cylinder head is needed.

3. Worn Piston Rings:

Inspect and install new parts as needed.

4. Running Engine Too Long At Low Idle:

Don't let the engine run for long periods of time at low idle.

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Probable Cause:

1. Worn Valve Seat or Face of Valve:

Reconditioning of cylinder head is needed. Make adjustment of valve clearance. See the Subject Valve Clearance in Testing and Adjusting.

Problem 18: Engine Has Early Wear Probable Cause:

1. Dirt in Lubrication Oil:

Remove dirty lubrication oil. Install a new oil filter element. Put clean oil in the engine.

2. Air Inlet Leaks:

Inspect all gaskets and connections. Make repairs if leaks are present.

3. Fuel Leakage Into Lubrication Oil:

This will cause high fuel consumption and low engine oil pressure. Make repairs if leaks are present. Install new parts where needed.

Problem 19: Coolant In Lubrication Oil Probable Cause:

1. Failure of Oil Cooler Core:

Install a new core for the oil cooler.

2. Failure of Cylinder Head Gasket:

Install a new cylinder head gasket. Tighten the bolts holding the cylinder head, according to Specifications.

3. Crack or Defect in Cylinder Head:

Install a new cylinder head.

4. Crack or Defect in Cylinder Block:

Install a new cylinder block.

5. Failure of Seals for Cylinder Liners:

Make a replacement of the seals.

Problem 20: Too Much Black Or Gray Smoke Probable Cause:

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Check air cleaner for restrictions. Check inlet manifold pressure. Inspect turbocharger for correct operation.

2. Bad Fuel Injection Nozzle(s):

Test all nozzles. Install new nozzles if test shows replacement is needed.

3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make adjustment to timing.

Problem 21: Too Much White Or Blue Smoke Probable Cause:

1. Too Much Lubrication Oil in Engine Remove extra oil:

Find where extra oil comes from. Put correct amount of oil in engine. Do not put too much oil in engine.

2. Misfiring or Running Rough:

Make Reference to Problem 3:

3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make adjustment to timing.

4. Worn Valve Guides:

Reconditioning of cylinder head is needed.

5. Worn Piston Rings:

Install new piston rings.

6. Failure of Turbocharger Oil Seal:

Check inlet manifold for oil and make repair to turbocharger if necessary.

Problem 22: Engine Has Low Oil Pressure Probable Cause:

1. Defect in Oil Pressure Gauge:

Install new gauge.

2. Dirty Oil Filter or Oil Cooler:

Check the operation of bypass valve for the filter. Install new oil filter elements if needed. Clean or installnew oil cooler core. Remove dirty oil from engine. Put clean oil in engine.

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3. Diesel Fuel in Lubrication Oil:

Find the place where diesel fuel gets into the lubrication oil. Make repairs as needed. Remove the lubrication oil that has diesel fuel in it. Install a new oil filter element. Put clean oil in the engine.

4. Too Much Clearance Between Rocker Arm Shaft and Rocker Arms:

Check lubrication in valve compartment. Install new parts as necessary.

5. Oil Pump Suction Pipe Has A Defect:

Replacement of pipe is needed.

6. Relief Valve for Oil Pump Does Not Operate Correctly:

Clean valve and housing. Install new parts as necessary.

7. Oil Pump Has a Defect:

Make repair or replacement of oil pump if necessary.

8. Too Much Clearance Between Camshaft and Camshaft Bearings:

Install new camshaft and camshaft bearings if necessary.

9. Too Much Clearance Between Crankshaft and Crankshaft Bearings:

Check the oil filter for correct operation. Install new parts if necessary.

10. Too Much Bearing Clearance for Idler Gear:

Inspect bearings and make replacement as necessary.

11. Orifices For Piston Cooling Not Installed:

Install piston cooling orifices.

Problem 23: Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil Probable Cause:

1. Too Much Lubrication Oil In Engine:

Remove extra oil. Find where extra oil comes from. Put correct amount of oil in engine. Do not put too much oil in engine.

2. Oil Leaks:

Find all oil leaks. Make repairs as needed.

3. Oil Temperature Is Too High:

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4. Too Much Oil In Valve Compartment:

Make reference to Problem 16.

5. Worn Valve Guides:

Make reference to Problem 16.

6. Worn Piston Rings And Cylinder Liners:

Install new parts if necessary.

7. Failure of Seal Rings In Turbocharger:

Check inlet manifold for oil and make repair to turbocharger if necessary.

Problem 24: Engine Coolant Is Too Hot Probable Cause:

1. Restriction To Air Flow Through Radiator or Restriction To Flow Of Coolant Through The

Radiator:

Remove all restrictions to flow.

2. Not Enough Coolant In System:

Add coolant to cooling system.

3. Pressure Cap Has A Defect:

Check operation of pressure cap. Install a new pressure cap if necessary.

4. Combustion Gases in Coolant:

Find out where gases get into the cooling system. Make repairs as needed.

5. Water Temperature Regulator (Thermostat) or Temperature Gauge Has A Defect:

Check water temperature regulator for correct operation. Check temperature gauge operation. Install new parts as necessary.

6. Water Pump Has A Defect:

Make repairs to the water pump as necessary.

6. Too Much Load On The System:

Make a reduction in the load.

7. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

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Problem 25: Exhaust Temperature Is Too High Probable Cause:

1. Air Inlet or Exhaust System Has A Restriction:

Remove restriction.

2. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing:

Make an adjustment to the timing.

Problem 26: Starter Motor Does Not Turn Probable Cause:

1. Battery Has Low Output:

Check condition of battery. Charge battery or make replacement as necessary.

2. Wires or Switch Has Defect:

Make repairs or replacement as necessary.

3. Starter Motor Solenoid Has A Defect:

Install a new solenoid.

4. Starter Motor Has A Defect:

Make repair or replacement of starter motor.

Problem 27: Alternator Gives No Charge Probable Cause:

1. Loose Drive Belt For Alternator:

Make an adjustment to put the correct tension on the drive belt.

2. Charging Or Ground Return Circuit Or Battery Connections Have A Defect:

Inspect all cables and connections. Clean and tighten all connections. Make replacement of parts with defects.

3. Brushes Have A Defect:

Install new brushes.

4. Rotor (Field Coil) Has A Defect:

Install a new rotor

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Probable Cause:

1. Loose Drive Belt For Alternator:

Make an adjustment to put the correct tension on the drive belt.

2. Charging Or Ground Return Circuit Or Battery Connections Have A Defect:

Inspect all cables and connections. Clean and tighten all connections. Make replacement of parts with defects.

3. Alternator Regulator Has A Defect:

Install a new alternator regulator.

4. Alternator Brushes Have A Defect:

Install new brushes.

5. Rectifier Diodes Have A Defect:

Make replacement of rectifier diode that has a defect.

6. Rotor (Field Coil) Has A Defect:

Install a new rotor.

Problem 29: Alternator Charge Is Too High Probable Cause:

1. Alternator Or Alternator Regulator Has Loose Connections:

Tighten all connections to alternator or alternator regulator.

2. Alternator Regulator Has A Defect:

Install a new alternator regulator.

Problem 30: Alternator Has Noise Probable Cause:

1. Drive Belt For Alternator Is Worn Or Has A Defect:

Install a new drive belt for the alternator.

2. Loose Alternator Drive Pulley:

Check groove in pulley for key that holds pulley in place. If groove is worn, install a new pulley. Tighten pulley nut according to Specifications.

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Make an adjustment to put drive belt and drive pulley in correct alignment.

4. Worn Alternator Bearings:

Install new bearings in the alternator.

5. Rotor Shaft Is Bent:

Make a replacement of the rotor shaft.

6. Rectifiers In The Alternator Are Shorted:

Make a replacement of the diode assembly.

Problem 31: Shutoff Solenoid Does Not Stop Engine Probable Cause:

1. Electrical Connections Are Not Correct:

Correct electrical connections and wiring.

2. Adjustment For Plunger Shaft Is Not Correct:

Make an adjustment to the plunger shaft.

3. Wrong Plunger In Solenoid:

Install the correct plunger in the solenoid.

4. Not Enough Plunger Travel:

Make an adjustment to the plunger shaft or make a replacement of the solenoid if necessary.

5. Defect In Solenoid Wiring:

Make a replacement of the solenoid.

Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is realy with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion. b. An overload at high altitude.

c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber. d. Not enough compression.

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Fuel System Inspection

To check for low fuel pressure, remove the 1/8" Pipe Plug from the fuel filter base. Connect a pressure gauge from the 6V9450 Engine Pressure Group to the hole where the plug was removed. Run the engine at high idle and check the fuel pressure reading. The fuel pressure must be at least 105 kPa (15 psi).

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not

filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad

bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter.

4. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system. If there is air in the fuel system, use the priming pump

and open the drain valve on the fuel injection pump housing until fuel without air comes from the drain line.

NOTICE

When fuel injection lines are loosened or tightened on the fuel

injection nozzles, two wrenches must be used. The nozzle must be held with a wrench or damage to the nozzle can result.

To remove air from the fuel injection lines, loosen the fuel line nuts on the fuel injection nozzles 1/2 turn. Move the governor lever to the low idle position. Crank engine with the starter motor until fuel without air comes from the fuel line connections. Tighten the fuel line nuts.

NOTE: The fuel priming pump will not give enough pressure to push fuel through the reverse flow

check valves in the fuel injection pumps.

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when an engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an

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indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possible be an indication of a nozzle with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by a nozzle with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection nozzles are:

1. Carbon on tip of the nozzle or in the nozzle orifice. 2. Orifice wear.

3. Steel wire brushing of nozzle tip.

Testing Fuel Injection Nozzles

NOTE: For more information on the 5P5140 Nozzle Testing Group see, Special Instruction, Form No.

SEHS7292.

NOTICE

Do not test nozzles unless you have the correct service tools.

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(1) 8N7005 Nozzle Assembly. (A) 5P7448 Adapter. (B) 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 6900 kPa (0 to 1000 psi). (C) 6V2170 Tube Assembly. (D) 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). (E) Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge. (F) FT1384 Extension. (G) Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge. (H) On-off valve. (J) 8S2270 Fuel Collector. (K) Pump isolator valve.

Extra Valve (L) Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).

NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration Fluid when tests are made. Dirty test fluid will damage components of fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test fluid must be 18 to 24°C (65 to 75°F) for good test results.

