TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

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(1)Australian Journal of Linguistics, –. Eighteenth Century Female Authors: Women and Science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing ISABEL M OSKOWICH Universidade da Coruña Accepted 5 October 2013. This paper explores the use of linguistic features characteristic of impersonal or personal style in scientific writing by female authors in the eighteenth century. Variables such as discipline, subject-matter and genre are used to assess the ways in which abstract thought and argumentation are expressed by women, given that, even when these works were accepted by the scientific establishment, such modes of expression were more typical of men and men’s writing in the context of the Modern Age. Data from different genres and disciplines (History, Philosophy, Astronomy and Life Sciences) will be used in order to obtain more reliable findings. Keywords: Corpus-Linguistics; Scientific Register; Late Modern English; Involvement 1. Introduction. ‘ ’.

(2) The Coruña Corpus: A Collection of Samples for the Historical Study of English Scientific Writing CC CC CC – CC. 2. Being a ‘Woman Scientist’ in the 1700s. ’.

(3) ’. Coruña Corpus. 3. Abstraction in Multidimensional Analysis. ‘ ’ et al.

(4) ‘. ’. by. ’ ’. ‘. ’.

(5) CC. Table 1. Corpus of English Philosophy Texts CEPhiT Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts CELiST Corpus of English Texts on Astronomy CETA Corpus of History English Texts CHET. ‘. ’. ’. ‘. 4. Corpus Material Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing CC. 250000 200000 CEPhiT. 150000. CELiST CETA. 100000. CHET. 50000 0 Total no. of words. Figure 1. Male writing. Female writing.

(6) Table 2. Some reflections upon marriage. CEPhiT. Treatise of the immutability of moral truth. CEPhiT. Vindication of the Rights of Woman. CEPhiT. A Curious Herbal, containing five hundred cuts of the most useful plants which are now used in the practice of physick A compendious system of astronomy. CELisT. Voyage to Russia: describing the Laws, Manners, and Cus∫toms, of that great Empire, as govern’d, at this pre∫ent, by that excellent Prince∫s, the Czarina. Shewing the Beauty of her Palace, the Grandeur of her Courtiers, the Forms of Building at Petersburgh, and other Places: with ∫everal entertaining Adventures, that happened in the Pa∫∫age by Sea, and Land The History of Mecklenburgh, from the Fir∫t Settlement of the Vandals in that Country, to the Present Time; including a Period of about Three Thou∫and Years. CHET. CETA. CHET. ’. CC Female writing per discipline 10263. 10045 CELiST CEPhiT CHET. 20306 30194. Figure 2. CETA.

(7) Words per genre textbook 14%. essay 14%. other 14%. treatise. 58%. Figure 3. CC CEPhiT CETA CELiST. CHET. Coruña Corpus ’ CC. ‘. ’. 5. Analysis of Data ’ ‘ by Middle English Medical Texts. Helsinki Corpus Early Modern English Medical Texts.

(8) ’. by Coruña Corpus Tool CCT by however. ſ. ſ ſ. ſ. ſ –ed CCT by. by. Selected features of Dimension 5 186 Adverbial subordinators 257 By-passives. 1222 Agentless passives. 209 Conjuncts. 0. Figure 4. 500. 1000. 1500.

(9) Dimension 5 features per discipline 23% Philosophy. 29% Astronomy. 24% Life Sciences. 24% History. Figure 5. by. ’. by.

(10) Table 3 By. By.

(11) Table 4. by. ‘. ’. 5.1. Conjuncts et al alternatively, altogether, consequently, conversely, eg, e.g., else, furthermore, hence, however, i.e., instead, likewise, moreover, namely, nevertheless, Dimension 5 features per genre 24% Other. 32% Textbook. Figure 6. 28% Treatise. 16% Essay.

(12) Table 5. nonetheless, notwithstanding, otherwise, rather, similarly, therefore, thus, viz, in comparison, in contrast, in particular, in addition, in conclusion, in consequence, in sum, in summary, in any event, in any case, in other words, for example, for instance, by contrast, by comparison, as a result, as a consequence, on the contrary, on the other hand, that is. thus et al. Table 6. therefore.

