Didactic proposal based on the use of songs to improve the level of vocabulary among elementary students of the “Language Centre” of the National University Of Cajamarca 2017

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(1)UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS HISTÓRICO SOCIALES Y EDUCACIÓN Unidad de Postgrado de Ciencias Histórico Sociales y Educación PROGRAMA DE MAESTRIA EN CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION. “Didactic Proposal Based on the use of songs to improve the level of vocabulary among elementary students of the “Language Centre” of the National University of Cajamarca-2017” Tesis presentada para optar el Grado Académico de Maestra en Ciencias de la Educación con mención en Didáctica del idioma inglés.. Presentado por: Mujica Medina ,Gloria Paola Asesora. : M.Sc. Cabezas Martínez ,Milagros. LAMBAYEQUE– PERÚ 2019.

(2) “Didactic Proposal Based on the use of songs to improve the level of vocabulary among elementary students of the “Language Centre” of the National University of Cajamarca2017” PRESENTED BY:. _______________________________________ Gloria Paola, Mujica Medina. _______________________________________ M.Sc. Milagros, Cabezas Martínez. Author. Advisory. APPROVED BY:. _____________________________________ Dra. DORIS NANCY DÍAZ VALLEJOS CHAIRMAN. _____________________________________________ M.Sc. MARÍA DEL PILAR FERNÁNDEZ CELIS SECRETARY. _____________________________ M.Sc. ELMER LLANOS DÍAZ SPOKESPERSON. LAMBAYEQUE – PERU 2019.

(3) DEDICATION. I want to thank God because he gave me the gift of perseverance to reach my goal and guide me on the right path, give me the strength to keep going and not give out in the attempt. To the Pedro Ruiz Gallo University that opened its doors to me to be a better person and a good professional. To the professors who with their dedication and support became my example to follow. For my little angel who from heaven watches over my steps and gives me every day the strength to keep going. For my parents for their support, advice, understanding, love and help in difficult times. They have given me everything I am as a person, my values, my principles, my character, my commitment, my perseverance, my courage to continue with my goals.. GLORIA PAOLA MUJICA MEDINA. i.

(4) ACKNOWLEDGMENT. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor M.Sc. Milagros Cabezas Martinez for the continuous support of my thesis study and research, for her patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. Her guidance helped me all the time of research and writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my thesis study. I also wish to express my gratitude to the Institution “Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”, the director and other staff members of the institution who helped me during the period of my project work. To all friends and others who in one way or another shared their support, either morally, thanks you. Last but not the least; I would like to thank my parents, for giving the life to me at the first place and supporting me spiritually throughout my life.. ii.

(5) INDEX. DEDICATION ........................................................................................................................ i ACKNOWLEDGMENT........................................................................................................ ii INDEX .................................................................................................................................. iii LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................... vii LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................ viii ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................... x RESUMEN ........................................................................................................................... xi INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... xii CHAPTER I ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMATIC EDUCATIONL REALITY OF “THE LANGUAGE CENTRE OF THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF CAJAMARCA” 1.1. LOCATION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE LANGUAGE CENTRE OF THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF CAJAMARCA ............................................ 2 1.2. HOW THE PROBLEM ARISES ................................................................................... 4 a. International Context ................................................................................................ 5 b. Latin American Context............................................................................................ 8 c. Peruvian Context..................................................................................................... 10 d. Local Context .......................................................................................................... 13 1.3. HOW THE PROBLEM STATES AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS .......................... 13 1.4. METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................... 15 1.4.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN ....................................................................... 15 1.4.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLING ..................................................................... 16 iii.

(6) 1.4.3 TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION .............. 16 1.4.4 PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AND DATA ANALYSIS ................................ 17. CHAPTER II CONCEPTUAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ............................................................................ 19 a. “The Effects of Music on Foreign Language Retention in Elementary School” .... 19 b. “Using Songs to Enhance Language Learning and Skills in the Cypriot Primary EFL Classroom” ..................................................................................................... 20 c. “Teaching English as a Second Language through Rap Music: A Curriculum for Secondary School Students” ............................................................................. 21 2.2. THE THEORETICAL BASIS ...................................................................................... 22 2.2.1 Approaches, theories and studies that support the use of songs in vocabulary teaching ............................................................................................................... 22 a. Suggestopedia – a wonder approach to learning foreign languages ............. 22 b. Lexical approach ........................................................................................... 25 c. Communicative approach .............................................................................. 26 2.2.2 Music ................................................................................................................... 29 a. Definitions of Music & Songs ....................................................................... 29 b. Music and Its Beginning................................................................................ 29 c. Definitions of Music...................................................................................... 30 d. Influence of Music......................................................................................... 31 e. Music and Language ..................................................................................... 32 f. Music and the brain: left and right hemispheres ........................................... 35 iv.

(7) g. Music as a Memory Aid ................................................................................ 36 h. Music and Learning ....................................................................................... 37 i. Music and Motivation ................................................................................... 38 2.2.3 Songs ................................................................................................................... 39 a. What makes a song a song? ........................................................................... 39 b. Nature of Song............................................................................................... 40 c. Aspect of Song .............................................................................................. 41 d. The Importance and Role of Song in Language Teaching ............................ 42 e. Song as Practical Material ............................................................................. 42 f. What can we do with a song in language teaching? ...................................... 43 g. Why teach foreign languages with songs? .................................................... 46 h. Advantages and disadvantages of teaching of foreign languages through songs ............................................................................................................. 48 i. Criteria to select song to the English teaching .............................................. 50 j. Types of Songs .............................................................................................. 50 2.2.4 Vocabulary .......................................................................................................... 54 2.2.4.1 What is vocabulary and what needs to be taught? ................................ 54 a. What is vocabulary? ....................................................................... 54 b. What needs to be taught? ............................................................... 54 2.2.4.2 Learning vocabulary – aids to learning ................................................. 55 a. Learning words with associated meanings together....................... 55 b. Figure and diagrams ....................................................................... 56 c. Collocation ..................................................................................... 57. v.

(8) 2.2.4.3 Organizing a vocabulary notebook ....................................................... 57 a. Organizing words by meaning ....................................................... 57 b. Using various types of diagrams .................................................... 57 c. Organising by words – class .......................................................... 58 2.2.4.4 Aspects of meaning (1): denotation, connotation, appropriateness ...... 58 2.2.4.5 Aspects of meaning (2): meaning relationships .................................... 59 2.2.4.6 Word formation ..................................................................................... 60 2.2.4.7 Presenting New Vocabulary .................................................................. 62 a. Stage 1: Ideas for presenting specific items ................................... 62 b. Stage 2: Studying further techniques ............................................. 62 c. Stage 3: Application and Comparison............................................ 62 d. Stage 4: Discussion ........................................................................ 62 2.2.4.8 Remembering Vocabulary .................................................................... 63 2.2.4.9 Ideas for vocabulary work in the classroom ......................................... 63 a. Sharing ideas .................................................................................. 63 b. Ideas for vocabulary activities ....................................................... 64 2.2.4.10 Testing Vocabulary ............................................................................... 64 2.3. GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................. 69 2.4. THEORETICAL MODEL OF THE DIDACTIC PROPORSAL ................................ 71. CHAPTER III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH 3.1 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS ............................................. 73. vi.

