MEDICAL DEVICES AND INSTRUMENTATION

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MEDICAL DEVICES AND

INSTRUMENTATION

Second Edition

VOLUME 2

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Editor-in-Chief

John G. Webster

University of Wisconsin–Madison

Editorial Board

David Beebe

University of Wisconsin–Madison

Jerry M. Calkins

University of Arizona College of Medicine

Michael R. Neuman

Michigan Technological University

Joon B. Park

University of Iowa

Edward S. Sternick

Tufts–New England Medical Center

Editorial Staff

Vice President, STM Books:Janet Bailey

Associate Publisher:George J. Telecki

Editorial Director:Sean Pidgeon

Director, Book Production and Manufacturing:

Camille P. Carter

Production Manager:Shirley Thomas

Illustration Manager:Dean Gonzalez

Senior Production Editor:Kellsee Chu

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MEDICAL DEVICES AND

INSTRUMENTATION

Second Edition

Volume 2

Capacitive Microsensors for Biomedical Applications – Drug Infusion Systems

Edited by

John G. Webster

University of Wisconsin–Madison

TheEncyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentationis available online at http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emdi

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Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey

Published simultaneously in Canada

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Encylopedia of medical devices & instrumentation/by John G. Webster,

editor in chief. – 2nd ed. p. ; cm.

Rev. ed. of: Encyclopedia of medical devices and instrumentation. 1988. Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN-13 978-0-471-26358-6 (set : cloth) ISBN-10 0-471-26358-3 (set : cloth) ISBN-13 978-0-470-04067-6 (v. 2 : cloth) ISBN-10 0-470-04067-x (v. 2 : cloth)

1. Medical instruments and apparatus–Encyclopedias. 2. Biomedical engineering–Encyclopedias. 3. Medical physics–Encyclopedias. 4. Medicine–Data processing–Encyclopedias. I. Webster, John G.,

1932- . II. Title: Encyclopedia of medical devices and instrumentation.

[DNLM: 1. Equipment and Supplies–Encyclopedias–English. W 13

E555 2006] R856.A3E53 2006 610.2803–dc22 2005028946

Printed in the United States of America

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CONTRIBUTOR LIST

ABDEL HADY, MAZEN, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario Canada, Bladder Dysfunction, Neurostimulation of

ABEL, L.A.,University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, Ocular Motility Recording and Nystagmus

ABREU, BEATRIZ C., Transitional Learning Center at Gal-veston, GalGal-veston, Texas, Rehabilitation, Computers in Cognitive

ALEXANDER, A.L.,University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madi-son, Wisconsin, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

ALI, ABBAS,University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign, Bioinformatics

ALI, MU¨ FTU¨,School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachu-setts, Tooth and Jaw, Biomechanics of

ALPERIN, NOAM,University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Hydrocephalus, Tools for Diagnosis and Treat-ment of

ANSON, DENIS,College Misericordia, Dallas, Pennsylvania, Environmental Control

ARENA, JOHNC.,VA Medical Center and Medical College of Georgia, Biofeedback

ARIEL, GIDEON,Ariel Dynamics, Canyon, California, Biome-chanics of Exercise Fitness

ARMSTRONG, STEVE, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Biomaterials for Dentistry

ASPDEN, R.M., University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, Ligament and Tendon, Properties of

AUBIN, C.E., Polytechniquie Montreal, Montreal Quebec, Canada, Scoliosis, Biomechanics of

AYRES, VIRGINIAM.,Michigan State University, East Lan-sing, Michigan, Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling

AZANGWE, G., Ligament and Tendon, Properties of

BACK, LLOYDH.,California Institute of Technology, Pasa-dena, California, Coronary Angioplasty and Guidewire Diagnostics

BADYLAK, STEPHENF.,McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, Sterilization of Bio-logic Scaffold Materials

BANDYOPADHYAY, AMIT,Washington State University, Pull-man, Washington, Orthopedic Devices, Materials and Design for

BANERJEE, RUPAKK.,University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, Coronary Angioplasty and Guidewire Diagnostics

BARBOUR, RANDALLL.,State University of New York Down-state Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, Peripheral Vascular Noninvasive Measurements

BARKER, STEVENJ.,University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, Oxygen Monitoring

BARTH, ROLF F., The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

BECCHETTI, F.D.,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi-gan, Radiotherapy, Heavy Ion

BELFORTE, GUIDO, Politecnico di Torino – Department of Mechanics, Laryngeal Prosthetic Devices

BENKESER, PAUL,Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, Biomedical Engineering Education

BENNETT, JAMES R., University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Digital Angiography

BERSANO-BEGEY, TOMMASO, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Microbioreactors

BIGGS, PETERJ.,Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massa-chusetts, Radiotherapy, Intraoperative

BIYANI, ASHOK,University of Toledo, and Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio, Human Spine, Biomechanics of

BLOCK, W.F., University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

BLUE, THOMAS E., The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

BLUMSACK, JUDITH T., Disorders Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, Audiometry

BOGAN, RICHARDK.,University of South Carolina, Colum-bia, South Carolina, Sleep Laboratory

BOKROS, JACKC.,Medical Carbon Research Institute, Aus-tin, Texas, Biomaterials, Carbon

BONGIOANNINI, GUIDO,ENT Division Mauriziano Hospital, Torino, Italy, Laryngeal Prosthetic Devices

BORAH, JOSHUA, Applied Science Laboratories, Bedford, Massachusetts, Eye Movement, Measurement Techni-ques for

BORDEN, MARK,Director of Biomaterials Research, Irvine, California, Biomaterials, Absorbable

BORTON, BETTIEB.,Auburn University Montgomery, Mont-gomery, Alabama, Audiometry

BORTON, THOMASE.,Auburn University Montgomery, Mont-gomery, Alabama, Audiometry

BOSE SUSMITA,, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, Orthopedic Devices, Materials and Design for

BOVA, FRANK J., M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, FL, Radiosurgery, Stereotactic

BRENNER, DAVID J., Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, Computed Tomography Screening

BREWER, JOHNM.,University of Georgia, Electrophoresis BRIAN, L. DAVIS,Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland

Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, Skin, Biomechanics of

BRITT, L.D.,Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Vir-ginia, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

BRITT, R.C., Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

BROZIK, SUSANM.,Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquer-que, New Mexico, Microbial Detection Systems

BRUNER, JOSEPH P., Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Intrauterine Surgical Techniques

BRUNSWIGNEWRING, KIRK A.,University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, Sexual Instrumentatio n

BRUYANT, PHILIPPEP.,University of Massachusetts, North Worcester, Massachusetts, Nuclear Medicine, Computers in

BUNNELL, BERTJ.,Bunnell Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, High Frequency Ventilation

CALKINS, JERRY M., Defense Research Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland, Medical Gas Analyzers

CANNON, MARK,Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, Resin-Based Composites

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CAPPELLERI, JOSEPH C., Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut, Quality-of-Life Measures, Clinical Significance of

CARDOSO, JORGE,University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal, Office Automation Systems

CARELLO, MASSIMILIANA,Politecnicodi Torino – Department of Mechanics, Laryngeal Prosthetic Devices

CASKEY, THOMAS C., Cogene Biotech Ventures, Houston, Texas, Polymerase Chain Reaction

CECCIO, STEVEN,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi-gan, Heart Valve Prostheses, In Vitro Flow Dynamics of

CHAN, JACKIE K., Columbia University, New York, New York, Photography, Medical

CHANDRAN, K.B.,University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Heart Valve Prostheses

CHATZANDROULIS, S.,NTUA, Athens, Attiki, Greece, Capaci-tive Microsensors for Biomedical Applications

CHAVEZ, ELIANA,University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Penn-sylvania, Mobility Aids

CHEN, HENRY, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, Exercise Stress Testing

CHEN, JIANDE,University of Texas Medical Branch, Galves-ton, Texas, Electrogastrogram

CHEN, YAN,Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, Skin, Biomechanics of

CHEYNE, DOUGLAS, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Biomagnetism

CHUI, CHEN-SHOU, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Cen-ter, New York, New York, Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning, Monte Carlo Calculations in

CLAXTON, NATHANS.,The Florida State University, Talla-hassee, Florida, Microscopy, Confocal

CODERRE, JEFFREYA.,Massachus etts Institute of Technol-ogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

COLLINS, BETH, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, Hyperbaric Medicine

COLLINS, DIANE,University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Penn-sylvania, Mobility Aids

CONSTANTINOU, C.,Columbia University Radiation Oncol-ogy, New York, New York, Phantom Materials in Radi-ology

COOK, ALBERT, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Communication Devices

COOPER, RORY,University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Penn-sylvania, Mobility Aids

CORK, RANDALL C., Louisiana State University, Shreveport, Louisiana, Monitoring, Umbilical Artery and Vein, Blood Gas Measurements; Transcuta neous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS); Ambulatory Monitoring

COX, JOSEPHINEH.,Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland, Blood Collection and Processing