(13) Conjuncts per discipline 37% Astronomy. 35% Philosophy. 4% Life 24% History. Figure 7. therefore consequently notwithstanding. ‘. Table 7. ’. CC. thus.

(14) 5.2. Passive Constructions by. 5.2.1. Agentless passives. …. … …. … ‘. ’. ‘. ’. Table 8. Agentless passives per discipline. Figure 8. 23% History. 28% Astronomy. 31% Life Sciences. 18% Philosophy.

(15) Table 9. ‘ ‘. 5.2.2.. ’. ’. -passives. By. ‘ Agentless passives per discipline 23% History. 31% Life Sciences. Figure 9. 28% Astronomy. 18% Philosophy.

(16) By-passives per discipline. 0 Astronomy. Figure 10. Philosophy. History. Life Sciences. By. ’ by. ’. by by. ‘. by ’. by. ’. by.

(17) Table 10 By. by by. 5.3. Adverbial Subordinators. though though. (al) although OED. long as. Table 11. although though. whereupon, inasmuch as, forasmuch as, insofar as, insomuch as. as.

(18) T a b l e1 2. ſ. ſ. Adve rb ia lsubo rd ina to rspe rd is icp l ine 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 as t ronomy. F i g u r e1 1. l i fe. h is to ry ph i losophy. a l though assoonas because s ince sotha t+n /a sotha t suchtha t though whe reas whe reby wh i le wh i l s t.

(19) Table 13. ’. ’. 6. Final Remarks.

(20) References ‘. – ’ Language in Society – The Culture of Sensibility: sex and society in eighteenth century. ‘ ’ Journal of Pragmatics – Variation Across Speech and Writing Dimensions of Register Variation: a cross-linguistic comparison ‘ ’. Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use – University Language: a corpus-based study of spoken and written registers corpus structure. Discourse on the move: using corpus analysis to describe. ‘ ’ To explain the present: studies in the changing English language in honour of Matti Rissanen – Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English The works of the honourable Robert Boyle in five volumes. to which is prefixed the Life of the Author ‘ ’ The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies ‘ ’ Literary and Linguistic Computing – Lingüística histórica inglesa A University Course in English Grammar ‘ ’ – The Linguistic History of English Text Types and the History of English. ’ aspects of Specialized Communication.

(21) Robert Boyle and the Language of Science Modality in Specialized Texts [Corpora-List] Help with Biber’s MD analysis ‘. ’. ’. ‘ ’ Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching – Disciplinary Discourses: social interactions in academic writing Madam Johnson’s present: or, every young woman’s companion, in useful and universal knowledge ’ Manual to the diachronic part of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts coding conventions and lists of source texts ‘ ’ The Norton Anthology of – English Literature A Biography of the English Language ‘ ’ Astronomy ‘playne and simple’: The Writing of Science between 1700 and 1900 – ‘ Coruña Corpus ’ ‘Of varying language and opposing creed’: new insights into late modern English – ‘ ’ ’ ’ – ’ Historia Mathematica – A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language De repvblica anglorvm. The maner of governement or policie of the Realme of Englande Medical Writing in Early Modern English Early modern English medical texts. Corpus description and studies Journal of Technical Writing and Communication ‘. –. ’ Anglogermanica Online. –. International Standardization of Statistics on Science and Technology.



Figure 2    10263  10045 20306  30194  CELiST CEPhiT CHET CETA

Figure 2

10263 10045 20306 30194 CELiST CEPhiT CHET CETA p.6
Table  9   ‘ ’  ‘ ’ 5.2.2.  -passives  By ‘

Table 9

‘ ’ ‘ ’ 5.2.2. -passives By ‘ p.15
Table  10  By by by  5.3. Adverbial Subordinators  (al)  though  though  although although  though  OED

Table 10

By by by 5.3. Adverbial Subordinators (al) though though although although though OED p.17