(9) 3.1.1. Analysis of the pre-test (vocabulary diagnostic test)……………………….…..73 3.1.2. Analysis of the post-test………………………………………………….……..86 3.1.3. Comparative analysis of the pre-test and post-test results………………….…..98 3.2 PROPOSAL PRESENTATION ................................................................................. 102 3.2.1. Theoretical model …………………………………..…………………..…….104 3.2.2. Description of the didactic proposal ................................................................ ..105 I.. Duration ................................................................................................... 105. II.. Description ............................................................................................... 105. III.. Foundation ............................................................................................... 105. IV.. Objectives of the proposal ....................................................................... 106. V.. Structure of the didactic proposal ............................................................ 107. VI.. Organization of the learning sessions ...................................................... 110. VII. Methodological strategies ........................................................................ 115 VIII. Material, techniques and instrumentation of data collection .................. 116 IX.. Evaluation ................................................................................................ 117. X.. Budget of the proposal ............................................................................. 117. CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................ 118 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................... 120 BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES................................................................................... 121 APPENDIXES ................................................................................................................... 125 Appendix 1: Database ................................................................................................... 126 Appendix 2: Pre-test and Post-test ................................................................................ 127 Appendix 3: Booklet of song worksheets ..................................................................... 139. vii.

(10) LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Students at the elemental level with an average age of 20 years of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca institute................................................................................... 16 Table 2 Sample of thirteen students in the elementary level of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca ............................................................................................................... 16 Table 3 Vocabulary dimensions ................................................................................................................. 74 Table 4 Pre-test results table ...................................................................................................................... 75 Table 5 Values table ................................................................................................................................... 76 Table 6 Average score of each item ........................................................................................................... 77 Table 7 .......................................................................................................................................... 86 Table 8 Post-test results table..................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9 Values table ................................................................................................................................... 88 Table 10 Average score of each item ........................................................................................................... 89 Table 11. viii.

(11) Comparative analysis of the pre-test and the post-test results ...................................................... 98 Table12 Average comparison test ............................................................................................................... 99 Table 13 Proposal structure........................................................................................................................ 110 Table 14 Materials, techniques and instrumentation of data collection. .................................................... 116 Table 15 Budget of the proposal. ............................................................................................................... 117. ix.

(12) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Map of the Department of Cajamarca - location of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca institute in the District of Cajamarca. ..................................................... 3 Figure 2. Map of the results of the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index ...................................... 10 Figure 3. Index of the English level for Schools (EF EPI) ........................................................... 10 Figure 4. Example of network ..................................................................................................... 55 Figure 5. Example figures and diagrams ...................................................................................... 56 Figure 6. Example figures and diagrams ...................................................................................... 56 Figure 7. Example figures and diagrams ...................................................................................... 56 Figure 8. Example the Matrices .................................................................................................... 57 Figure 9. Example tree-diagram ................................................................................................... 58 Figure 10. Example Brainstorming round an idea ........................................................................ 64 Figure 11. Example Vocabulary- Testing Techniques ................................................................. 68 Figure 12. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification through the context ............. 78 Figure 13. Vocabulary level of the dimension Synonyms ............................................................ 79 Figure 14. Vocabulary level of the dimension Category of words ............................................... 80 Figure 15. Vocabulary level of the dimension Collocation .......................................................... 81 Figure 16. Vocabulary level of the dimension Functions ............................................................. 82 Figure 17. Vocabulary level of the dimension Auditory identification of words ......................... 83 Figure 18. Vocabulary level of the dimension Parts of speech..................................................... 84 Figure 19. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification and spelling ......................... 85 Figure 20. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification through the context ............. 90 Figure 21. Vocabulary level of the dimension Synonyms ........................................................... 91. x.

(13) Figure 22. Vocabulary level of the dimension Category of words ............................................... 92 Figure 23. Vocabulary level of the dimension Collocation ......................................................... 93 Figure 24. Vocabulary level of the dimension Functions ............................................................ 94 Figure 25. Vocabulary level of the dimension Auditory identification of words ........................ 95 Figure 26. Vocabulary level of the dimension Parts of speech .................................................... 96 Figure 27. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification and spelling ......................... 97 Figure 28. Comparative analysis of the pre-test and the post-test results of the control group . 101. xi.

(14) ABSTRACT The research denominated “A didactic proposal based on the use of songs to improve the level of vocabulary among elementary students of "the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca” was an answer to the problem of the lack of vocabulary management of the students, due to this is the based to develop the competences according to their profile. This research work mentioned before had as objective to determine the influence of the learning strategy based on songs in the level of vocabulary of the elementary students of "The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca". This Pre-experimental design research, due to its level of depth, is of an applicative nature. The sample was 13 students and it was worked with a single group. A pre-test was applied using as an instrument an Evaluative Test based on Pre, While and Post listening steps and the evaluated dimensions were Word identification through the context, Synonyms, Category of words, Collocation, Functions, Auditory identification of words, Parts of speech and Word identification and spelling; the level of vocabulary was determined where 64% was found in the Starting level and 4% of the students reached the outstanding level. The Post Test was applied using the same evaluative test, determining that 65% achieved the level of outstanding vocabulary and 3% achieved the starting level. Therefore, it was concluded that the application of the strategies of the use of songs improve the level of vocabulary of the elementary students of “The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca ".. Key Words: pronunciation, songs, stress, worksheets, booklet. xii.