CRAIG, LEONARD,Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwes-tern University, Chicago, Illinois, Ventilators, Acute Med-ical Care

CRESS, CYNTHIA J., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, Communicative Disorders, Computer Applica-tions for

CUMMING, DAVID R.S., University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

CUNNINGHAM, JOHNR.,Camrose, Alberta, Canada, Cobalt 60 Units for Radiotherapy

D’ALESSANDRO, DAVID, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, Heart–Lung Machines

D’AMBRA, MICHAELN.,Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cardiac Output, Thermodilution Mea-surement of

DADSETAN, MAHROKH, Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, Microscopy, Electron

DALEY, MICHAELL.,The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, Monitoring, Intracranial Pressure

DAN, LOYD,Linko¨ping University, Linko¨ping, Sweden, Ther-mocouples

DAS, RUPAK,University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Brachytherapy, High Dosage Rate

DATTAWADKAR, AMRUTA M., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Ocular Fundus Reflecto-metry

DAVIDSON, MICHAELW.,The Florida State University, Tal-lahassee, Florida, Microscopy, Confocal

DELUCA, CARLO,Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, Electromyography

DE SALLES, ANTONIO A.F., UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, California, Stereotactic Surgery

DECAU, SABIN,University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Shock, Treatment of

DECHOW, PAULC.,A & M University Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas, Strain Gages

DELBEKE, JEAN,Catholique University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, Visual Prostheses

DELL’OSSO, LOUIS F., Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, Ocular Motility Recording and Nystag-mus

DELORME, ARNAUD,University of San Diego, La Jolla, Cali-fornia, Statistical Methods

DEMENKOFF, JOHN,Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, Pul-monary Physiology

DEMIR, SEMAHAT S., The University of Memphis and The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, Electrophysiology

DEMLING, ROBERTH.,Harvard Medical School, Skin Sub-stitute for Burns, Bioactive

DENNIS, MICHAEL J., Medical University of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio, Computed Tomography

DESANTI, LESLIE,Harvard Medical School, Skin Substitute for Burns, Bioactive

DEUTSCH, STEVEN, Pennsylvania State University, Univer-sity Park, Pennsylvania, Flowmeters

DEVINENI, TRISHUL,Conemaugh Health System, Biofeedback DIBELLAEDWARD, V.R.,University of Utah, Tracer Kinetics DIAKIDES, NICHOLASA.,Advanced Concepts Analysis, Inc.,

Falls Church, Virginia, Thermography

DOLAN, PATRICIA L.,Sandia National Laboratories, Albu-querque, New Mexico, Microbial Detection Systems

DONOVAN, F.M.,University of South Alabama, Cardiac Out-put, Indicator Dilution Measurement of

DOUGLAS, WILSONR.,Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Intrauterine Surgical Tech-niques

DRAPER, CRISSA,University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, Sex-ual Instrumentation

DRZEWIECKI, TADEUSZ M., Defense Research Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland, Medical Gas Analyzers

DURFEE, W.K.,University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Min-nesota, Rehabilitation and Muscle Testing

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DYSON, MARY, Herts, United Kingdom, Heat and Cold, Therapeutic

ECKERLE, JOSEPHS.,SRI International, Menlo Park, Cali-fornia, Tonometry, Arterial

EDWARDS, BENJAMIN, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Codes and Regulations: Radiation

EDWARDS, THAYNE L., University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, Chromatography

EKLUND, ANDERS,University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Hydrocephalus, Tools for Diagnosis and Treat-ment of

ELSOLH, ALIA.,Erie County Medical Center, Buffalo, New York, Sleep Studies, Computer Analysis of

ELMAYERGI, NADER, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Bladder Dysfunction, Neurostimula-tion of

ELSHARYDAH, AHMAD, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Ambulatory Monitoring; Monitoring, Umbilical Artery and Vein, Blood Gas Measurements

FADDY, STEVEN C.,St. Vincents Hospital, Sydney, Darlin-ghurst, Australia, Cardiac Output, Fick Technique for

FAHEY, FREDERICH.,Childrens Hospital Boston, Computed Tomography, Single Photon Emission

FAIN, S.B., University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

FELDMAN, JEFFREY, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Anesthesia Machines

FELLERS, THOMASJ.,The Florida State University, Talla-hassee, Florida, Microscopy, Confocal

FERRARA, LISA, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, Human Spine, Biomechanics of

FERRARI, MAURO, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, Drug Delivery Systems

FONTAINE, ARNOLDA.,Pennsylvania State University, Uni-versity Park, Pennsylvania, Flowmeters

FOUST, MILTONJ., JR,Medical University of South Carolina Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston, South Carolina, Electroconvulsive Therapy

FRASCO, PETER,Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Arizona, Temperature Monitoring

FRAZIER, JAMES,Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Ambulatory Monitoring

FREIESLEBENDEBLASIO, BIRGITTE,University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, Impedance Spectroscopy

FRESTA, MASSIMO,University of Catanzaro Magna Græcia, Germaneto (CZ), Italy, Drug Delivery Systems

FREYTES, DONALDO., McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, Sterilization of Bio-logic Scaffold Materials

FROEHLICHER, VICTOR,VA Medical Center, Palo Alto, Cali-fornia, Exercise Stress Testing

FUNG, EDWARD K., Columbia University, New York, New York, Photography, Medical

GAGE, ANDREWA.,State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, Cryosurgery

GAGLIO, PAULJ.,Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Liver Transplantation

GARDNER, REEDM.,LDS Hospital and Utah University, Salt Lake City, Utah, Monitoring, Hemodynamic

GEJERMAN, GLEN,Hackensack University Medical, Hacken-sack, New Jersey, Radiation Therapy, Quality Assurance in

GEORGE, MARK S., Medical University of South Carolina Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston, South Carolina, Electroconvulsive Therapy

GHARIEB, R.R.,Infinite Biomedical Technologies, Baltimore, Maryland, Neurological Monitors

GLASGOW, GLENN P., Loyola University of Chicago, May-wood, Illinois, Radiation Protection Instrumentation

GLASGOW, GLENN,University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madi-son, Wisconsin, Codes and Regulations: Radiation

GOEL, VIJAYK.,University of Toledo, and Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio, Human Spine, Biomechanics of

GOETSCH, STEVEN J.,San Diego Gamma Knife Center, La Jolla, California, Gamma Knife

GOLDBERG, JAYR.,Marquette University Milwaukee, Wis-consin, Minimally Invasive Surgery

GOLDBERG, ZELENNA, Department of Radiation Oncology, Davis, California, Ionizing Radiation, Biological Effects of

GOPALAKRISHNAKONE, P.,National University of Singapore, Singapore, Immunologically Sensitive Field-Effect Tran-sistors

GOPAS, JACOB, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel, Monoclonal Antibodies

GORGULHO, ALESSANDRA, UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, California, Stereotactic Surgery

GOUGH, DAVIDA.,University of California, La Jolla, Cali-fornia, Glucose Sensors

GOUSTOURIDIS, D.,NTUA, Athens, Attiki, Greece, Capacitive Microsensors for Biomedical Applications

GRABER, HARRYL.,State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, Peripheral Vascular Noninvasive Measurements

GRAC¸A, M., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

GRANT, WALTER III,Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, Radiation Therapy, Intensity Modulated

GRAYDEN, EDWARD,Mayo Health Center, Albertlea, Minne-sota, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

GREEN, JORDAN R., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, Communicative Disorders, Computer Applica-tions for

HAEMMERICH, DIETER,Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Tissue Ablation

HAMAM, HABIB,Universite´ de Moncton, Moncton New Bruns-wick, Canada, Lenses, Intraocular

HAMMOND, PAULA.,University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

HANLEY, JOSEPH,Hackensack University Medical, Hacken-sack, New Jersey, Radiation Therapy, Quality Assurance in

HARLEY, BRENDAN A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technol-ogy, Skin Tissue Engineering for Regeneration

HARPER, JASON C., Sandia National Laboratories, Albu-querque, New Mexico, Microbial Detection Systems

HASMAN, ARIE,Maastricht, The Netherlands, Medical Edu-cation, Computers in

HASSOUNA, MAGDY, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Bladder Dysfunction, Neurostimulation of

HAYASHI, KOZABURO, Okayama University of Science, Okayama, Japan, Arteries, Elastic Properties of

HENCH, LARRYL.,Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Biomaterials: Bioceramics

HETTRICK, DOUGLAS A.,Sr. Principal Scientist Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, Bioimpedance in Cardio-vascular Medicine

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HOLDER, GRAHAM E., Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom, Electroretinography

HOLMES, TIMOTHY, St. Agnes Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland, Tomotherapy

HONEYMAN-BUCK, JANICEC.,University of Florida, Gaines-ville, Florida, Radiology Information Systems

HOOPER, BRETT A., Arete´ Associates, Arlington, Virginia, Endoscopes

HORN, BRUCE,Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, California, X-Rays Production of