Order calibration fluid by part number, in the quantities needed, according to the information that follows:

6V6068 Calibration Fluid, 18.9 liter (5 U.S. gal.)6V6067 Calibration Fluid, 208.2 liter (55 U.S. gal.)

The fuel injection nozzles is not to be disassembled for cleaning or adjustment. Do the tests that follow to determine if the nozzle performance is acceptable.

Valve Opening Pressure Test.Flush the Nozzle.Tip Leakage Test.Orifice Restriction Test.Bleedscrew Leakage Test.

Nozzle Preparation for Test

Before fuel injection nozzle (1) can be tested, all loose carbon around the tip of the nozzle must be removed with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M).

Removing Carbon Dam

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Remove carbon dam (2) with needle nose pliers and remove seal (3) from the nozzle.

NOTICE

Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these tools can cause a small reduction of orifice size, and this will cause a large reduction in engine horsepower. Too much use of the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush will also remove the coating that is on the nozzle for protection.

Clean the groove for carbon seal dam (2) and the body of the nozzle below the groove with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M). Remove the carbon, but be sure not to use the brush enough to cause damage to the body of the nozzle.

NOTE: A change in color in the area below the groove is normal and does not effect the body of the

nozzle.

8S2245 Cleaning Kit

(M) 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. (N) 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool. (P) 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.

Fuel Injection Nozzle (4) Bleed screw and seal.

Remove bleed screw and seal (4) from the nozzle.

NOTE: The bleed screw and seal must be removed for all tests except the Bleed Screw Leakage Test.

Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP)

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2. Install fuel injection nozzle with 5P7448 Adapter (A) on tube assembly (6). Position the bleed screw

hole toward the tester and in line with 6V2170 Tube Assembly (C). This will make the fuel spray pattern horizontal. Be sure the nozzle tip is down and extends into FT1384 Extension (F) and 8S2270 Fuel Collector (J).

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Test fluid comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The test fluid can pierce (go through) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

Nozzle Ready For Test

(E) Gauge protector valve. (H) On-off valve. (K) Pump isolator valve.

NOTICE

Put a shop towel around the upper part of the nozzle to take in any fuel leakage.

3. Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (K).

4. Open gauge protector valve (E). Operate the pump to make a slow increase in pressure until the valve

in the fuel injection nozzle just starts to open. Read the maximum gauge pressure as the instant fluid flows from the tip.

NOTE: It is possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to go down fast if the valve makes a noise

(chatters) when it opens. It is also possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to be almost constant when the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens.

NOTE: The valve in the fuel injection nozzle can be good and still not make a noise (chatter), or not

have a very fine vapor (spray) from the orifices in the tip of the fuel injection nozzle during Step 4.

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Flush the Nozzle

1. Close gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (G). NOTE: Make sure nozzle extends inside and below the top of FT1384 Extension (F). 2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes.

Tip Leakage Test

1. Remove all fuel from the nozzle tip and body with a clean cloth.

2. Put a clean cloth around the body of the nozzle to take in any leakage from the bleed screw hole and

prevent any fuel leakage to drain down to the tip of the nozzle.

Nozzle Ready For Test

(E) Gauge protector valve. (H) On-off valve. (K) Pump isolator valve.

3. Open gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (K).

4. Make and hold for 15 seconds a pressure of 1380 to 2000 kPa (200 to 290 psi) less than the opening

pressure measured in the VOP Test and make a note of the number of drops that fall.

5. If the nozzle is not within specifications, DO NOT USE THE NOZZLE.

Orifice Restriction Test

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2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension. Be sure

the bleed screw hole is positioned toward the tester and is in line with 6V2170 Tube Assembly (C). This will make the fuel injection nozzle be 15° from vertical and the spray pattern will be horizontal.

3. Make a rapid increase in pressure and look at the orifice discharge (shape of discharge) when fluid

begins to flow through the fuel injection nozzle. The discharge must be the same through all nine orifices. Any change either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle.

Good Nozzle (Use Again)

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Typical Discharge With Horizontal Distortion (Replacement Necessary)

Typical Discharge With Vertical Distortion (Replacement Necessary)

Bleed Screws For Fuel Injection Nozzle

Bleed Screw Leakage Test

1. Install bleed screw (4) and the seal (washer) in the fuel injection nozzle. Tighten a type (A) bleed

screw to 0.9 ± 0.1 N·m (8 ± 1 lb in). Tighten a type (B) or (C) bleed screw to 1.8 ± 0.2 N·m (16 ± 2 lb in). (Use the 6V4980 Torque Screw Driver to tighten the bleed screw to the correct torque.)

NOTICE

Do not tighten the bleed screw more than the torque shown. The bleed screw or seal can be damaged.

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2. Put the tip of the fuel injection nozzle down inside the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension. 3. Close on-off valve (H). Open gauge protector valve (E) and pump isolator valve (K).

4. Pump the tester until fuel injection nozzle is full of fluid and the pressure on the gauge is 12 800 to 14

800 kPa (1870 to 2165 psi).

NOTE: 15 or 20 strokes of the pump can be necessary for the pressure to get to 12 800 to 14 800 kPa

(1870 to 2165 psi).