(15) RESUMEN La investigación denominada “Propuesta didáctica basada en el uso de canciones para mejorar el nivel de vocabulario entre los estudiantes del nivel elemental del Centro de idiomas de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca” fue una respuesta al problema de falta de manejo de vocabulario de los estudiantes, debido a que ésta es la base para desarrollar las competencias de acuerdo a su perfil. Este trabajo de investigación antes mencionada, tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de la estrategia de aprendizaje basada en canciones en el nivel de vocabulario de los alumnos del nivel elemental del Centro de Idiomas de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca. La investigación de diseño pre experimental, por su nivel de profundidad es de corte aplicativa. La muestra fueron 13 estudiantes y se trabajó con un solo grupo. Se aplicó un Pre test utilizando como instrumento una Prueba Evaluativa basada en tres pasos Pre, While y Post y las dimensiones evaluadas fueron synonyms, parts of speech, collocation, functions, Word identification and spelling; se determinó el nivel de vocabulario donde el 64 % se encontró en el nivel inicio y el 4% de los estudiantes alcanzaron el nivel excelente. Se aplicó el Post Test utilizándose la misma prueba evaluativa determinándose que el 65 % lograron el nivel de vocabulario excelente y el 3% alcanzaron el nivel inicio. Por lo tanto, se concluyó que la aplicación de las estrategias del uso de canciones mejora el nivel de vocabulario de los alumnos del nivel elemental del Centro de Idiomas de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca.. Palabras claves: pronunciación, fonética, stress, hoja de trabajo, cuadernillo.. xiii.

(16) INTRODUCTION One of the challenges that a teacher has to face in a daily class routine is how to make students improve their vocabulary, how to keep the attention and how to encourage them for their motivation. In this learning acquisition process of a foreign language exist a wide deficiency in the learning of a second language because there are not the right strategies to teach the lexical structures, therefore the students cannot acquire the language easily and in a natural manner, producing in them insecurity to communicate and express their ideas. The processes of second language learning has changed considerably in the last 30 years, so the English language teaching tradition has been subject to tremendous change, especially throughout the twentieth century, due to more than any other approach has been applied, in various adaptations, in language classrooms given us a slightly different perspective and expands our understanding. Through this investigation, I will propose some strategies, which could be used by different teachers improving the acquisition of vocabulary in their students in a natural way without pressure in a suitable environment. Vocabulary is the core or heart of English language because without sufficient vocabulary students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Consequently, in my present teaching of English vocabulary, enough attention and great importance should give to the acquisition and instruction of basic vocabularies. Teaching vocabulary is not just about words; it involves lexical phrases, knowledge of English vocabulary, how to go about learning and teaching it.. xiv.

(17) Furthermore, know a word involve three aspects form, meaning and use so the students will improve their pronunciation, spelling, meaning and grammatical functions. If students improve and recognize the importance of vocabulary in their language learning, these help them understand and communicate with others in English. This means that if they can speak English, they will find a greater number of possible careers to choose from after they finish university. On the other hand, if the students improve their level of vocabulary, they will be able to express, think and feel, talk, exchange views, contract between person and person though wherever they live. When the students acquired a language, they are not conscious about it. They are aware that they are using the language for communication, but they are not conscious about the rules of the language they have acquired. In the acquisition of a language, first students acquire words in a natural process and then they are acquired the grammatical structures To make this learning meaningful I have thought to teach vocabulary through songs due to the purpose of using music in the classrooms is to create a learning environment by increasing vocabulary; building listening comprehension, enhancing speaking, reading, and writing skills and expanding cultural knowledge. Maess (2001) pointed out that musical and language processing appear in the same area of the brain, which is parallel in how musical and linguistic syntax are processed at the same time we can give our students the opportunity to learn vocabulary using appropriate learning strategies that will help them to acquire it in a spontaneous way.. xv.

(18) The researcher chose the topic of using of songs to improve vocabulary because she strongly believes that to get a wide variety of useful vocabulary items can be acquired through popular songs. Using students' favourite songs to teach vocabulary creates endless opportunities for revision which is fundamental for storing the information in long term memory (Murphey, 1992). Music helps learners to overcome the problem of retaining vocabularies since it has the quality of sticking in one's head. It is believed that teaching different aspects of a language utilizing songs might facilitate the process of language learning in the classroom. When The researcher applied song worksheets in the lesson plans in order to improve the students’ lexical structures, she realized it really worked with them and the results were tremendous. The researcher always wanted to have this kind of opportunity to show how great they work in communicative classes. Therefore, for getting their diploma, they would like to prove that using songs would be very beneficial for students to improve their lexical structures. From her personal experience in the major, the researcher believes that the main cause of the lack of vocabulary among learners is due to they had not acquired the enough strategies and techniques to have a wide vocabulary so they have limitations in how to express their ideas in oral way through real situations which can be very motivating for them instead of learning just grammar itself. Therefore, the researcher proposes the use of songs for promoting and developing students’ lexical structures. This approach is believed that through songs and music students can fix the words in their minds successfully giving them the opportunity to use the language correctly in different situations. Therefore, the research aims intend to prove that using didactic strategies based on songs improves the level of vocabulary.. xvi.

(19) The present work is focused on achieving the following general objective: Determine the effectiveness of the use of songs to improve the level of vocabulary of the elementary students of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca. It also achieves the next specific objectives: -. Elaborate the appropriate tools to identify the level of vocabulary of the elementary students of “the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”.. -. Apply the strategy based on the use of songs and theoretical basis of Suggestopedia, the Lexical approach and the Communicative approach to improve the level of vocabulary of the elementary students of “the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”.. -. Analise if the proposal based on the use of songs develop and improve the lexical acquisition of the students. Furthermore, this work pretends to demonstrate the following hypothesis: If we apply the. learning strategies based on songs then the students of elementary level will improve their vocabulary level at the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca. The aim of this research project is to give students the opportunity to learn vocabulary using appropriate learning strategies that will help them to acquire it in a spontaneous way. “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (Wilkins D. , 1972), This reflects that vocabulary and grammar learning is a crucial element of foreign language acquisition because if someone says something using the right words but the wrong tense, we are more likely to understand the message than if they use the wrong words. Ultimately though it is very difficult to separate grammar and vocabulary, we need both to communicate effectively.. xvii.

(20) As mentioned above vocabulary and grammar must not be taught in isolation, due to grammar is the backbone of a language and it is a need for active act of communication over the structural system. On other hand although it is possible to convey quite complex messages through lexis alone, it is evident that the grammatical ability is vital. Furthermore, the acquisition of a foreign language is centered mainly on the full control over the structural rules of it and the expansion of the vocabulary that will happen through the practice of a second language. Vocabulary is the core or heart of English language because without sufficient vocabulary students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Consequently, in my present teaching of English vocabulary, enough attention and great importance should be given to the acquisition and instruction of basic vocabularies. And we should put vocabulary teaching in a prominent place, because basic lexicon is the basis for teaching other vocabulary categories, for instance the child needs to realize that common words like apple and dog can be replaced by superordinate terms like fruit and animal. In addition, that animal can accommodate other lower order words such as cats, horse and elephant. This involves a process of building words that will help to develop a great fluency and expression in English. Teaching vocabulary is not just about words; it involves lexical phrases, knowledge of English vocabulary, how to go about learning and teaching it. Furthermore, know a word involves three aspects: form, meaning and use so the students will improve their pronunciation, spelling, meaning and grammatical functions. If Students improve and recognize the importance of vocabulary in their language learning, these help them understand and communicate with others in English. This means that if they can speak English, they will find a greater number of possible careers to choose from after they finish. xviii.