HORNER, PATRICIA I., Biomedical Engineering Society Landover, Maryland, Medical Engineering Societies and Organizations

HOROWITZ, PAUL M., University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, Fluorescence Measurements

HOU, XIAOLIN, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Den-mark, Neutron Activation Analysis

HOVORKA, ROMAN, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Pancreas, Artificial

HUANG, H.K.,University of Southern California, Teleradiol-ogy

HUNT, ALANJ.,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi-gan, Optical Tweezers

HUTTEN, HELMUT,University of Technology, Graz, Australia, Impedance Plethysmography

IAIZZO, P.A.,University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minne-sota, Rehabilitation and Muscle Testing

IBBOTT, GEOFFREY S., Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, Radiation Dosimetry, Three-Dimensional

INGHAM, E., University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, Hip Joints, Artificial

ISIK, CAN,Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, Blood Pressure Measurement

JAMES, SUSANP., Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, Biomaterials: Polymers

JENSEN, WINNIE, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, Electroneurography

JIN, CHUNMING,North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, Biomaterials, Corrosion and Wear of

JIN, Z.M.,University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, Hip Joints, Artificial

JOHNSON, ARTHURT.,University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, Medical Engineering Societies and Organiza-tions

JONES, JULIANR.,Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Biomaterials: Bioceramics

JOSHI, ABHIJEET, Abbott Spine, Austin, Texas, Spinal Implants

JUNG, RANU, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Functional Electrical Stimulation

JURISSON, SILVIA S., University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri, Radionuclide Production and Radioactive Decay

KAEDING, PATRICIA J., Godfrey & Kahn S.C., Madison, Wisconsin, Codes and Regulations: Medical Devices

KAMATH, CELIA C., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, Quality-of-Life Measures, Clinical Significance of

KANE, MOLLIE,Madison, Wisconsin, Contraceptive Devices KATHERINE, ANDRIOLEP.,Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems

KATSAGGELOS, AGGELOSK.,Northwestern University, Evan-ston, Illinois, DNA Sequencing

KATZ, J. LAWRENCE, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, Bone and Teeth, Properties of

KESAVAN, SUNIL, Akebono Corporation, Farmington Hills, Michigan, Linear Variable Differential Transformers

KHANG, GILSON,Chonbuk National University, Biomaterials: Tissue Engineering and Scaffolds

KHAODHIAR, LALITA,Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mas-sachusetts, Cutaneous Blood Flow, Doppler Measurement of

KIM, MOON SUK, Korea Research Institutes of Chemical Technology, Biomaterials: Tissue Engineering and Scaf-folds

KIM, YOUNG KON, Inje University, Kimhae City, Korea, Alloys, Shape Memory

KINDWALL, ERICP.,St. Luke’s Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Hyperbaric Oxygenation

KING, MICHAELA.,University of Massachusetts, North Wor-cester, Massachusetts, Nuclear Medicine, Computers in

KLEBE, ROBERTJ.,University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, Fluorescence Measurements

KLEIN, BURTON,Burton Klein Associates, Newton, Massa-chusetts, Gas and Vacuum Systems, Centrally Piped Medical

KNOPER, STEVENR.,University of Arizona College of Med-icine, Ventilatory Monitoring

KONTAXAKIS, GEORGE,Universidad Polite´cnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Positron Emission Tomography

KOTTKE-MARCHANT, KANDICE,The Cleveland Clinic Founda-tion, Cleveland, Ohio, Vascular Graft Prosthesis

KRIPFGANS, OLIVER, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ultrasonic Imaging

KULKARNI, AMOL D., University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Ocular Fundus Reflectometry, Visual Field Testing

KUMARADAS, J. CARL,Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Hyperthermia, Interstitial

KUNICKA, JOLANTA,Bayer HealthCare LLC, Tarrytown, New York, Differential Counts, Automated

KWAK, KWANJ JOO, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, Microscopy, Scanning Force

LAKES, RODERIC, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Bone and Teeth, Properties of

LAKKIREDDY, DHANUNJAYA, The Cleveland Clinic Founda-tion, Cleveland, Ohio, Hyperthermia, Ultrasonic

LARSEN, COBY,Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, Vascular Graft Prosthesis

LASTER, BRENDAH., Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel, Monoclonal Antibodies

LATTA, LOREN,University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, Rehabilitation, Orthotics in

LEDER, RONS.,Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Mexico, Distrito Federal, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

LEE, CHIN,Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, Radiotherapy Treatment Planning, Optimization of; Hyperthermia, Interstitial

LEE, HAI BANG, Korea Research Institutes of Chemical Technology, Biomaterials: Tissue Engineering and Scaffolds

LEE, SANG JIN, Korea Research Institutes of Chemical Technology, Biomaterials: Tissue Engineering and Scaffolds

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LEI, XING,Stanford University, Stanford, California, Radia-tion Dose Planning, Computer-Aided

LEWIS, MATTHEWC.,Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwau-kee, Wisconsin, Hyperbaric Oxygenation

LI, CHAODI,University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, Bone Cement, Acrylic

LI, JONATHANG.,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Radiation Dose Planning, Computer-Aided

LI, QIAO, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Immunotherapy

LI, YANBIN,University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, Piezoelectric Sensors

LIBOFF, A.R., Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, Bone Ununited Fracture and Spinal Fusion, Electrical Treatment of

LIGAS, JAMES,University of Connecticut, Farmington, Con-necticut, Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange

LIMOGE, AIME,The Rene´ Descartes University of Paris, Paris, France, Electroanalgesia, Systemic

LIN, PEI-JANPAUL,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusets, Mammography

LIN, ZHIYUE,University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, Electrogastrogram

LINEAWEAVER, WILLIAMC.,Unive rsity of Mississippi Med-ical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, Hyperbaric Medicine

LIPPING, TARMO, Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland, Monitoring in Anesthesia

LIU, XIAOHUA, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Polymeric Materials

LLOYD, J.J., Regional Medical Physics Department, New-castle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, Ultraviolet Radiation in Medicine

LOEB, ROBERT, University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, Anesthesia Machines

LOPES DEMELO, PEDRO,State University of Rio de Janeiro, Te´rreo Salas, Maracana˜, Thermistors

LOUDON, ROBERTG., Lung Sounds

LOW, DANIELA.,Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, Radiation Therapy Simulator

LU, LICHUN, Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, Microscopy, Electron

LU, ZHENG FENG, Columbia University, New York, New York, Screen-Film Systems

LYON, ANDREWW.,University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

LYON, MARTHAE.,University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

MA, C-M CHARLIE,Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, X-Ray Therapy Equipment, Low and Med-ium Energy

MACIA, NARCISO F., Arizona State University at the Poly-technic Campus, Mesa, Arizona, Pneumotachometers

MACKENZIE, COLIN F., University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Shock, Treatment of

MACKIE, THOMAS R., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Tomotherapy

MADNANI, ANJU, LSU Medical Centre, Shreveport, Louisi-ana, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

MADNANI, SANJAY,LSU Medical Centre, Shreveport, Louisi-ana, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

MADSEN, MARK T., University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Anger Camera

MAGNANO, MAURO, ENT Division Mauriziano Hospital, Torino, Italy, Drug Delivery Systems

MANDEL, RICHARD, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, Colorimetry

MANNING, KEEFE B., Pennsylvania State University, Uni-versity Park, Pennsylvania, Flowmeters

MAO, JEREMYJ.,University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Cartilage and Meniscus, Properties of

MARCOLONGO, MICHELE, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Spinal Implants

MAREK, MIROSLAV,Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, Biomaterials, Corrosion and Wear of

MARION, NICHOLAS W., University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Cartilage and Meniscus, Properties of

MASTERS, KRISTYN S., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Tissue Engineering

MAUGHAN, RICHARDL.,Hospital of the University of Penn-sylvania, Neutron Beam Therapy

MCADAMS, ERIC,University of Ulster at Jordanstown, New-townabbey, Ireland, Bioelectrodes

MCARTHUR, SALLY L., University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom, Biomaterials, Surface Properties of

MCEWEN, MALCOM,National Research Council of Canada, Ontario, Canada, Radiation Dosimetry for Oncology

MCGOWAN, EDWARD J., E.J. McGowan & Associates, Bio-feedback

MCGRATH, SUSAN,Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hamp-shire, Oxygen Analyzers

MEEKS, SANFORD L., University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Radiosurgery, Stereotactic

MELISSA, PETER,University of Central Florida NanoScience Technology Center, Orlando, Florida, Biosurface Engi-neering

MENDELSON, YITZHAK, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Optical Sensors

METZKER, MICHAELL.,Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, Polymerase Chain Reaction

MEYEREND, M.E., University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MICHLER, ROBERT,Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, Heart–Lung Machines

MICIC, MIODRAG,MP Biomedicals LLC, Irvine, California, Microscopy and Spectroscopy, Near-Field

MILLER, WILLIAM, University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri, Radionuclide Production and Radioactive Decay