5. If there is leakage, replace the sealing washer. Inspect the washer face of the bleed screw for damage,

replace if needed. Test the nozzle again. If there is still leakage, the fuel injection nozzle must be replaced.

6. If no fuel leakage is found, the fuel injection nozzle is acceptable. Put a new seal (3) on the nozzle.

Install a new carbon dam (2) in nozzle groove with 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool (N).

Installing Carbon Dam

(2) Carbon dam. (3) Seal. (N) 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps goes to the fuel injection nozzles through the fuel injection lines.

When fuel injection lines are disconnected or removed, always put caps or plugs on the ends to keep dirt out of the lines. When fuel injection lines are installed, be sure all clamps and dampers are installed in their original location.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection nozzle and injection pump must be tightened to the correct torque. If the nut is loose, fuel will leak from the connection. If the nut is tightened too tight, the inside diameter of the line will become smaller and cause a restriction to the flow of fuel in the line. Use a torque wrench and a 5P144 Fuel Line Socket to tighten the fuel injection line nuts to 40 ± 7 N·m (30 ± 5 lb ft)

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Fuel injection lines which are bent, damaged or rubbing can leak and cause a fire. Replace any lines which have damage or leaks that cannot be corrected when tightened to the correct torque.

Checking The Plunger And Lifter Of An Injection Pump

NOTE: There are no different size spacers available to adjust the timing dimension of the fuel injection

pumps. If the pump plunger or the lifter is worn, they must be replaced. Because there is no adjustment to the timing dimension possible, there is NO OFF ENGINE LIFTER SETTING PROCEDURE.

When there is too much wear on the fuel injection pump plunger, the lifter may also be worn and there will not be good contact between the two parts. To stop fast wear on the end of a new plunger, install new lifters in the place of the lifters that have wear.

Wear Between Lifter And Plunger

Fig. A. Illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter have worn considerably. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger makes poor contact with a worn lifter, resulting in rapid wear to both parts.

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow coming from it but not be a good pump because of slow timing that is caused by wear on the bottom end of the plunger. When making a test on a pump that has been used for a long time, use a micrometer and measure the length of the plunger. If the length of the plunger is shorter than the minimum length (worn) dimension given in the chart, install a new pump.

Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check the operation of the plunger according to the instructions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench.

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Removal And Installation Of Fuel Injection Pumps

Removal of Fuel Injection Pumps

NOTICE

Before any parts are removed from the fuel injection pump housing, thoroughly clean all dirt from the housing. Dirt that gets inside the pump housing will cause much damage.

NOTE: The fuel rack must be in the center position before the fuel injection pumps can be removed. 1. Remove timing pin cover (1) from the side of the fuel injection pump housing.

Fuel Injection Pump Housing (1) Timing pin cover.

2. Move the governor lever to the Fuel OFF position and install timing pin (2) in the rack centering hole

as shown.

Timing Pin Installed (2) Timing pin.

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3. With the timing pin in position, move the governor lever to the high idle position. The fuel rack will

move until the edge of the groove in the rack makes contact with the timing pin. The fuel rack is now in the center position. Fasten the governor lever in the HIGH IDLE position.

4. Remove the fuel injection line from the fuel injection pump.

5. Put the 8T5287 Wrench into spline of bushing that holds the fuel injection pump in the housing.

Remove the bushing.

6. Install the 8S2244 Extractor on the threads of the injection pump. Carefully pull the pump straight up

out of the bore.

Be careful when an injection pump is disassembled. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger and barrel are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when the plunger is put into the bore of the barrel. When injection pumps and spacers are removed from the fuel injection pump housing, keep the parts together so they can be installed in the same location in the housing.

Installation of Fuel Injection Pumps

NOTICE

The fuel rack MUST BE IN THE CENTER POSITION before the correct installation of an injection pump is possible.

1. Put the fuel rack in the center position. Make reference to Removal of Fuel Injection Pumps. 2. Put the 8S2244 Extractor on the threads of the fuel injection pump.

3. Make sure the lifter for the pump to be installed is at the bottom of its travel.

4. Put the groove of barrel (4) in alignment with the middle (fourth) tooth of gear segment (5).

5. Look into the bore for the fuel injection pump and locate both dowels. There is a dowel in the lifter

and a dowel in the opposite side of the bore in the fuel injection pump housing. Put the groove in the pump barrel in alignment with the large dowel in the pump housing and put the slot (groove) on the opposite side of the gear teeth on the sector gear in alignment with the small dowel in the lifter. Install the fuel injection pump straight down into the bore.

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(3) 8S2244 Extractor. (4) Groove of barrel. (5) Fourth tooth of gear segment.

6. Push down on extractor (3) (hand force only) and install O-ring and bushing that holds the injection

pump in the pump housing. If the pump is in the correct position, the bushing will turn into the threads of the fuel injection housing with the fingers until it is even with the top of the housing. When the bushing is installed correctly, tighten the bushing to 165 ± 14 N·m (120 ± 10 lb ft)

NOTICE

The bushing must be tightened to the correct torque. Damage to the housing will be the result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will have leakage.

7. Install the fuel injection line to the pump and tighten to 40 ± 7 N·m (30 ± 5 lb ft). 8. Remove timing pin (2) and install timing pin cover (1).