(21) university.. English is also the language of science. If they improve their learning in English, they will not just have access to a greater proportion of the vast amount of knowledge available on the web; they will be able to educate themselves still further by being able to read scientific books and papers.. On the other hand, if the students improve their level of vocabulary, they will able to express, think and feel, talk, exchange views, contract between person and person though wherever they live. Through this investigation, the researcher will propose some strategies, which will be used by different teachers improving the acquisition of vocabulary in their students in a natural way without pressure in a suitable environment. The present research is divided into three chapters: On chapter 1, Analysis of the object of study, the author writes down the problematic aspect of the object of study, the location where the research was carried out, how the problem arises out, its characteristics and a description of the methodology that was used to carry out this research. On chapter 2, The theoretical framework of this work, is based on relevant sources of background literature like approaches, theories and studies that support the use of songs in order to improve the vocabulary among elementary students of “The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”. Furthermore, the author provides information about how the songs help students to get vocabulary without stress and anxiety.. xix.

(22) On chapter 3, Results and discussion, it is the practical part of the research and it is based on the findings of a pre-test and a post-test that the writer applied to the students during this research. It also includes the Theoretical Proposal to solve the problem boarded. Finally, the writer presents the conclusions and the recommendations after applying and finishing the research.. xx.

(23) CHAPTER I. 1.

(24) Analysis of the problematic educational reality of the “Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”. In this chapter, the researcher presents an international, national and local view of the problematic educational reality, to arrive at “the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”, focusing on the lack of vocabulary of the elementary level students. To end up with the methodology that was used in this research. 1.1 Location and historical background of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca Nowadays we live in a globalized society, which is characterized by the scientific and technologic changes; where learn English is a need to become a leader and can increase the standard of living in a modern society taking into account the new changes and advances of this society called globalization. These changes involved many aspects such as economic, social, educational, etc.. Peru is a South American country that is located on the Central Pacific Coast. It is a large country and measures 512,000 square miles and has a cost line of about 1,500 miles. Peru borders the northern countries of Ecuador and Colombia and Chile, Brazil and Bolivia in the south east. Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima called “Provincia Constitucional del Callao”. The capital of Peru is the city of Lima. Lima is also the largest city in Peru. It is the fifth largest city in Latin America. Cajamarca is one of the regions of Peru and its region has colonial architecture with surprising surroundings, it is located -7.16 latitude and -78.50 longitude and it is situated at elevation 2684 meters above sea level.. 2.

(25) In Cajamarca, there are public and private languages institutes, but it is necessary to mention the most important of them such as Davy College, Oxford, Ipcna and the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca where it is given importance in the English language teaching.. The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca is located in the northern of Peru, in the Province of Cajamarca, at 334 Dos de Mayo Street, Cajamarca-Peru. And it is led by M.Sc. Leticia Zavaleta Gonzales who is the responsible and director..  Cajamarca Province  Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca  334 Dos de Mayo Street. Figure 1. Map of the Department of Cajamarca - location of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca institute in the District of Cajamarca. Source. Own elaboration taking as reference the map of the Department of Cajamarca. The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca´s goal is to offer the students an integral and high-quality education in English Language that allow them to be successful, competitive and innovative in the labor world of today. In addition to English teaching, the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca has as goal that its students and the end of elementary level will be able to take an international exam of Cambridge University (KET-PET). Likewise, to achieve this goal it uses the TIC's and a communicative and live approach. 3.

(26) The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca is one of the institutes in Cajamarca which brings a comprehensive education based on the practice of humanistic and Christian values in the region of Cajamarca and its history. The CISC - UNC, was born as an organ of University Projection and Extension of the Faculty of Education, created with Resolution No. 027-A-85 of said Faculty and, ratified by the University Council of the National University of Cajamarca, through the Rectoral Resolution No. 19053-88-UNC dated 04/05/1998. It was founded by Lic. Miguel Rodríguez Murrugarra on September 26, 1983; among its directors are personalities such as Lic. Rosa Martínez Suárez, Lic. Luz Zavaleta Gonzales, M.Sc. Leticia Zavaleta Gonzales and Lic. Teresa del Rosario Muñoz Ramírez. The CISC began its activities in the environments of the Faculty of Education located in the University city of Cajamarca, cited at 1050 Atahualpa Avenue, initially offering their services of Foreign Language teaching which had Multimedia Lab and Library. Since its founding, the CISC has understood the value of British English as the language spoken by the world, having trained dozens of Peruvian generations, especially Cajamarquinos, who achieved national and international goals. The English teaching is offered in different schedules. There are week-day classes (Monday-Friday classes). In the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca the English classes are divided in five (5) levels and they are: Elementary, Pre-intermediate, Intermediate, Upper and Advance. Each level has seven cycles and ten hours per weekday classes. Mission: Foster learning and / or improvement of native and foreign languages, based on the teaching of English, French, Italian, German and Portuguese; promote the cultural exchange of teachers and students between Peru and other countries that allow to assimilate the global culture, as well as generate economic resources for your self-sustaining.. 4.

(27) Vision: Be recognized as the best centre for language studies at regional, national and international level, through the permanent achievement of excellence in the quality of educational and cultural services. 1.2 How the problem arises a. International Context. About seven billion people of the world population speak English as a native language. English is the third most commonly spoken language in the world today, but when it comes as a second language more people want to learn English than other languages. It indicates there are 2 billion people worldwide who are studying English or like to learn English. That is because English is recognized as the language of the internet, commerce, medical and scientific research and many other fields. Learning English opens the door for a better life. Nowadays, learning English is a need imposed by a competitive world where people must be conscious that English is clearly important to become a global leader thus increase the standard of living in a modern society. English speakers will earn more money than nonEnglish speakers and they will have more opportunities in a labour market. English is not only a part of our daily life, nor a merely academic exigency. There are several factors that make the English language essential to communication in our current time. First of all, it is the most common foreign language. This means that two people who come from different countries (for example, a Mexican and a Swede) usually use English as a common language to communicate. That’s why everyone needs to learn the language in order to get in touch on an international level. Speaking it will help you communicate with people from countries all over the world, not just English-speaking ones.. 5.