MITTRA, ERIK, Stony Brook University, New York, Bone Density Measurement

MODELL, MARK, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massa-chusetts, Fiber Optics in Medicine

MORE, ROBERTB.,RBMore Associates, Austin, Texas Bio-materials Carbon

MORE, ROBERT,Austin, Texas, Heart Valves, Prosthetic MORROW, DARREN, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide,

Australia, Intraaortic Balloon Pump

MOURTADA, FIRAS,MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, Brachytherapy, Intravascular

MOY, VINCENT T., University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, Microscopy, Scanning Force

MU¨ FTU¨, SINAN,Northeastern University, Boston, Massachu-setts, Tooth and Jaw, Biomechanics of

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MURPHY, WILLIAM L., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Tissue Engineering

MURRAY, ALAN,Newcastle University Medical Physics, New-castle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, Pace makers

MUTIC, SASA,Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, Radiation Therapy Simulator

NARAYAN, ROGER J.,University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Biomaterials, Corrosion and Wear of

NATALE, ANDREA, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, Hyperthermia, Ultrasonic

NAZERAN, HOMER,The University of Texas, El Paso, Texas, Electrocardiography, Computers in

NEUMAN, MICHAELR.,Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Houghton, Michigan, Fetal Monitoring, Neo-natal Monitoring

NEUZIL, PAVEL,Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotech-nology, Singapore, Immunologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

NICKOLOFF, EDWARD L., Columbia University, New York, New York, X-Ray Quality Control Program

NIEZGODA, JEFFREY A., Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Hyperbaric Oxygenation

NISHIKAWA, ROBERT M., The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Computer-Assisted Detection and Diag-nosis

NUTTER, BRIAN, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, Medical Records, Computers in

O’DONOHUE, WILLIAM,University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, Sexual Instrumentation

ORTON, COLIN,Harper Hospital and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, Medical Physics Literature

OZCELIK, SELAHATTIN, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, Texas, Drug Infusion Systems

PANITCH, ALYSSA,Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Biomaterials: An Overview

PAOLINO, DONATELLA, University of Catanzaro Magna Græcia, Germaneto (CZ), Italy, Drug Delivery Systems

PAPAIOANNOU, GEORGE,University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Joints, Biomechanics of

PARK, GRACE E.,Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indi-ana, Porous Materials for Biological Applications

PARMENTER, BRETT A., State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, Sleep Studies, Computer Analysis of

PATEL, DIMPI,The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, Hyperthermia, Ultrasonic

PEARCE, JOHN, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, Electrosurgical Unit (ESU)

PELET, SERGE,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam-bridge, Massachusetts, Microscopy, Fluorescence

PERIASAMY, AMMASI,University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, Cellular Imaging

PERSONS, BARBARA L., University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, Hyperbaric Medicine

PIPER, IAN, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, Monitoring, Intracranial Pressure

POLETTO, CHRISTOPHER J., National Institutes of Health, Tactile Stimulation

PREMINGER, GLENN M., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, Lithotripsy

PRENDERGAST, PATRICKJ.,Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Orthopedics, Prosthesis Fixation for

PREVITE, MICHAEL,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Microscopy, Fluorescence

PURDY, JAMESA.,UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, Radiotherapy Accessories

QI, HAIRONG, Advanced Concepts Analysis, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, Thermography

QIN, YIXIAN,Stony Brook University, New York, Bone Den-sity Measurement

QUAN, STUART F.,University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, Ventilatory Monitoring

QUIROGA, RODRIGOQUIAN,University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom, Evoked Potentials

RAHAGHI, FARBOD N., University of California, La Jolla, California, Glucose Sensors

RAHKO, PETERS.,University of Wisconsin Medical School, Echocardiography and Doppler Echocardiography

RALPH, LIETO,University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Codes and Regulations: Radiation

RAMANATHAN, LAKSHMI,Mount Sinai Medical Center, Ana-lytical Methods, Automated

RAO, SATISHS.C.,University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, Anorectal Manometry

RAPOPORT, DAVIDM.,NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

REBELLO, KEITHJ.,The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab, Laurel, Maryland, Micro surgery

REDDY, NARENDER, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, Linear Variable Differential Transformers

REN-DIH, SHEU, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, Radiation Therapy Treatment Plan-ning, Monte Carlo Calculations in

RENGACHARY, SETTI S., Detroit, Michigan, Human Spine, Biomechanics of

REPPERGER, DANIELW., Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, Human Factors in Medical Devices

RITCHEY, ERIC R., The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, Contact Lenses

RIVARD, MARKJ.,Tufts New England Medical Center, Bos-ton, Massachusetts, Imaging Devices

ROBERTSON, J. DAVID, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, Radionuclide Production and Radioactive Decay

ROTH, BRADLEY J.,Oakland University, Rochester, Michi-gan, Defibrillators

ROWE-HORWEGE, R. WANDA, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, Hyperthermia, Systemic

RUMSEY, JOHNW.,University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, Biosurface Engineering

RUTKOWSKI, GREGORYE.,University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota, Engineered Tissue

SALATA, O.V., University of Oxford, Oxford, United King-dom, Nanoparticles

SAMARAS, THEODOROS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Department of Physics, Thessaloniki, Greece, Thermo-metry

SANGOLE, ARCHANA P., Transitional Learning Center at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, Rehabilitation, Computers in Cognitive

SARKOZI, LASZLO,Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Analy-tical Methods, Automated

SCHEK, HENRY III, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Optical Tweezers

SCHMITZ, CHRISTOPHH.,State University of New York Down-state Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, Peripheral Vascular Noninvasive Measurements

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SCOPE, KENNETH, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, Ventilators, Acute Medical Care

SCOTT, ADZICKN.,University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Intrauterine Surgical Techniques

SEAL, BRANDON L., Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Biomaterials: An Overview

SEALE, GARY, Transitional Learning Center at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, Rehabilitation, Computers in Cognitive

SEGERS, PATRICK, Ghent University, Belgium, Hemody-namics

SELIM, MOSTAFAA.,Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospi-tal, Palm Coast, Florida, Colposcopy

SETHI, ANIL,Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, X-Rays: Interaction with Matter

SEVERINGHAUS, JOHN W., University of California in San Francisco, CO2Electrodes

SHALODI, ABDELWAHAB D.,Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Palm Coast, Florida, Colposcopy

SHANMUGASUNDARAM, SHOBANA,New Jersey Institute of Tech-nology, Newark, New Jersey, Polymeric Materials

SHARD, ALEXANDER G., University of Sheffield, Sheffield United Kingdom, Biomaterials, Surface Properties of

SHEN, LI-JIUAN,National Taiwan University School of Phar-macy, Taipei, Taiwan, Colorimetry

SHEN, WEI-CHIANG,University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, California, Colorimetry

SHERAR, MICHAELD.,London Health Sciences Centre and University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, Hyperthermia, Interstitial

SHERMAN, DAVID,The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, Electroencephalography

SHI, DONGLU, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, Biomaterials, Testing and Structural Properties of

SHUCARD, DAVID W.M., State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, Sleep Studies, Computer Analysis of

SIEDBAND, MELVIN P., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Image Intensifiers and Fluoroscopy

SILBERMAN, HOWARD,University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, Nutrition, Parenteral

SILVERMAN, GORDON,Manhattan College, Computers in the Biomedical Laboratory

SILVERN, DAVID A., Medical Physics Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel, Prostate Seed Implants

SINHA, PIYUSH,The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, Drug Delivery Systems

SINHA, ABHIJIT ROY, University of Cincinnati, Cin-cinnati, Ohio, Coronary Angioplasty and Guidewire Diagnostics

SINKJÆR, THOMAS,Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, Electroneurography

SLOAN, JEFFREY A., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, Quality-of-Life Measures, Clinical Significance of

SO, PETER T.C., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Microscopy, Fluorescence

SOBOL, WLAD T., University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System, Birmingham, Alabama, Nuclear Mag-netic Resonance Spectroscopy

SOOD, SANDEEP,University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Hydrocephalus, Tools for Diagnosis and Treat-ment of

SPECTOR, MYRON,Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Biocompatibility of Materials

SPELMAN, FRANCIS A.,University of Washington, Cochlear Prostheses

SRINIVASAN, YESHWANTH, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, Medical Records, Computers in

SRIRAM, NEELAMEGHAM,University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, Cell Counters, Blood

STARKO, KENTON R.,Point Roberts, Washington, Physiolo-gical Systems Modeling

STARKSCHALL, GEORGE,The University of Texas, Radiother-apy, Three-Dimensional Conformal

STAVREV, PAVEL,Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Radiotherapy Treatment Planning, Optimiza-tion of

STENKEN, JULIE A.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, Microdialysis Sampling

STIEFEL, ROBERT,University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, Equipment Acquisition

STOKES, I.A.F.,Polytechniquie Montreal, Montreal Quebec, Canada, Scoliosis, Biomechanics of

STONE, M.H.,University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, Hip Joints, Artificial