NOTICE

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. When any of the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed, take the precautions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it starts to overspeed (run out of control).

a. Remove the air cleaner pipe from the turbocharger and leave the air inlet for the turbocharger open. b. Set the governor at low idle.

Stopping The Engine (Typical Example)

Be careful when plate is put against air inlet opening. Due to excessive suction, the plate can be pulled quickly against air inlet opening. To avoid crushed fingers, do not put fingers between plate and air inlet opening.

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c. Start the engine, and if engine starts to overspeed (run out of control) put a steel plate over the air inlet

to stop the engine.

Locating Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.

NOTE: The engine is seen from the flywheel end when direction of crankshaft rotation is given. 1. Remove starter motor.

2. Install the tools as shown.

Engine Turning Tools Installed

(1) 5P7306 Housing. (2) 5P7305 Gear. (3) Timing bolt.

3. Remove the valve cover.

4. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise approximately 30 degrees. The reason for this step is to be sure the

free play is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center.

5. Remove the plug from the timing hole in the flywheel housing. Rotate the crankshaft until a 3/8"-16

NC bolt, 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long, can be turned into the flywheel through the timing hole in the flywheel housing. No. 1 piston is now on top center.

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(4) Rocker arms.

NOTE: If the crankshaft is turned beyond top center do Steps 4 and 5 again.

6. The intake and exhaust valves for No. 1 cylinder will be closed if No. 1 piston is on the compression

stroke. You can move the rocker arms up and down with your hand.

7. If No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, remove the timing bolt and rotate the crankshaft

counterclockwise 360°. Install the timing bolt. The No. 1 piston is now at top center on the compression stroke.

Checking Engine Timing With 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group

And 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group

8T5300 Timing Indicator Group

(1) 8T5250 Engine Timing Indicator. (2) 5P7366 Cable Assembly. (3) 6V2197 Magnetic Transducer. (4) 5P7362 Cable. (5) 6V2199 and 6V3093 Transducer Adapters. (6) 8K4644 Fuse.

The 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group must be used with the 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group.

8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group

(7) 5P7437 Adapter. (8) 6V2198 Cable. (9) 5P7436 Adapter. (10) 6V7910 Transducer. (11) 5P7435 Adapter. (12) 6V3016 Washer.

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A high pressure fuel line must be disconnected. To avoid personal injury or fire from fuel spray, the engine must be stopped before the fuel line is disconnected.

When checking the dynamic timing on an engine without a mechanical advance, Caterpillar recommends that the serviceman calculate and graph the dynamic timing on a worksheet like Form No. SEHS8140. These worksheets are available in pads of 50 sheets, order one Form No. SEHS8140. See Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8580, for information required to calculate the timing curve.

After the timing values are calculated and plotted, the dynamic timing should be checked with the 8T5300 Engine Timing Indicator Group. To do this, the serviceman must operate the engine from 1000 rpm (base rpm) to high idle and from high idle to 1000 rpm (base rpm). Unstable readings are often obtained below 1000 rpm. He must record the dynamic timing at each 100 rpm and at the specified speeds during both acceleration and deceleration. Then he should plot the results on the worksheet.

Inspection of the plotted value will show if the timing is within specifications. See Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8580 for information required to calculate the timing.

1. See the Engine Information Plate for the performance specification number and make reference to the

Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche for the correct timing specifications to use.

2. Make reference to Operation Instructions inside the lid of the 8T5300 Timing Indicator (1) or Special

Instruction, Form No. SEHS8580 for complete instructions and calibration.

The engine must be stopped before the timing indicator group is installed. A high pressure fuel line must be disconnected and a probe must be installed against the flywheel.

Transducer In Position

(10) Injection transducer. (13) Fuel injection line for No. 1 cylinder.

3. Loosen all fuel line clamps that hold No. 1 fuel injection line and disconnect fuel injection line (13) for

No. 1 cylinder at the fuel injection pump. Slide the nut up and out of the way. Put 5P7436 Adapter (9) in its place and turn adapter (9) onto the fuel pump bonnet until the top of the bonnet threads are

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4. Put the 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11) on the injection transducer (10) and put the end of the 5P7435 Tee

Adapter (11) in the "window" of the 5P7436 Adapter (9).

5. Put fuel injection line (13) on top of 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11). Install 5P7437 Adapter (7) and tighten

to a torque of not more than 40 N·m (30 lb ft).

6. Remove the plug from the flywheel housing. Install transducer adapter (5) into the hole the plug was

removed from. Tighten only a small amount.

Transducer In Position

(3) TDC magnetic transducer. (5) Transducer adapter.

7. Push the TDC magnetic transducer (3) into the transducer adapter (5) until it makes contact with the

flywheel. Pull it back out 1.6 mm (.06 in.) and lightly tighten the knurled locknut.

8. Connect the cables from the transducer to Engine Timing Indicator (1). Calibrate and make adjustmen

s. For calibration procedure, make reference to Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8580.

9. Start the engine and let it reach operating temperature. Then run the engine at approximately one-half

throttle for eight to ten minutes before measuring timing.

10. Run the engine at the speeds required, and record the timing indicator readings.

The Timing Chart gives the acceptable dynamic (engine in motion) timing range as read on the Timing Indicator Group. The Timing Chart is for engines with 21 ± 1° and 27 ± 1° static (engine stopped) timing.