(28) The English is important and useful in our lives as a world language, not only because of the quantity of people who can speak it in the world, otherwise the use that we can give in our daily life, so It is necessary to develop in our students skills that they will need to have a better personal and professional life. The English is developed in different fields, for example: on the Internet, the majority of websites are written and created in English. Even sites in other languages often give you the option to translate the site. It is the primary language of the press: more newspapers and books are written in English than in any other language, and no matter where in the world you are, you will find some of these books and newspapers available. In fact, because it is so dominant in international communication, you will find more information regarding nearly every subject if you can speak this language. English is also essential to the field of education. In many countries, children are taught and encouraged to learn English as a second language. Even in countries where it is not an official language, such as the Netherlands or Sweden, we will find many syllabi in science and engineering are written in English. Because it is the dominant language in the sciences, most of the research and studies you find in any given scientific field will be written in it as well. At the university level, students in many countries study almost all their subjects in English in order to make the material more accessible to international students. Although many people think that it is very difficult and confusing, English is actually the easiest language of the world to learn because there are so many resources available. As soon as you decide you want to learn, there are thousands of resources on the Internet and in bookstores. We are not just talking about lessons and grammar books. You can supplement. 6.

(29) traditional learning materials with children's TV shows and books. I suggest watching as much TV as you can, in English with English subtitles, and you will pick up conversational English in no time English skills will also help you in any business venture you choose to follow. If you visit some offices, companies, governmental organizations, or even math or engineering companies, you will see the importance of English. Any big company will hire their professional staff after getting to know whether the people they are hiring are good at English or not. Companies who want to function at an international level only consider their staff well educated if they are good English speakers, writers, and readers. Everyone knows that Hollywood is in the United States, and that the biggest television and music industries in the world are based there. As we mentioned above, TV and movies are a great way to practice your English once you start learning. What's more, knowing English opens up thousands of movies, television shows, and games for your enjoyment. If you want to work in the entertainment industry one day, English is even more essential. Those who are still unaware of the importance of English should start learning it, as a time will come when everything will be understood, spoken and written in English. In a lot of ways, that time is already here. Go ahead, watch some media, and get an idea of the language. You will not be disappointed. The English language is the dominant language in topics related to the different professions and to the science. That is why the international conferences are given in English; and all over the world works and technological and scientific advances are published in English so that these should be announced more widely. Even the works that are published in other languages take the title, a summary or abstract and the key words in. 7.

(30) English; what it is more appreciated among the considered scientific publications. The tourism is another area where the English language plays an important role. A lot of tourist information, as guides of tourism, recordings of video, cartels and visual signs in airports and tourist places are written in English. Even people, who receive groups of tourists, are tourist guides, taxi or bus drivers and personnel of hotels usually try to communicate with certain skill in English; it is spreading to the personnel of restaurants, bars and cafeterias. In addition, the English is easier to learn because it does not use accents, the verbal times are simplified and the adjectives do not change neither in genre nor number. Today one speaks about a global revolution which main character is the English language that hundreds of million people desire to learn; it is the planetary language for the trade, the technology and the empowerment. For the governments of many countries, this language is the "engine of the globalization", together with the computers and the massive migration. So the English language is a fundamental tool of the actual society and even more being this one the one that takes part in all the communications of the world and the one that is demanded more among our knowledge; and in almost all the labor fields it is an important requirement to get a job and to be able to be kept in. b. Latin American Context. Many Latin American countries are united in their efforts to improve the English language levels of their overall populations. They consider the English one of the most important languages because of the learning of this language has a positive association with wealth, education, managerial employment and international industries.. 8.

(31) English skills have long been an explicit requirement in certain types of jobs such as diplomacy and translation, those skills today are an implicit advantage in nearly any job across all sectors of the economy. Learning English has never been easier than now, because today people have access to different types of material, without the need to travel abroad for that reason we must improve the quality of the English language learning as well as our mother tongue, not only in learning grammar, phonetics, etc. but also in vocabulary. Almost every country in the region has launched ambitious programs to increase or improve English language education, so expand English teaching and learning. These include Ecuador, Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Mexico, and Panama – all of which have introduced significant proficiency-boosting initiatives since 2012. It remains to be seen which strategies and approaches will be most effective, but it is notable that these countries have recognized the need to increase their level of English. A large cohort of well-trained people who speak English in the workforce is the key to Latin America's continued integration into the global marketplace. The issue has gained increasing interest in recent months between education authorities and the region's press following the recent publication of the English proficiency index (EF EPI), an annual report compiled by the global education firm Education First. The English level of some Latin American countries has risen in recent years. Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Chile have improved, but they still lack a large base of English speakers needed for a globalized workforce.. 9.

(32) The only Latin American country to appear in the list of the countries with a high domain is Argentina and Peru is 45th country in low proficiency.. Figure 2. Map of the results of the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index Source. https://www.ef.com.pe/epi/. Figure 3. Index of the English level for Schools (EF EPI) Source. https://www.ef.com.pe/epi/. c. Peruvian Context. In Peru, the majority of students have weakness in it due to most of the English teachers teach vocabulary in a traditional way generally by repetition, becoming a monotonous teaching-learning process. Furthermore, some teachers ignore some methods to teach this.. The teaching in Peru is different according to the socio-economic status. In private schools the curriculums are well designed and the teaching of it begins in kindergarten. In public school English is taught as a second subject and this course is given by teachers with not training required and it is started teaching in primary school, so as a result the students finish with a low English level.. 10.

(33) This would indicate that where schools do not provide an adequate foundation of English and the educational system is not prepared for handle new world demands. We have to take into account the importance of this language in our society. The main goal should be to improve its teaching in our students, in this way they will have better opportunities in their professional life. A few years ago, the Department of Education is promoting a plan to intensify the learning of the English in the country in order to that the students have better opportunities in the globalized world. The learning of this language is fundamental to take advantage, among other things, the internationalization of the Peruvian economy and to compete in the world of the international business effectively. The secretary of Education, Jose Antonio Chang Escobedo en December 17, 2008 declared that DCN of Basic Regular Education that was started applying from the year 2009 in all the educational institutions of Peru - is orientated to improve the teaching and learning of the English until 2021. Chang said that " It is the most spoken and important language of the world ", he also said that the English language was included into the curriculum in schools of almost the whole world. In addition, he said that the importance of the English language, as the second language, was fundamental in any centre of studies, especially at the universities. Chang said that "not to know English, in the professional environment, it is an almost equal to be a functional illiterate one. Besides the schools can teach the English as well as other foreign languages" (Medina, 2002).. 11.