SU, XIAo-LI, BioDetection Instruments LLC, Fayetteville, Arkansas, Piezoelectric Sensors

SUBHAN, ARIF, Masterplan Technology Management, Chatsworth, California, Equipment Maintenance, Biomedical

SWEENEY, JAMES D., Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Functional Electrical Stimulation

SZETO, ANDREWY.J.,San Diego State University, San Diego, California, Blind and Visually Impaired, Assistive Tech-nology for

TAKAYAMA, SHUICHI, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Microbioreactors

TAMUL, PAULC.,Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, Ventilators, Acute Medical Care

TAMURA, TOSHIYO,Chiba University School of Engineering, Chiba, Japan, Home Health Care Devices

TANG, XIANGYANG,GE Healthcare Technologies, Wankesha, Wisconsin, Computed Tomography Simulators

TAYLOR, B.C.,The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, Cardiac Output, Indicator Dilution Measurement of

TEMPLE, RICHARD O., Transitional Learning Center at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, Rehabilitation, Computers in Cognitive

TEN, STANLEY,Salt Lake City, Utah, Electroanalgesia, Sys-temic

TERRY, TERESA M., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland, Blood Collection and Processing

THAKOR, N.V.,Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Mary-land, Neurological Monitors

THIERENS, HUBERTM.A.,University of Ghent, Ghent, Bel-gium, Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry

THOMADSEN, BRUCE, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, Codes and Regulations: Radiation

TIPPER, J.L.,University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, Hip Joints, Artificial

TOGAWA, TATSUO,Waseda University, Saitama, Japan, Inte-grated Circuit Temperature Sensor

TORNAI, MARTIN,Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, X-Ray Equipment Design

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TRAUTMAN, EDWIND.,RMF Strategies, Cambridge, Massa-chusetts, Cardiac Output, Thermodilution Measurement of

TREENA, LIVINGSTONARINZEH,New Jersey Institute of Tech-nology, Newark, New Jersey, Polymeric Materials

TRENTMAN, TERRENCE L., Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Spinal Cord Stimulation

TROKEN, ALEXANDER J., University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Cartilage and Meniscus, Properties of

TSAFTARIS, SOTIRIOSA.,Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, DNA Sequence

TSOUKALAS, D., NTUA, Athens, Attiki, Greece, Capacitive Microsensors for Biomedical Applications

TULIPAN, NOEL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Intrauterine Surgical Techniques

TUTEJA, ASHOKK.,University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Anorectal Manometry

TY, SMITHN.,University of California, San Diego, Califor-nia, Physiological Systems Modeling

TYRER, HARRYW.,University of Missouri-Columbia, Colum-bia, Missouri, Cytology, Automated

VALVANO, JONATHAN W., The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, Bioheat Transfer

VAN DENHEUVAL, FRANK,Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, Imaging Devices

VEIT, SCHNABEL, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, Electroneurography

VELANOVICH, VIC,Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, Esophageal Manometry

VENKATASUBRAMANIAN, GANAPRIYA, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Functional Electrical Stimulation

VERAART, CLAUDE,Catholique University of Louvain, Brus-sels, Belgium, Visual Prostheses

VERDONCK, PASCAL, Ghent University, Belgium, Hemody-namics

VERMARIEN, HERMAN, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium, Phonocardiography, Recorders, Graphic

VEVES, ARISTIDIS,Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass-achusetts, Cutaneous Blood Flow, Doppler Measurement of

VICINI, PAOLO,University of Washington, Seattle, Washing-ton, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

VILLE, JA¨ NTTI, Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland, Monitoring in Anesthesia

VRBA, JINI,VSM MedTech Ltd., Biomagnetism

WAGNER, THOMAS, H., M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida, Radiosurgery, Stereotactic

WAHLEN, GEORGEE.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Anorectal Manometry

WALKER, GLENN M., North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, Microfluidics

WALTERSPACHER, DIRK,The Johns Hopkins University, Bal-timore, Maryland, Electroencephalography

WAN, LEO Q., Liu Ping, Columbia University, New York, New York, Cartilage and Meniscus, Properties of

WANG, GE,University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Computed Tomography Simulators

WANG, HAIBO, Louisiana State University Health Center Shreveport, Louisiana, Monitoring, Umbilical Artery and Vein, Ambulatory Monitoring

WANG, HONG, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, Anesthesia, Computers in

WANG, LE YI, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, Anesthesia, Computers in

WANG, QIAN, A & M University Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas, Strain Gages

WARWICK, WARREN J., University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Cystic Fibrosis Sweat Test

WATANABE, YOICHI, Columbia University Radiation Oncology, New York, New York, Phantom Materials in Radiology

WAXLER, MORRIS,Godfrey & Kahn S.C., Madison, Wiscon-sin, Codes and Regulations: Medical Devices

WEBSTER, THOMAS J., Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, Porous Materials for Biological Applications

WEGENER, JOACHIM,University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, Impe-dance Spectroscopy

WEI, SHYY,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Blood Rheology

WEINMEISTER, KENTP.,Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Spinal Cord Stimulation

WEIZER, ALONZ.,Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, Lithotripsy

WELLER, PETER,City University , London, United Kingdom, Intraaortic Balloon Pump

WELLS, JASON,LSU Medical Centre, Shreveport, Louisiana, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

WENDELKEN, SUZANNE, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, Oxygen Analyzers

WHELAN, HARRYT.,Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwau-kee, Wisconsin, Hyperbaric Oxygenation

WHITE, ROBERT, Memorial Hospital, Regional Newborn Program, South Bend, Indiana, Incubators, Infant

WILLIAMS, LAWRENCEE., City of Hope, Duarte, California, Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation

WILSON, KERRY, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, Biosurface Engineering

WINEGARDEN, NEIL,University Health Network Microarray Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Microarrays

WOJCIKIEWICZ, EWA P.,University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, Microscopy, Scanning Force

WOLBARST, ANTHONY B., Georgetown Medical School, Washington, DC, Radiotherapy Treatment Planning, Optimization of

WOLF, ERIK,University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl-vania, Mobility Aids

WOOD, ANDREW,Swinburne University of Technology, Mel-bourne, Australia, Nonionizing Radiation, Biological Effects of

WOODCOCK, BRIAN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Blood, Artificial

WREN, JOAKIM,Linko¨ping University, Linko¨ping, Sweden, Thermocouples

XIANG, ZHOU,Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Mas-sachusetts, Biocompatibility of Materials

XUEJUN, WEN, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, Biomaterials, Testing and Structural Proper-ties of

YAN, ZHOU,University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, Bone Cement, Acrylic

YANNAS, IOANNISV.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Skin Tissue Engineering for Regeneration

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YENI, YENER N.,Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, Joints, Biomechanics of

YLI-HANKALA, ARVI,Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland, Monitoring in Anesthesia

YOKO, KAMOTANI,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi-gan, Microbioreactors

YOON, KANGJI,Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea, Micropower for Medical Applications

YORKE, ELLEN, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, Radiation Therapy Treatment Plan-ning, Monte Carlo Calculations in

YOSHIDA, KEN,Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, Elec-troneurography

YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D., University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, Sleep Laboratory

YU, YIH-CHOUNG,Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, Blood Pressure, Automatic Control of

ZACHARIAH, EMMANUELS.,University of Medicine and Den-tistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Immu-nologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

ZAIDER, MARCO,Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, Prostate Seed Implants

ZAPANTA, CONRAD M., Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, Heart, Artificial

ZARDENETA, GUSTAVO, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, Fluorescence Measurements

ZELMANOVIC, DAVID, Bayer HealthCare LLC, Tarrytown, New York, Differential Counts, Automated

ZHANG, MIN,University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, Biomaterials: Polymers

ZHANG, YI,University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, Cell Counters, Blood

ZHU, XIAOYUE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi-gan, Microbioreactors

ZIAIE, BABAK, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana, Biotelemetry

ZIELINSKI, TODDM.,Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minne-sota, Bioimpedance in Cardiovascular Medicine

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PREFACE

This six-volume work is an alphabetically organized compi-lation of almost 300 articles that describe critical aspects of medical devices and instrumentation.

It is comprehensive. The articles emphasize the contri-butions of engineering, physics, and computers to each of the general areas of anesthesiology, biomaterials, burns, cardi-ology, clinical chemistry, clinical engineering, communica-tive disorders, computers in medicine, critical care medicine, dermatology, dentistry, ear, nose, and throat, emergency medicine, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, geriatrics, gynecology, hematology, heptology, internal medicine, medical physics, microbiology, nephrol-ogy, neurolnephrol-ogy, nutrition, obstetrics, oncolnephrol-ogy, ophthalmol-ogy, orthopedics, pain, pediatrics, peripheral vascular disease, pharmacology, physical therapy, psychiatry, pul-monary medicine, radiology, rehabilitation, surgery, tissue engineering, transducers, and urology.

The discipline is defined through the synthesis of the core knowledge from all the fields encompassed by the applica-tion of engineering, physics, and computers to problems in medicine. The articles focus not only on what is now useful but also on what is likely to be useful in future medical applications.