If the engine timing is not correct, make reference to Checking Engine Timing By Timing Pin Method for static adjustment of the fuel injection pump drive.

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1. Put No. 1 piston at top center on the compression stroke. Make reference to Locating Top Center

Compression Position For No. 1 Piston. Remove the timing bolt and rotate the crankshaft clockwise 30°.

Timing Pin Cover

(1) Timing pin cover. (2) Cover for timing gear. (3) Nut.

2. Remove timing pin cover (1) from the side of the fuel injection pump housing.

Timing Pin Installed (4) 6V4186 Timing Pin.

3. Install 6V4186 Timing Pin (4) in the fuel injection pump housing as shown. Slowly rotate the

crankshaft counterclockwise until timing pin (4) goes into the slot in the fuel pump camshaft.

NOTICE

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pump camshaft or the timing pin.

4. Put the timing bolt in the timing hole in the flywheel housing. Slowly move the crankshaft

counterclockwise (as seen from the flywheel end of the engine) until the fuel pump camshaft is tight against timing pin (4). This removes gear clearance from the drive train. If the bolt can be installed in the timing hole in the flywheel, the timing of the fuel injection pump is correct.

5. If the timing bolt does not go into the timing hole in the flywheel, the timing of the fuel injection pump

is not correct. Do the steps that follow to adjust the fuel injection pump timing.

6. Remove nuts (3) and cover (2) from the timing gear housing.

Timing Gear For Fuel Injection Pump (5) Bolt.

7. Loosen bolt (5) that holds the timing gear to the fuel pump camshaft. Turn bolt (5) out

(counterclockwise) three turns.

8. Install 8S2264 Puller Group and loosen the timing gear from the fuel pump camshaft.

Puller Tools Installed

(6) 8S2264 Puller Group. (7) 8B7560 Step Plate. (8) 1B3680 Bolt 3/8"-24 NF, 95.3 mm (3.75 in.) long. (9) 4B5271 Washer.

9. Rotate the flywheel clockwise 60° before top center No. 1 piston.

10. Tighten retaining bolt (5) finger tight. Be sure timing pin (4) is in the groove in the fuel pump

camshaft.

11. Slowly rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise until the timing bolt can be installed in the flywheel. 12. Install 6V6175 Adapter on the timing gear. Use two 3/8"-24 NF bolts, 25.4 mm (1.0 in.) long to

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Adapter Installed On Timing Gear (10) 6V6175 Adapter.

13. Hold a torque of 60 to 70 N·m (45 to 50 lb ft) on adapter (10) in a clockwise direction, and tighten

bolt (5) that holds the timing gear to 270 ± 30 N·m (200 ± 20 lb ft).

14. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel and timing pin (4) from the fuel pump camshaft. 15. Rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise two revolutions. If the timing bolt can be installed in the

flywheel and the timing pin can be installed in the fuel pump camshaft, the timing is correct.

16. If either the timing pin or the timing bolt cannot be installed, do Steps 7 through 16 again.

Tightening Timing Gear Bolt

Fuel Setting Procedure

The static fuel setting can be done with the fuel injection pump and governor on or off the engine. For more information on the fuel setting procedure, see Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8024.

1. Remove cover (1) from the side of the fuel injection pump housing. 2. Install 5P4814 Collet (2) on 6V2014 Bracket Assembly (3).

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slot (4) on the fuel rack. Push up on the bracket assembly while the bolts are tightened.

After the bracket assembly is tightened to the pump housing, shaft (6) must have axial (in and out) movement, If there is no axial movement of shaft (6), check to be sure lever (5) is in the slot on the fuel rack and that the bracket assembly is installed correctly. Check to make sure that lever (5) is not bent. Lever (5) must be perpendicular (at right angle) to the mounting face of the bracket assembly.

Fuel Injection Pump And Governor (1) Cover.

4. Put 9S229 Contact Point, 9.7 mm (.38 in.) long on 6V3075 Dial Indicator (7) and install dial indicator

in collet (2).

Bracket Assembly Installed

(2) 5P4814 Collet. (3) Bracket assembly.

Cover Removed (4) Slot on fuel rack.

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Bracket Assembly (5) Lever. (6) Shaft.

5. Remove cover (8) from the rear of the governor housing. 6. Remove plug (9) from the rear of the governor housing.

Dial Indicator Installed (7) 6V3075 Dial Indicator.

Governor (8) Cover.

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(9) Plug.

7. Move the governor control lever to the FUEL OFF position (rotate governor shaft clockwise).

8. Install 6V4186 Timing Pin (10) in the hole in the bracket assembly. Push timing pin in until contact is

made with the fuel rack. Hold the timing pin gently against the fuel rack for Steps 9 and 10. If too much force is used to hold the timing pin, the fuel rack can stick and cause an incorrect zero reading.

Timing Pin Installed (10) 6V4186 Timing Pin.

9. Hold the governor control lever in the HIGH IDLE position (rotate governor shaft counterclockwise). 10. Insert 6V7942 Hook (11) into the hole that plug (9) was removed from. Engage the end of hook (11)

with collar (12) and pull toward the rear of the governor housing until the collar stops moving. This will make sure the fuel rack stops against the timing pin. This is the rack zero position.

6V7942 Hook In Use (11) 6V7942 Hook.