(34) Teaching English is a complicated and a long process where its successful depends of the importance that this language has in our students, for this reason is necessary to improve the teaching of English taking into account the international standards and an equal develop at the four skills (listening skills, reading skills, writing skills and speaking skills). Furthermore, he noted, school hours for English lessons will change from 2 hours to 5 hours, starting with 1000 schools that are going to run with extended hours. This new methodology will be delivered through a blended approach of on-line and onsite learning, including two hours in class and three tutoring hours per week. As of 2015, English instruction will be strengthened and deployed in schools throughout the nation, so that, by 2021, high school graduates will have improved their English fluency, President Ollanta Humala announced in his Independence speech on July 28. In addition, the government official announced that the 50,000 teachers working in public schools might be hired back next year in order to ensure the continuity to their work. In this regard, he explained public school teachers’ contracts are annual, and once they expired, candidates are invited to apply for the position; however, in 2015, the same teachers may extend the contract for an additional year, after being assessed by the principal. Also, in 2015 in the DCN of Basic Regular Education show us that the English learning in Peru is focused into three competences: Oral comprehension and expression, Text comprehension and Text production, these let will that our students respond to the demands of this time pointing to the sustainable development of our country.. 12.

(35) Thus, taking into account the importance of the English Language this year it will be teaching in the Primary Level in fifth and sixth grade as pilot project, this is made with the goal to of get the level standard of the European Framework. Nowadays most Peruvian English learners studied English in secondary school (57%), while 46 per cent learned during undergraduate study and 41 per cent attended private language schools; education is also a major motivating factor for language learning: 44 percent learned English because it was mandatory in secondary school and 40 per cent learned because they needed it for university. d. Local Context. At the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca, the students among elementary level do not have a wide range of vocabulary. It causes a big problem so they cannot develop the four skills and communicate effectively each other using a second language (English). The main objective is that the students improve “vocabulary” through songs letting students acquire it in a spontaneous way without anxiety and they can communicate with others.. We have to take into account that the students do not have many moments to practice the English properly; most of them have never learnt English and many students just translate the words or sentences using their mother tongue. Besides students have lack of confidence and motivation, or shyness in front of a class at the moment of speaking. 1.3 How the problem states and its characteristics. The processes of second language learning has changed considerably in the last 30 years, so the English language teaching tradition has been subject to tremendous change, especially throughout. 13.

(36) the twentieth century, due to more than any other approach has been applied, in various adaptations, in language classrooms given us a slightly different perspective and expands our understanding. According to this, different teachers with the absolute conviction that every one of them will improve the English language learning in their students applied some of these approaches. However, during the real English teaching- learning process, these approaches have not been applied correctly, for this reason the students have problems to acquire vocabulary and the consequence is that they cannot communicate correctly in a second language. It is observed that students from “The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca” do not use the correct strategies in their acquisition process of vocabulary of English to communicate effectively. Considering that teaching of vocabulary based on choral repetition words bring the students memorize isolated words, getting a mechanical learning, that is the students learn the words mechanically making it more difficult to locate them into a context, so they cannot keep a fluently communication. Therefore they hesitate and find really hard to express themselves using the English language, probably the factors which have influenced in this problem is due to they do not find the correct words, do not organize their words or they think in Spanish in order to build their expressions as well as they confuse the Spanish and English grammatical structures. Why are these problems nowadays? May it be that students didn`t get the good strategies from their teachers? May it be that students confuse the meaning of words? 14.

(37) May it be that students do not organize the words in categories? Students have to face these problems in their daily praxis and sometimes feel frustrated because they do not know how or do not have a domain range of lexical structures to help themselves to communicate accurately in a spontaneous way. 1.4 Methodology This Research Project is Pre-experimental because (Hernández, 2014) says: “a group is given a test prior to the stimulus or experimental treatment, then administers the treatment and finally a post-stimulus test is applied” (p 141) and it is quantitative because (Hérnandez, 2014)affirms that it is sequential and probative. Each stage precedes the next and we cannot "jump" or bypass steps. The order is rigorous, although of course, we can redefine some phase. Part of an idea that goes narrowing down and, once delimited, research objectives and questions are derived, Review the literature and build a theoretical framework or perspective. From the questions hypotheses are established and variables determined; a plan is drawn up to test them (design); variables are measured in a given context; The measurements obtained are analyzed using statistical methods, and a series of conclusions are drawn regarding the hypothesis (p. 4) to prove if the didactic proposal based on songs help to improve the level of vocabulary among elementary students of “The Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca”. 1.4.1 Type of research design. The design is as follows: Key G: Group Key: G. =. 01. X. 02. G: Group 01: Pre-test 01: Pre-test X: Treatment X: Treatment 02: Post –test. 15.

(38) 1.4.2 Population and sampling. a. Population. The population was formed by students who were at the Elementary Level at the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca. The students are from the city of Cajamarca and its surroundings and some of them are from towns of Cajamarca. Their average age is 12.. Table 1 Students at the elemental level with an average age of 20 years of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca institute English Level Elementary. Female students 13. Total students 13 Enrolled Source. Registration records of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca b. Sampling. The study sample corresponds to the non-probabilistic intention samples, due to 13 students were selected from the Elementary Level of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca.. Table 2 Sample of thirteen students in the elementary level of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca English Level Female students Total students Elementary. 13. 13. Source. Own elaboration based on the registration records of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca.. 1.4.3 Techniques and instruments for data collection. The first step to follow was to carry out bibliographic information related to the use of songs to improve vocabulary. The sources used to collect this information include books, websites and articles. After that a pre-test was conducted (vocabulary diagnostic test) to verify the level of vocabulary among elementary students. It was. 16.

(39) applied on August 01, 2017 in order to collect information about their level of vocabulary. The following stage was the elaboration of 10 lesson plans which were done by the researcher based on theories Suggestopedia. - A “humanistic approaches" by Georgi Lozanov, Multiple Intelligence (MI), proposed and elaborated by Gardner and The Affective Filter Hypothesis, by Krashen and the use of songs specially for elementary students during the months of August, September, October and November.. After the ten lesson plans, a post-test was applied to find out if the level of vocabulary was a good means to meet the intended purpose of this research. It was applied on November the 14th of 2017. 1.4.4 Processing techniques and data analysis. The data was processed in computerized way using tables and graphs from the Excel program.. To analyse the information obtained, we used bar charts that allowed us to evaluate the dimensions of the vocabulary.. 17.

(40) CHAPTER II. 18.

(41) Conceptual theoretical framework 2.1 Background information. The use of songs in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) classes have been succeed and have improved the four skills of English language, causing less stress for teachers and students. In the learning process, it is quite common to incorporate songs with a set of varied activities that will help students improve the level of lexical structures. Studies affirm that the use of instrumental music and song helps in linguistic disciplines (phonetics, phonology, grammar, semantics and suprasegmental), psycholinguistic areas (reduction of anxiety, improvement of motivation) and in sociolinguistics (variety and register of the language). Thus, these will help in the language acquisition in order to talk English in different situations. a. The Effects of Music on Foreign Language Retention in Elementary School. (Collins, 2013) This article is focused on a variety of different strategies that educators have to choose from when deciding to teach a foreign language in their elementary classroom. Although this is so, there are still educators who choose to rely on the traditional method of rote memorization. Interactive play allows the students to be hands-on when learning foreign language vocabulary rather than simply memorizing it. Music is also incorporated into interactive play to see its effects on retaining the knowledge students are learning. Both of these, music and interactive play, were used in this study to prove that the combination of the two is a better teaching strategy than rote memorization.. The goal of this study was to see student score improvement in the class using the music through interactive play method over the rote method. Scores were calculated and analysed by finding the class and individual averages of each class of students. A baseline was then 19.