These volumes answer the question, ‘‘What are the branches of medicine and how does technology assist each of them?’’ rather than ‘‘What are the branches of technology and how could each be used in medicine?’’ To keep this work to a manageable length, the practice of medicine that is unassisted by devices, such as the use of drugs to treat disease, has been excluded.

The articles are accessible to the user; each benefits from brevity of condensation instead of what could easily have been a book-length work. The articles are designed not for peers, but rather for workers from related fields who wish to take a first look at what is important in the subject.

The articles are readable. They do not presume a detailed background in the subject, but are designed for any person with a scientific background and an interest in technology. Rather than attempting to teach the basics of physiology or Ohm’s law, the articles build on such basic concepts to show how the worlds of life science and physical science meld to produce improved systems. While the ideal reader might be a person with a Master’s degree in biomedical engineering or medical physics or an M.D. with a physical science under-graduate degree, much of the material will be of value to others with an interest in this growing field. High school students and hospital patients can skip over more technical areas and still gain much from the descriptive presentations.

TheEncyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumenta-tionis excellent for browsing and searching for those new divergent associations that may advance work in a periph-eral field. While it can be used as a reference for facts, the articles are long enough that they can serve as an educa-tional instrument and provide genuine understanding of a subject.

One can use this work just as one would use a dictionary, since the articles are arranged alphabetically by topic. Cross references assist the reader looking for subjects listed under slightly different names. The index at the end leads the reader to all articles containing pertinent information on any subject. Listed on pages xxi to xxx are all the abbrevia-tions and acronyms used in theEncyclopedia. Because of the increasing use of SI units in all branches of science, these units are provided throughout theEncyclopediaarticles as well as on pages xxxi to xxxv in the section on conversion factors and unit symbols.

I owe a great debt to the many people who have con-tributed to the creation of this work. At John Wiley & Sons, Encyclopedia Editor George Telecki provided the idea and guiding influence to launch the project. Sean Pidgeon was Editorial Director of the project. Assistant Editors Roseann Zappia, Sarah Harrington, and Surlan Murrell handled the myriad details of communication between publisher, editor, authors, and reviewers and stimulated authors and reviewers to meet necessary deadlines.

My own background has been in the electrical aspects of biomedical engineering. I was delighted to have the assis-tance of the editorial board to develop a comprehensive encyclopedia. David J. Beebe suggested cellular topics such as microfluidics. Jerry M. Calkins assisted in defining the chemically related subjects, such as anesthesiology. Michael R. Neuman suggested subjects related to sensors, such as in his own work—neonatology. Joon B. Park has written extensively on biomaterials and suggested related subjects. Edward S. Sternick provided many suggestions from medical physics. The Editorial Board was instrumen-tal both in defining the list of subjects and in suggesting authors.

This second edition brings the field up to date. It is available on the web at http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley. com/emdi, where articles can be searched simultaneously to provide rapid and comprehensive information on all aspects of medical devices and instrumentation.

JOHN G. WEBSTER

University of Wisconsin, Madison

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LIST OF ARTICLES

ALLOYS, SHAPE MEMORY AMBULATORY MONITORING

ANALYTICAL METHODS, AUTOMATED ANESTHESIA MACHINES

ANESTHESIA, COMPUTERS IN ANGER CAMERA

ANORECTAL MANOMETRY

ARRHYTHMIA ANALYSIS, AUTOMATED ARTERIES, ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF AUDIOMETRY

BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MATERIALS BIOELECTRODES

BIOFEEDBACK BIOHEAT TRANSFER

BIOIMPEDANCE IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE BIOINFORMATICS

BIOMAGNETISM

BIOMATERIALS, ABSORBABLE BIOMATERIALS: AN OVERVIEW BIOMATERIALS: BIOCERAMICS BIOMATERIALS: CARBON

BIOMATERIALS, CORROSION AND WEAR OF BIOMATERIALS FOR DENTISTRY

BIOMATERIALS: POLYMERS

BIOMATERIALS, SURFACE PROPERTIES OF BIOMATERIALS, TESTING AND STRUCTURAL

PROPERTIES OF

BIOMATERIALS: TISSUE ENGINEERING AND SCAFFOLDS

BIOMECHANICS OF EXERCISE FITNESS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION BIOSURFACE ENGINEERING

BIOTELEMETRY

BLADDER DYSFUNCTION, NEUROSTIMULATION OF

BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED, ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR

BLOOD COLLECTION AND PROCESSING BLOOD GAS MEASUREMENTS

BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

BLOOD PRESSURE, AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF BLOOD RHEOLOGY

BLOOD, ARTIFICIAL

BONE AND TEETH, PROPERTIES OF BONE CEMENT, ACRYLIC

BONE DENSITY MEASUREMENT

BONE UNUNITED FRACTURE AND SPINAL FUSION, ELECTRICAL TREATMENT OF

BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BRACHYTHERAPY, HIGH DOSAGE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY, INTRAVASCULAR

CAPACITIVE MICROSENSORS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

CARDIAC OUTPUT, FICK TECHNIQUE FOR CARDIAC OUTPUT, INDICATOR DILUTION

MEASUREMENT OF

CARDIAC OUTPUT, THERMODILUTION MEASUREMENT OF

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION

CARTILAGE AND MENISCUS, PROPERTIES OF CELL COUNTERS, BLOOD

CELLULAR IMAGING CHROMATOGRAPHY CO2ELECTRODES

COBALT 60 UNITS FOR RADIOTHERAPY COCHLEAR PROSTHESES

CODES AND REGULATIONS: MEDICAL DEVICES CODES AND REGULATIONS: RADIATION

COLORIMETRY COLPOSCOPY

COMMUNICATION DEVICES

COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCREENING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SIMULATORS COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, SINGLE PHOTON

EMISSION

COMPUTER-ASSISTED DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS COMPUTERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL LABORATORY CONTACT LENSES

CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES

CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY AND GUIDEWIRE DIAGNOSTICS

CRYOSURGERY

CUTANEOUS BLOOD FLOW, DOPPLER MEASUREMENT OF

CYSTIC FIBROSIS SWEAT TEST CYTOLOGY, AUTOMATED DEFIBRILLATORS

DIFFERENTIAL COUNTS, AUTOMATED DIGITAL ANGIOGRAPHY

DNA SEQUENCE

DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS DRUG INFUSION SYSTEMS

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY AND DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

ELECTROANALGESIA, SYSTEMIC

ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, COMPUTERS IN ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY ELECTROGASTROGRAM ELECTROMYOGRAPHY ELECTRONEUROGRAPHY ELECTROPHORESIS

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ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY ELECTROSURGICAL UNIT (ESU) ENDOSCOPES

ENGINEERED TISSUE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT ACQUISITION

EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE, BIOMEDICAL ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY

EVOKED POTENTIALS EXERCISE STRESS TESTING

EYE MOVEMENT, MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR FETAL MONITORING

FIBER OPTICS IN MEDICINE

FLAME ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY AND ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

FLOWMETERS

FLUORESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION GAMMA KNIFE

GAS AND VACUUM SYSTEMS, CENTRALLY PIPED MEDICAL

GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE GLUCOSE SENSORS

HEART VALVE PROSTHESES

HEART VALVE PROSTHESES, IN VITRO FLOW DYNAMICS OF

HEART VALVES, PROSTHETIC HEART, ARTIFICIAL

HEART–LUNG MACHINES HEAT AND COLD, THERAPEUTIC HEMODYNAMICS

HIGH FREQUENCY VENTILATION HIP JOINTS, ARTIFICIAL

HOME HEALTH CARE DEVICES

HUMAN FACTORS IN MEDICAL DEVICES HUMAN SPINE, BIOMECHANICS OF

HYDROCEPHALUS, TOOLS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF

HYPERBARIC MEDICINE HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION HYPERTHERMIA, INTERSTITIAL HYPERTHERMIA, SYSTEMIC HYPERTHERMIA, ULTRASONIC

IMAGE INTENSIFIERS AND FLUOROSCOPY IMAGING DEVICES

IMMUNOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS

IMMUNOTHERAPY

IMPEDANCE PLETHYSMOGRAPHY IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY INCUBATORS, INFANT

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT TEMPERATURE SENSOR INTRAAORTIC BALLOON PUMP

INTRAUTERINE SURGICAL TECHNIQUES

IONIZING RADIATION, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ION-SENSITIVE FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS JOINTS, BIOMECHANICS OF