Cutaway View Of Governor (11) 6V7942 Hook. (12) Collar.

11. With the hook still pulled toward the rear of the governor, loosen collet (2) and adjust the revolution

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Move the dial of the indicator to get alignment of the pointer and zero.

12. Remove timing pin (10).

13. Turn rod (13) out of 6V7941 Compressor Assembly (15) until knob (14) is 25.4 mm (1.0 in.) from

the compressor body. Install 6V7941 Compressor Assembly (15) in the hole plug (9) was removed from.

NOTE: The 6V7941 Compressor Assembly is used to compress the overfueling spring. The overfueling

spring must be compressed to get an accurate fuel setting measurement.

6V7941 Compressor Assembly (13) Rod. (14) Knob.

Compressor Assembly Installed (15) 6V7941 Compressor Assembly.

The procedure to check the fuel setting is different than the procedure to adjust the fuel setting. Follow Steps 14 through 17 to check the fuel setting. Follow Steps 18 through 21 to adjust the fuel setting.

14. Fasten the clip end of 8T500 Circuit Tester (16) to rack contact screw (17) and put the other end to a

good electrical ground.

Checking Static Fuel Setting

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15. Hold the governor control lever in the FUEL ON position (rotate lever fully counterclockwise). 16. Turn rod (13) of compressor assembly (15) in (clockwise) until the light in circuit tester (16) goes off

and the dial indicator hands move an additional 2 mm in the negative (-) direction after the light goes out.

NOTICE

DO NOT turn the rod any further in if the rod begins to tighten. Damage to the governor can occur if the rod is turned in further.

17. Slowly turn rod (13) out (counterclockwise) until the circuit tester light just comes on. This is the

static fuel setting. See the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche for the correct static fuel setting.

NOTE: When the rod is turned out, there will be a small initial movement of the dial indicator hands,

then, they will stop moving while the rod is turned out for approximately another 1 1/2 turns. Now the indicator hands will begin to move again and will follow the turning of the rod until the setting is reached. It is important that the rod be turned slowly so that the rack can follow the governor components.

18. If the fuel setting is not correct, remove adjustment screw cover (18) from the rear of the governor

housing.

Adjustment Screw Cover Removed (19) Fuel setting screw.

19. Determine how much the setting will have to be changed (see example). Use the chart that follows to

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Since "desired setting" is higher than "actual reading," turn adjusting screw out (counterclockwise) approximately 1/4 turn. Recheck the new setting and readjust if necessary.

Since "desired setting" is lower than "actual reading," turn the adjusting screw in (clockwise) approximately 1 1/8 turns. Recheck the new setting and readjust if necessary.

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Negative numbers work differently than positive numbers. If one number (-1.25) has a larger digital value than another one (-1.05), the first number (-1.25) is actually less than the other one. Therefore, in this example the "desired setting" is lower than the "actual reading." Turn the adjusting screw in

(clockwise) approximately 1/4 turn. Recheck the new setting and readjust if necessary.

The "desired setting" is higher than the "actual reading." Turn the adjusting screw out (counterclockwise) approximately 1 1/8 turns. Recheck the new setting and readjust if necessary.

The "desired setting" is lower than the "actual reading." Turn the adjusting screw in approximately 2 7/8 turns.

The "desired setting" is higher than the "actual reading." Turn the adjusting screw out approximately 2 7/8 turns.

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Adjusting Fuel Setting

(20) 6V2106 Rack Adjustment Tool Group.

20. Use 6V2106 Rack Adjustment Tool Group (20) to loosen the locknut for adjustment screw and to

turn the adjustment screw.

21. Adjust the fuel setting screw the number of turns determined in Step 19. Always recheck the setting

after each adjustment and adjust again if needed.

Engine Speed Measurement

6V3121 Multitach Group

(1) Carrying case. (2) Power cable. (3) Tachometer generator. (4) Tachometer drive group. (5) Multitach.

The 6V3121 Multitach Group can measure engine speed from a tachometer drive on the engine. It also has the ability to measure engine speed from visual engine parts in rotation.

Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS7807 is with the 6V3128 Multitach Group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

The 6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group is another diagnostic tool accessory that can be used with the 6V2100 Multitach. It can be used on all Caterpillar Diesel Engines equipped with 6 mm (.25 in.) single wall fuel injection lines. With this pickup group, engine speed can be measured quickly,

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6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group (6) 6V6114 Pickup. (7) 6V6113 Amplifier.

Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8029 is with the group and gives instructions for use of the 6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group.

Governor Adjustments

NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make the adjustment to the set point rpm.

Engine rpm must be checked with an accurate tachometer. Make reference to Measuring Engine Speed.

Low Idle Adjustment

NOTE: The correct LOW IDLE rpm is given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

Start the engine and run until the temperature of normal operation is reached. Check low idle rpm with no load on the engine. If an adjustment is necessary, use the procedure that follows:

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(1) Cover. (2) Low idle screw.

1. To adjust the LOW IDLE rpm, start the engine and run with the governor in the low idle position.

Loosen the locknut for low idle screw (2). Turn the low idle screw to get the correct low idle rpm. Increase engine speed and return to low idle and check low idle speed again. Tighten the locknut.