(42) found for each class. The study showed that adding music through interactive play to the foreign language vocabulary curriculum does, in fact, improve vocabulary retention scores. In my opinion, this research helps students motivate and build their vocabulary knowledge through music and interactive play so that they will have enough vocabulary retention to communicate with others fluently. b. Using Songs to Enhance Language Learning and Skills in the Cypriot Primary EFL Classroom. (Diakou, 2013) The goal of this paper is to show that there is a link between music and language since both are founded on generative hierarchies which start from a surface structure consisting of patterns of notes or words that make melodies or sentences leading to more effective learning outcomes by ‘incorporating both hemispheres of the brain throughout the corpus callosum.. The songs provide a break from classroom routine, supplementing in this way a textbook or even serving as the text itself, and that learning through songs develops a classroom atmosphere in which the four skills can be enhanced. It is important to emphasize the need to create a low anxiety atmosphere in the language class by using challenging classroom materials and effective pedagogical approaches to develop learner’s language skills. Teachers have used Songs, music and rhythm over the years in order to aid language acquisition since according to researchers they ‘have been defined as powerful aids to language learning, memory and recall’ (Fonseca-Mora et al. 2011:101). Since they seem to have the ability in general to affect our emotions, and given the fact that most pupils love listening to songs in their free time, it seemed logical to adopt a teaching approach, which used continuous and efficient use of music and song inside the classroom as well. 20.

(43) It also investigated whether a more productive classroom atmosphere could lead to successful learning, in particular the development of vocabulary acquisition. In general, it was an attempt to extend knowledge in relation to a general educational problem facing teachers today: How do we keep students motivated in order for them to learn effectively, build on what they have learned and extend vocabulary? More especifically, can the use of songs in general, provide material which could minimize negative emotions and reinforce learning vocabulary, capturing children’s attention by diversifying our classroom activities and supplementing the textbook with material that we feel is appropriate and interesting for our particular context? In my point of view, it is an interesting article which you can see the advantages of the use of music in classrooms. It also shows that there is a connection between language and music that allow students improve vocabulary, grammar, four skills and to have and adequate environment into class. c. Teaching English as a Second Language through Rap Music: A Curriculum for Secondary School Students. (Segal, 2014).This project provides a sample of the curriculum, Rapping English, which uses rap/hip-hop style music to teach ELLs vocabulary, grammar, discourse and prosody. The rationale for using musical instruction is based on Gardner’s (2006) multiple intelligence theory and Bloom’s (1978) learning domains. This curriculum instructs students through musical intelligence and the affective domain which are often neglected in traditional instruction. Furthermore, this project explores how musical curriculum can be used to lower the affective filter (Krashen, 1981) and provide emotionally appealing and memory stimulating instruction in line with the findings of current neuropsychology, specifically the work of R. Caine and Caine (2011), Sylwester (2006) and Wolfe (2006). 21.

(44) The curriculum uses rap/hip-hop style music to demonstrate prosody and an informal register while teaching vocabulary and discourse explicitly through song. Rapping English is relevant to youth of all cultures while the songs can be used to unconsciously take down cultural barriers of students who may feel disconnected to the American society. The project concludes with recommendations on how to use the curriculum to supplement other ESL materials. It demonstrates how ESL teachers who are not musically inclined can easily use these materials and methods. In my opinion, this document is referred to the learning of English throw music intelligence improving vocabulary, discourse and prosody providing emotionally appealing and memory stimulating in students. Moreover, teachers with a traditionally teaching could use this method to improve their teaching performance into the classroom. 2.2 The theoretical basis This section describes the terms "song", "music" and “vocabulary” in the way I will be using them in my thesis to avoid misunderstandings, I will also have a look at the beginning of these terms and the word proceeding with the possible definitions. Furthermore, I will take into account the influence of music and the use songs in the process of learning teaching a language and in the improving of lexical structures. 2.2.1 Approaches, theories and studies that support the use of songs in vocabulary teaching a. Suggestopedia - a wondter approach to learning foreign languages. Suggestopedia is the brainchild of Professon Georgi Lozanov, who was a Bulgarian physician, 22.

(45) psychiatrist, psychotherapist, brain physiologist and pedagogue. More than 50 years ago he committed to do research on the potential capabilities of the person and their accelerated and harmonic development. The basis of suggestopedia is formed by the 7 laws of suggestopedia, which enable the successful acquisition of new knowledge by stimulating all senses and the intellect of the individual. The suggested information is acquired spontaneously, joyfully and with a relaxing effect. A lot of music and classical art are incorporated in the learning process, which bring a great deal of positive experience and inspiration for learners. Suggestopedia is based on the activation and development of the potential capabilities of individuals, the so-called hidden reserves of the mind, which every person possesses. The uncovering of these reserves leads to immensely faster and more effective learning (from 3 to 5 times faster compared with traditional methods), as well as the retaining of the acquired knowledge. This serves to answer the questions about the essence of suggestopedia and why it leads to such high results for short periods of time. There are 7 laws, developed and experimented with by Prof. Lozanov, which are applied in suggestopedic methodology in order to reach the reserves. Various means of joyful and wholesome communication are used in order to activate the hidden reserves. At the heart of the methodology are the active and passive concert sessions, during which the lessons are read out in a specific way with classical music in the background. Suggestopedic methodology incorporates various role plays and. 23.

(46) interactive techniques, popular songs and classical painting reproductions. (vihrovenia, 2019) The students notice that their vocabulary has improved as a whole, it means that the students are able to learn and produce the right spelling, pronunciation and meaning of the words, discriminating them into a context and, so they accept the statement of the authority. The result is a huge increase in memorization power. Lozanov (1978) says “that the learners need a relaxed but focused state as the optimum state for learning. In order to create this relaxed state (or “relaxed alertness” as Andrea Rohmert calls it) in the learner and to promote positive suggestion, suggestopedia makes use of soothing, rhythmic music, a comfortable and relaxing environment, and a relationship between the teacher and the student similar to the parent-child relationship. The students’ feelings have an important place”. The original form of suggestopedia presented by Lozanov made use of extended dialogues about people from the students' country visiting a country that uses the target language, often several pages in length, accompanied by vocabulary lists and observations on grammatical points. Typically, these dialogues would be read aloud to the students and were accompanied by music. Both the conscious and the para-conscious perceptions are engaged during suggestopedic lessons by specifically selected emotional stimuli. Learners’ imagination is unleashed, which leads to both hemispheres of the brain working in harmony, an exceptionally important factor in the activation of long-term memory.. 24.