LARYNGEAL PROSTHETIC DEVICES LENSES, INTRAOCULAR

LIGAMENT AND TENDON, PROPERTIES OF

LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMERS LITHOTRIPSY

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION LUNG SOUNDS

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING MAMMOGRAPHY

MEDICAL EDUCATION, COMPUTERS IN MEDICAL ENGINEERING SOCIETIES

AND ORGANIZATIONS MEDICAL GAS ANALYZERS MEDICAL PHYSICS LITERATURE MEDICAL RECORDS, COMPUTERS IN MICROARRAYS

MICROBIAL DETECTION SYSTEMS MICROBIOREACTORS

MICRODIALYSIS SAMPLING MICROFLUIDICS

MICROPOWER FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY, NEAR-FIELD MICROSCOPY, CONFOCAL

MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY, SCANNING FORCE MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSURGERY

MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY MOBILITY AIDS

MONITORING IN ANESTHESIA MONITORING, HEMODYNAMIC

MONITORING, INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING, UMBILICAL ARTERY AND VEIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

NANOPARTICLES

NEONATAL MONITORING NEUROLOGICAL MONITORS NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS NEUTRON BEAM THERAPY

NONIONIZING RADIATION, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY NUCLEAR MEDICINE INSTRUMENTATION

NUCLEAR MEDICINE, COMPUTERS IN NUTRITION, PARENTERAL

OCULAR FUNDUS REFLECTOMETRY

OCULAR MOTILITY RECORDING AND NYSTAGMUS OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

OPTICAL SENSORS OPTICAL TWEEZERS

ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES, MATERIALS AND DESIGN FOR

ORTHOPEDICS, PROSTHESIS FIXATION FOR OXYGEN ANALYZERS

OXYGEN MONITORING PACEMAKERS

PANCREAS, ARTIFICIAL

PERIPHERAL VASCULAR NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENTS

PHANTOM MATERIALS IN RADIOLOGY

PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS PHONOCARDIOGRAPHY

PHOTOGRAPHY, MEDICAL

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PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS PNEUMOTACHOMETERS

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION POLYMERIC MATERIALS

POROUS MATERIALS FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY PROSTATE SEED IMPLANTS

PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY

QUALITY-OF-LIFE MEASURES, CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF

RADIATION DOSE PLANNING, COMPUTER-AIDED RADIATION DOSIMETRY FOR ONCOLOGY

RADIATION DOSIMETRY, THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION RADIATION THERAPY, INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY SIMULATOR

RADIATION THERAPY TREATMENT PLANNING, MONTE CARLO CALCULATIONS IN

RADIATION THERAPY, QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

RADIONUCLIDE PRODUCTION AND RADIOACTIVE DECAY

RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL DOSIMETRY RADIOSURGERY, STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY ACCESSORIES RADIOTHERAPY, HEAVY ION RADIOTHERAPY, INTRAOPERATIVE

RADIOTHERAPY, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY TREATMENT PLANNING,

OPTIMIZATION OF RECORDERS, GRAPHIC

REHABILITATION AND MUSCLE TESTING REHABILITATION, COMPUTERS IN COGNITIVE REHABILITATION, ORTHOTICS IN

RESIN-BASED COMPOSITES

RESPIRATORY MECHANICS AND GAS EXCHANGE SAFETY PROGRAM, HOSPITAL

SCOLIOSIS, BIOMECHANICS OF SCREEN-FILM SYSTEMS

SEXUAL INSTRUMENTATION SHOCK, TREATMENT OF

SKIN SUBSTITUTE FOR BURNS, BIOACTIVE SKIN TISSUE ENGINEERING FOR REGENERATION SKIN, BIOMECHANICS OF

SLEEP LABORATORY

SLEEP STUDIES, COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF SPINAL CORD STIMULATION

SPINAL IMPLANTS STATISTICAL METHODS STEREOTACTIC SURGERY

STERILIZATION OF BIOLOGIC SCAFFOLD MATERIALS

STRAIN GAGES

TACTILE STIMULATION TELERADIOLOGY

TEMPERATURE MONITORING THERMISTORS

THERMOCOUPLES THERMOGRAPHY THERMOMETRY TISSUE ABLATION TISSUE ENGINEERING TOMOTHERAPY

TONOMETRY, ARTERIAL

TOOTH AND JAW, BIOMECHANICS OF TRACER KINETICS

TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS)

ULTRASONIC IMAGING

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN MEDICINE VASCULAR GRAFT PROSTHESIS

VENTILATORS, ACUTE MEDICAL CARE VENTILATORY MONITORING

VISUAL FIELD TESTING VISUAL PROSTHESES X-RAY EQUIPMENT DESIGN

X-RAY QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM X-RAY THERAPY EQUIPMENT, LOW AND

MEDIUM ENERGY

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

AAMI Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation

AAPM American Association of Physicists in Medicine

ABC Automatic brightness control ABET Accreditation board for engineering

training

ABG Arterial blood gases

ABLB Alternative binaural loudness balance ABS Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene

ac Alternating current

AC Abdominal circumference; Affinity chromatography

ACA Automated clinical analyzer

ACES Augmentative communication evaluation system

ACL Anterior chamber lens ACLS Advanced cardiac life support ACOG American College of Obstetrics and

Gynecology

ACR American College of Radiology ACS American Cancer Society; American

College of Surgeons A/D Analog-to-digital

ADC Agar diffusion chambers; Analog-to-digital converter

ADCC Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

ADCL Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories

ADP Adenosine diphosphate

A-D-T Admission, discharge, and transfer AE Anion exchange; Auxiliary electrode AEA Articulation error analysis

AEB Activation energy barrier AEC Automatic exposure control AED Automatic external defibrillator AEMB Alliance for Engineering in Medicine

and Biology

AES Auger electron spectroscopy AESC American Engineering Standards

Committee

AET Automatic exposure termination AFO Ankle-foot orthosis

AGC Automatic gain control AHA American Heart Association AI Arterial insufficiency

AICD Automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator

AID Agency for International Development AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AL Anterior leaflet

ALG Antilymphocyte globulin

ALS Advanced life support; Amyotropic lateral sclerosis

ALT Alanine aminotransferase ALU Arithmetic and logic unit

AM Amplitude modulation

AMA American Medical Association

amu Atomic mass units

ANOVA Analysis of variance

ANSI American National Standards Institute AP Action potential; Alternative pathway;

Anteroposterior

APD Anterioposterior diameter

APL Adjustable pressure limiting valve; Applied Physics Laboratory

APR Anatomically programmed radiography AR Amplitude reduction; Aortic

regurgitation; Autoregressive Ara-C Arabinosylcytosine

ARD Absorption rate density

ARDS Adult respiratory distress syndrome ARGUS Arrhythmia guard system

ARMA Autoregressive-moving-average model ARMAX Autoregressive-moving-average model

with external inputs

AS Aortic stenosis

ASA American Standards Association ASCII American standard code for information

interchange

ASD Antisiphon device

ASHE American Society for Hospital Engineering ASTM American Society for Testing and

Materials

AT Adenosine-thiamide; Anaerobic threshold; Antithrombin

ATA Atmosphere absolute

ATLS Advanced trauma life support ATN Acute tubular necrosis ATP Adenosine triphosphate

ATPD Ambient temperature pressure dry ATPS Ambient temperature pressure

saturated

ATR Attenuated total reflection

AUC Area under curve

AUMC Area under moment curve

AV Atrioventricular

AZT Azido thymidine

BA Biliary atresia

BAEP Brainstem auditory evoked potential BAPN Beta-amino-proprionitryl

BAS Boston anesthesis system

BASO Basophil

BB Buffer base

BBT Basal body temperature

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BCC Body-centered cubic

BCD Binary-coded decimal

BCG Ballistocardiogram

BCLS Basic cardiac life support

BCRU British Commitee on Radiation Units and Measurements

BDI Beck depression inventory BE Base excess; Binding energy

BET Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller methods

BH His bundle

BI Biological indicators BIH Beth Israel Hospital

BIPM International Bureau of Weights and Measurements

BJT Bipolar junction transistor

BMDP Biomedical Programs

BME Biomedical engineering

BMET Biomedical equipment technician BMO Biomechanically optimized BMR Basal metabolic rate BOL Beginning of life

BP Bereitschafts potential; Break point

BR Polybutadiene

BRM Biological response modifier BRS Bibliographic retrieval services BSS Balanced salt solution

BTG Beta thromboglobulin

BTPS Body temperature pressure saturated BUN Blood urea nitrogen

BW Body weight

CA Conductive adhesives

CABG Coronary artery by-pass grafting CAD/CAM Computer-aided design/computer-aided

manufacturing

CAD/D Computer-aided drafting and design CADD Central axis depth dose

CAI Computer assisted instruction; Computer-aided instruction CAM Computer-assisted management

cAMP Cyclic AMP

CAPD Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

CAPP Child amputee prosthetic project CAT Computerized axial tomography CATS Computer-assisted teaching system;

Computerized aphasia treatment system CAVH Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration CB Conjugated bilirubin; Coulomb barrier