Checking Set Point (Balance Point)

The engine set point is an adjusted specification and is important to the correct operation of the engine. High idle rpm is NOT an adjusted specification. Set point (formerly balance point) is full load rpm plus an additional 20 rpm. Set point is the rpm at which the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring just start to make contact. At this rpm, the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring still have movement between them. When additional load is put on the engine, the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring will become stable against each other. Set point is controlled by the fuel setting and the high idle adjustment screw.

There is a new and more accurate method for checking the "set point", formerly called the balance point, of the engine. If the tools for the new method are not available, there is an alternate method for checking the "set point".

The 6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group with the 6V2100 Multitach can be used to check the set point. Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS7931 Gives instructions for installation and use of this tool group.

6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group

Alternate Method

If the set point is correct and the high idle speed is within specifications, the fuel system operation of the engine is correct. The set point for the engine is:

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A. At 20 rpm greater than full load speed.

B. The rpm where the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring just make

contact.

Use the procedure that follows to check the set point. Make reference to Techniques For Loading Engines in Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS7050.

Terminal Location (3) Brass terminal screw.

1. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to the tachometer drive.

2. Connect the clip end of the 8T500 Circuit Tester to the brass terminal screw (3) on the governor

housing. Connect the other end of the tester to a place on the fuel system which is a good ground connection.

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

3. Start the engine.

4. With the engine at normal conditions for operation, run the engine at high idle. 5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high idle.

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the circuit tester light just comes on (minimum light output). This

is the set point.

7. Make a record of the speed (rpm) at the set point.

8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

9. Stop the engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 7 with the information from the

Engine Information Plate. If the Engine Information Plate is not available, see the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

The tolerance for the set point is ± 10 rpm. The tolerance for the high idle rpm is ± 30 rpm. If the readings from Steps 5 and 7 are within the tolerance, no adjustment is needed.

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can be caused by high parasitic loads such as hydraulic pumps, compressors, etc.

Adjusting Set Point (Balance Point)

1. If the set point and the high idle rpm are within tolerance, no adjustment is to be made.

2. If the set point rpm is not correct, remove cover (1) and loosen locknut. Turn adjustment screw (4) to

adjust the set point to the midpoint of the tolerance.

3. When the set point is correct, check the high idle rpm. The high idle rpm must not be more than the

high limit of the tolerance.

Set Point Adjustment (4) Adjustment screw.

If the high idle rpm is more than the high limit of the tolerance, check the governor spring and

flyweights. If the high idle rpm is less than the low limit of the tolerance, check for excess parasitic loads and then the governor spring and flyweights.

Dashpot Screw Adjustment

The dashpot adjustment screw does not normally need adjustment from the factory setting. If the engine is slow to change rpm with a change in load, it is possible that the dashpot adjustment screw is not adjusted correctly.

1. Turn dashpot adjustment screw (1) in (clockwise) until it stops. 2. Turn dashpot adjustment screw out (counterclockwise) 1/2 ± 1/4 turn.

Dashpot Screw Adjustment (1) Dashpot adjustment screw.

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Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction of more than 762 mm (30 in.) of water difference in pressure.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust outlet elbow and atmosphere) must not be more than:

Engines with turbochargers ... 686 mm (27" H2O)

Engines without turbochargers ... 864 mm (34" H2O)

Measurement Of Pressure In Inlet Manifold

By checking the pressure in the inlet manifold the efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison with the information given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. Development of this information is done with these conditions: 746.7 mm (29.4 in.) of mercury

barometric pressure, 29°C (85°F) outside air temperature and 35 API rated fuel. Any change from these conditions can change the pressure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has higher temperature and lower barometric pressure than given above will cause a lower horsepower and inlet manifold pressure measurement, than given in that Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. Outside air that has a lower temperature and higher barometric pressure will cause a higher horsepower and inlet manifold pressure measurement.

A difference in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

NOTE: Be sure that the air inlet and exhaust do not have a restriction when making a check of pressure

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6V9450 Engine Pressure Group

Use the 6V9450 Engine Pressure Group to check the pressure in the inlet manifold.

This tool group has a gauge to read pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8524 is with the tool group and gives information on the use of the group.

Location For Pressure Test

(A) Remove plug and install a tee for testing.

Location For Pressure Test

(A) Remove plug and install a tee for testing.

Checking Aftercooler Operation

Use the 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group to check the operation of the aftercooler.

Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8446 gives the procedures for using the 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

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8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group

Air To Air Aftercooler System

Visual Inspection

Inspect all air lines, hoses and gasket connections at each oil change. Make sure the constant torque hose clamps are tight. Check welded joints for cracks and make sure all brackets are tightened in position and are in good condition. Use compressed air to clean cooler core blockage caused by debris or dust. Inspect the cooler core fins for damage or debris.

Pressure air can cause personal injury.

When using pressure air for cleaning, wear a protective face shield, protective clothing and protective shoes.

NOTE: When air to air aftercooler system parts are repaired and/or replaced, a leak test is

recommended.

Air System Restriction

Pressure measurements should be taken at the turbocharger outlet and inlet manifold. When the total pressure drop of the charged air system at maximum air flow exceeds 13.5 kPa (4 in. Hg), the air lines and cooler core must be inspected for internal restriction and cleaned, repaired or replaced as necessary.

Figure

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