(47) Suggestopedia is a natural way of teaching and learning. It is a type of communication, free, inducing love and supreme delight to the senses, which is in fact the secret to reaching the hidden reserves. It is this that makes suggestopedia ‘a generally superior method’ according to UNESCO’s evaluation. As early as 1978 an international commission of experts arrived in Bulgaria in search for the following answers: What is suggestopedia and why does it need to be applied in various fields of learning? (vihrovenia, 2019) b. The Lexical Approach. The lexical approach elaborated by Michael Lewis in the 90s identifies lexis as the basis of language and focuses on the principle that language consists of grammaticalized lexis. in second language acquisition, over the past few years, this approach has generated great interest as an alternative to traditional grammar-based teaching methods. From a psycholinguistic point of view, the lexical approach consists of the capacity of understanding and producing lexical phrases as non-analyzed entities (chunks).. If the teachers want to hone their class’ instincts of finding lexical “chunks” in the target language, they will need to give them a lot to read and listen to. With repeated auditory exposure, their ears will become familiar with the rhythm, rhyme and the right pronunciation of the target language. Through a lot of reading, the naturally manage and acquisition of a wide range of vocabulary will occur because of the authentic material brought. The students will be able to get and recognized the different elements in a sentence such as verbs, adjectives and so on.. 25.

(48) Collocation forms a central feature of a lexical view of language and noticing collocations is a central pedagogical activity. Collocations need to be recorded as individual word-like objects, perhaps with their L l equivalents, while there are also helpful patterns such as groups of adjectives or verbs which precede a given noun, contextual opposites or synonymous collocation pair which includes two collocations which are similar in meaning that can be recorded in helpful formats.. These tips will help teachers work the lexical approach into their language classroom. With this approach, the students will acquire the target language faster, and they will sound more fluent, too.. c. The Communicative Approach. The Communicative Approach – or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) – is a teaching approach that highlights the importance of real communication for learning to take place. In the Communicative Approach, real communication and interaction is not only the objective in learning, but also the means through which it takes place. This approach started in the 70s and it was supported by the English professor Christopher Brumfit and became prominent as it proposed an alternative to the then present systems-oriented approaches, such as the Audiolingual method. That means that, instead of focusing on the acquisition of grammar and vocabulary (grammatical/linguistic competence), the Communicative Approach aimed at developing the learner’s competence to communicate in the target language (communicative competence), with an enhanced focus on real-life situations.. 26.

(49) According to Jack C. Richards, a learner can develop communicative competence by:This change has had a huge impact on classroom materials, course books, teaching techniques and the teacher’s role in the classroom, and still influences English language teaching and learning up to this day. Communicating meaning is the main goal in CLT, and language is seen as a tool for learners to reach this aim. For this reason, the syllabus of courses that adopt a Communicative Approach to teaching favour lesson aims that will help students practice and develop their linguistic competence, rather than their grammatical competence. In order to achieve this, different types of syllabi were created, amongst them, the functional-notional syllabus, that enables learners to focus on the meaning (function) of language and practice it in a realistic setting: Besides that, the syllabus might also include work on the four skills, Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking), as their development is vital for students to perform real-life goals. The skills are many times worked with simultaneously in what is known as integrated-skills approach. For instance, in a listening lesson, students can be asked to watch a video online and post their opinion about it in the comment section. Instead of just asking learners to leave their comment, the teacher might work on the appropriate language, vocabulary and register for this text explicitly, integrating the writing skill in a listening lesson. This is desirable when adopting the Communicative Approach because it seems more realistic: in genuine communication, skills are seldom employed in isolation, and an integrated-skills approach simulates what happens in real life. The source of the texts in skills lessons is also important. In the Communicative Approach, authentic texts are. 27.

Figure

Figure 1. Map of the Department of Cajamarca - location of the Language Centre of the  National University of Cajamarca institute in the District of Cajamarca

Figure 1.

Map of the Department of Cajamarca - location of the Language Centre of the National University of Cajamarca institute in the District of Cajamarca p.25
Figure 2. Map of the results of the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index

Figure 2.

Map of the results of the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index p.32
Figure 3. Index of the English level for Schools (EF EPI)

Figure 3.

Index of the English level for Schools (EF EPI) p.32
Figure 4.  Example of network

Figure 4.

Example of network p.77
Figure 6. Example figures and diagrams

Figure 6.

Example figures and diagrams p.78
Figure 5. Example figures and diagrams

Figure 5.

Example figures and diagrams p.78
Figure 8. Example the Matrices

Figure 8.

Example the Matrices p.79
Figure 10. Example Brainstorming round an idea

Figure 10.

Example Brainstorming round an idea p.86
Table 4                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Pre-test results table

Table 4

Pre-test results table p.97
Table 5                                                                                                                                                      Values table

Table 5

Values table p.98
Figure 12. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification through the context

Figure 12.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification through the context p.100
Figure 14. Vocabulary level of the dimension Category of words

Figure 14.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Category of words p.102
Figure 15. Vocabulary level of the dimension Collocation

Figure 15.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Collocation p.103
Figure 17. Vocabulary level of the dimension Auditory identification of words

Figure 17.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Auditory identification of words p.105
Figure 18. Vocabulary level of the dimension Parts of speech

Figure 18.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Parts of speech p.106
Figure 19. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification and spelling

Figure 19.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification and spelling p.107
Table 8                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Post-test results table

Table 8

Post-test results table p.109
Figure 20. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification through the context

Figure 20.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification through the context p.112
Figure 21.  Vocabulary level of the dimension Synonyms

Figure 21.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Synonyms p.113
Figure 22. Vocabulary level of the dimension Category of words

Figure 22.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Category of words p.114
Figure 23.  Vocabulary level of the dimension Collocation

Figure 23.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Collocation p.115
Figure 25.  Vocabulary level of the dimension Auditory identification of words

Figure 25.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Auditory identification of words p.117
Figure 26.  Vocabulary level of the dimension Parts of speech

Figure 26.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Parts of speech p.118
Figure 27. Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification and spelling

Figure 27.

Vocabulary level of the dimension Word identification and spelling p.119
Table 11                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Comparative analysis of the pre-te

Table 11

Comparative analysis of the pre-te p.120
Table 13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Proposal structure  LE

Table 13

Proposal structure LE p.132

Referencias

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