CBC Complete blood count

CBF Cerebral blood flow

CBM Computer-based management

CBV Cerebral blood volume

CC Closing capacity

CCC Computer Curriculum Company CCD Charge-coupled device

CCE Capacitance contact electrode CCF Cross-correlation function

CCL Cardiac catheterization laboratory CCM Critical care medical services CCPD Continuous cycling peritoneal

dialysis

CCTV Closed circuit television system CCU Coronary care unit; Critical care unit

CD Current density

CDR Complimentary determining region CDRH Center for Devices and Radiological

Health

CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen CF Conversion factor; Cystic fibrosis CFC Continuous flow cytometer CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CFU Colony forming units

CGA Compressed Gas Association CGPM General Conference on Weights and

Measures

CHO Carbohydrate

CHO Chinese hamster ovary

CI Combination index

CICU Cardiac intensive care unit CIF Contrast improvement factor CIN Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CK Creatine kinase

CLAV Clavicle

CLSA Computerized language sample analysis CM Cardiomyopathy; Code modulation CMAD Computer managed articulation diagnosis CMI Computer-managed instruction

CMRR Common mode rejection ratio CMV Conventional mechanical ventilation;

Cytomegalovirus CNS Central nervous system CNV Contingent negative variation CO Carbon monoxide; Cardiac output COBAS Comprehensive Bio-Analysis System COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COR Center of rotation

CP Cerebral palsy; Closing pressure; Creatine phosphate

CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass

CPET Cardiac pacemaker electrode tips CPM Computerized probe measurements CPP Cerebral perfusion pressure;

Cryoprecipitated plasma CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

cps Cycles per second

CPU Central Processing unit

CR Center of resistance; Conditioned response; Conductive rubber; Creatinine

CRBB Complete right bundle branch block CRD Completely randomized design

CRL Crown rump length

CRT Cathode ray tube

CS Conditioned stimulus; Contrast scale; Crown seat

CSA Compressed spectral array CSF Cerebrospinal fluid CSI Chemical shift imaging

CSM Chemically sensitive membrane CT Computed tomography; Computerized

tomography

CTI Cumulative toxicity response index

Figure

Figure 1. An example of a capacitive sensor is a pressure sensor. In parts a, the thin sensor diaphragm remains parallel to the fixed electrode and in part b, the diaphragm deflects under applied pressure resulting in capacitance change.

Figure 1.

An example of a capacitive sensor is a pressure sensor. In parts a, the thin sensor diaphragm remains parallel to the fixed electrode and in part b, the diaphragm deflects under applied pressure resulting in capacitance change. p.37
Figure 5. Surface micromachining process sequence for the fabrication of capacitive ultrasonic transducers as taken from X

Figure 5.

Surface micromachining process sequence for the fabrication of capacitive ultrasonic transducers as taken from X p.42
Figure 8 shows the influence of temperature on the response of a capacitive pressure sensor, not sealed in a vacuum

Figure 8

shows the influence of temperature on the response of a capacitive pressure sensor, not sealed in a vacuum p.42
Figure 10. Circuit blocks of the capacitive electronic interface as described by W. Bracke et al

Figure 10.

Circuit blocks of the capacitive electronic interface as described by W. Bracke et al p.44
Figure 12. Schematic of Schmitt-trigger based oscillator used as a capacitive interface.

Figure 12.

Schematic of Schmitt-trigger based oscillator used as a capacitive interface. p.45
Figure 2 shows calculations for a bidirectional shunt based on the principles discussed above

Figure 2

shows calculations for a bidirectional shunt based on the principles discussed above p.53
Table 1. Expected Ranges for Common Flow-Dependent Parameters

Table 1.

Expected Ranges for Common Flow-Dependent Parameters p.54
Figure 1. Typical thermal dilution curves, taken at different flows and superimposed to illustrate variations in shape and area.

Figure 1.

Typical thermal dilution curves, taken at different flows and superimposed to illustrate variations in shape and area. p.64
Figure 5. Basic thermal dilution system, with computer, syringe, catheter, and source of cold injectate, in this case from a closed system

Figure 5.

Basic thermal dilution system, with computer, syringe, catheter, and source of cold injectate, in this case from a closed system p.67
Figure 2. The oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve. Four different ordinates are shown as a function of oxygen partial pressure (the abscissa)

Figure 2.

The oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve. Four different ordinates are shown as a function of oxygen partial pressure (the abscissa) p.77
Figure 1. Layered structure of cartilage collagen network showing three distinct regions (3).

Figure 1.

Layered structure of cartilage collagen network showing three distinct regions (3). p.100
Figure 6. A schematic representation of fluid exudation and redistribution within cartilage during a rate-controlled confined compression stress-relaxation test (lower left)

Figure 6.

A schematic representation of fluid exudation and redistribution within cartilage during a rate-controlled confined compression stress-relaxation test (lower left) p.104
Figure 5. Schema of three configurations frequently used to study the compressive properties of articular cartilage

Figure 5.

Schema of three configurations frequently used to study the compressive properties of articular cartilage p.104
Figure 1. (a) Diagram of hemocytometer with cover slip. (b and c) Expanded view of ruled area as seen under a microscope.

Figure 1.

(a) Diagram of hemocytometer with cover slip. (b and c) Expanded view of ruled area as seen under a microscope. p.119
Figure 5. Flow diagram of an automated multi- multi-channel cell counter. (Adapted from Ref

Figure 5.

Flow diagram of an automated multi- multi-channel cell counter. (Adapted from Ref p.124
Table 2. Characteristics of Hematology Analyzers a

Table 2.

Characteristics of Hematology Analyzers a p.125
Figure 7. The FLIM microscopy-drug moleculeYK-140 uptake in a single living cell. Multiphoton excitation time-resolved intensity (a) and lifetime (b) images of PC-3 cell after adding the YK-II-140 drug (1.0-mM concentration)

Figure 7.

The FLIM microscopy-drug moleculeYK-140 uptake in a single living cell. Multiphoton excitation time-resolved intensity (a) and lifetime (b) images of PC-3 cell after adding the YK-II-140 drug (1.0-mM concentration) p.133
Figure 8. Demonstration of CARS and non-CARS image. (a) CARS image of lipids in 3T3 fibroblast cells excited at the vibrational frequency of 2845 cm 1

Figure 8.

Demonstration of CARS and non-CARS image. (a) CARS image of lipids in 3T3 fibroblast cells excited at the vibrational frequency of 2845 cm 1 p.134
Figure 5. Typical channel configuration for a capillary electrophoresis microchip including loading or injection channel and separation channel.

Figure 5.

Typical channel configuration for a capillary electrophoresis microchip including loading or injection channel and separation channel. p.141
Figure 7. Top: Representation of a typical FFF channel. Bottom: Cross-sectional slice of channel in the center along the length and showing the operational principles of a separation in FFF

Figure 7.

Top: Representation of a typical FFF channel. Bottom: Cross-sectional slice of channel in the center along the length and showing the operational principles of a separation in FFF p.143
Figure 7. The first three-function blood gas analyzer, using a McInnes Belcher pH electrode (1930) with the pCO 2 and pO 2

Figure 7.

The first three-function blood gas analyzer, using a McInnes Belcher pH electrode (1930) with the pCO 2 and pO 2 p.148
Figure 10. The time course of skin pO 2 and pCO 2 on an arm after

Figure 10.

The time course of skin pO 2 and pCO 2 on an arm after p.150
Figure 2. The decay schemes of 60 Co and 60 Ni, showing the beta

Figure 2.

The decay schemes of 60 Co and 60 Ni, showing the beta p.158
Figure 6. An isocentric mounted cobalt unit of the Theratron series produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., installed at the Ontario Cancer Institute in Toronto in the 1970s and 1980s.

Figure 6.

An isocentric mounted cobalt unit of the Theratron series produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., installed at the Ontario Cancer Institute in Toronto in the 1970s and 1980s. p.162
Figure 1. A sketch of the peripheral auditory system, external ear, ear canal, eardrum, middle ear, and inner ear (2).

Figure 1.

A sketch of the peripheral auditory system, external ear, ear canal, eardrum, middle ear, and inner ear (2). p.170
Table 3. Selected Organizations Publishing Voluntary NIR Safety Standards

Table 3.

Selected Organizations Publishing Voluntary NIR Safety Standards p.195
Table 5. Useful Web Sites with Information About Radiation, Regulations, and Regulatory Issues

Table 5.

Useful Web Sites with Information About Radiation, Regulations, and Regulatory Issues p.196
Table 8b notes source inventories are now at 6 month intervals. §35.75 explains new release criteria for patients (4)

Table 8b

notes source inventories are now at 6 month intervals. §35.75 explains new release criteria for patients (4) p.198
Table 8b. Some Components of CFR 35 (C) Applicable to All Forms of Brachytherapy

Table 8b.

Some Components of CFR 35 (C) Applicable to All Forms of Brachytherapy p.199
Table 8a. Components of CFR 35 (A, B) Applicable to All Forms of Brachytherapy

Table 8a.

Components of CFR 35 (A, B) Applicable to All Forms of Brachytherapy p.199

Referencias

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