(2) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 2. Promoting Critical Thinking on Gender Issues in 10th Grade. Yorley Fernanda Romero Chitiva Thesis Director: Pedro Adolfo Cabrejo. A Project submitted as a requirement to obtain the BACHELOR DEGREE IN BASIC EDUCATION WITH EMPHASIS IN ENGLISH. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Facultad de Ciencias y Educación Licenciatura en Educación Básica con Énfasis en Inglés Bogotá 2018.
(3) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. Note of Acceptance ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Thesis Director: ______________________________. Thesis Juror: ______________________________. 3.
(4) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 4. Acuerdo 019 de 1998 del Consejo Superior Universitario. Artículo177: “La Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas no será responsable por las ideas expuestas en esta tesis”.. Acuerdo 004 de 2012 del Consejo Superior Universitario. Artículo 4: “La Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas tiene por contado que cualquier producción intelectual presentada por sus docentes, funcionarios, estudiantes o vinculados ante la Universidad son producciones respetuosas del ordenamiento legal, las cuales en ningún caso se presume que no han trasgredido otros derechos de propiedad intelectual de otras personas e instituciones, mientras no se demuestre de manera probatoria lo contrario”.
(5) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 5. Index Abstract. 7. Resumen. 8. Introduction. 9. Justification. 11. Chapter I. 12. Problem Statement. 12. Chapter II. 15. Literature Review. 15. Gender. 16. LGBTI. 24. Critical Awareness. 26. Critical Language Thinking. 26. Critical Thinking. 27. Discourse Analysis. 27. Chapter III. 29. Instructional Design. 29. Instructional Objective. 29. Description of the lessons. 32. Learner’s Role. 34. Teacher’s Role. 35. Chapter IV. 36. Research Design. 36. Type of Research Approach. 37. Type of Study. 38. Population. 41. Data Gathering. 42. Chapter V. 44.
(6) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. Data Analysis. 6. 44. Categories. 44. Category 1: Stereotypes of students related to family and gender roles. 47. Category 2: Students’ Gender Identity. 49. Category 3: General Knowledge about Gender Hierarchy Stablished in Society, Roles, Common and Uncommon Behaviors. 51. Category 4: Variations and Changes in Perceptions about Family Roles and Gender Roles in the Classroom 52 Chapter VI. 54. Conclusions. 54. Chapter VII. 56. Further Research and Limitations. 56. References. 58. Annexes. 63. List of Annexes Annex 1. Lesson 1. 63. Annex 2. Lesson 2. 64. Annex 3: Questionnaire Lesson 2. 66. Annex 4. Lesson 3. 66. Annex 5. Workshop. Frequency Adverbs and Diverse Families. 67. Annex 6. Diverse Families form. 68. Annex 7. Diverse Families, form 2. 69. Annex 8. Lesson 4. 70. Annex 9. Results. 71. Annex 10. Forms. 77. Annex 11. Survey Answers. 82. Annex 12. Consent Form. 83.
(7) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 7. Abstract The purpose of this investigation is to promote critical thinking on gender issues that may emerge when discussing this topic in the English classes. The study was conducted in a 10th grade at a school in Bogota D.C. The main variables identified by the author were the students’ perceptions on the topic, their experience and learning outcomes. In this qualitative descriptive research study, data collection instruments included observations, questionnaires, and artifacts in order to identify the students’ perceptions and understandings of the gender issues such as identity, roles, stereotypes, and perspectives in general. The author acknowledges the contributions of Van Dijk, T (2014) on Discourse Analysis, Clark, R and R. Ivanic (1999) on Critical Language Awareness. The findings indicate that gender is an important issue to understand, respect, tolerate and know about. Besides, the learners became aware of the problems they evidenced in the environment they are related to. Moreover, pupils stated that the promotion of the language awareness should be considered as a social compromise. Likewise, students highlighted the role of both men and women in order to ensure their personal development. As for language proficiency development, the population acquired a lot of vocabulary for and listening for specific information. The data indicates that participants gained learning outcomes such as making debates, translating, etc. Keywords: Gender Issues, Foreign Language Learning, Gender Roles and Identity, LGBTI Community, Social Representations, Discourse Analysis, Critical Thinking..
(8) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 8. Resumen El propósito de esta investigación es promover pensamiento crítico en asuntos de género que puedan surgir a través de las discusiones planteadas durante las clases de inglés como lengua extranjera. El estudio fue realizado con un grupo de estudiantes de grado décimo en una institución educativa en la ciudad de Bogotá, D.C. Las principales variables identificadas corresponden a las distintas percepciones de los estudiantes con respecto al tema, sus experiencias y resultados de aprendizaje. Los instrumentos para la recolección de datos que guiaron esta investigación descriptiva corresponden a observaciones, cuestionarios y artefactos, los cuales permitieron identificar las percepciones y el entendimiento que los estudiantes poseían respecto a asuntos de género, tales como identidad, roles, estereotipos y perspectivas en general. Se resaltan las contribuciones de Van Dijk, T. (2014) en relación con el concepto “Análisis del Discurso”, y Clark R y R. Ivanic (1999) en relación con el pensamiento y conciencia crítica del lenguaje. Los hallazgos indican que los asuntos de género son realmente importantes para lograr su entendimiento, tolerancia e inclusive identidad. Además, fueron conscientes de los problemas que pueden ser evidenciados en el entorno que los rodea. Asimismo, los aprendices establecieron que el fomento de la consciencia del lenguaje que se usa debe ser un compromiso social. Igualmente, los estudiantes destacaron los roles tanto de hombres como de mujeres con el objetivo de asegurar su desarrollo personal. Con respecto al desarrollo de la competencia lingüística, la población adquirió nuevo vocabulario y habilidades de escucha de información específica. Los datos indicaron que los participantes ganaron resultados de aprendizaje tales como el debate, la traducción, etc. Palabras clave: Aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera, Identidad y Roles de Género, Comunidad LGBTI, Representaciones Sociales, Análisis del Discurso, Pensamiento Crítico..
(9) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 9. Introduction Nowadays, gender has become a huge issue which is strongly faced by teachers and students. Gender issues and sexual diversity have been studied for many years, and dealing with such issues has been studied in many aspects and fields. Considering the facts that gender has become a current problem which still affects the population around the world, as pre-service teacher, I aim to analyze the educational context and the needs that students face nowadays. Therefore, on this particular occasion, I decided to develop this project which aimed at analyzing students’ interactions and perspectives on gender issues and sexual diversity. The study of these interactions will be carried based on Dewey’s perspectives of the education as the reconstruction of experience. This project attempts to develop the sociocognitive approach through a qualitative research in the educational context to generate critical language awareness in students on current situations about gender issues and sexual diversity. According to Lilian Katz (2014), the quality of accomplishment in project work is strongly related to various aspects of the topic under investigation. Likewise, I would like to develop pedagogical intervention which facilitates student’s comprehension of current situations and mainly the issue of gender in order to generate critical ideas, discussion and to assess possible solutions to gender-related problems. Therefore, discourse analysis is used in this study as way to understand the interaction between every gender identity and how the reactions are manifested in terms of differences, dominance and role. On the other hand, as a pre-service teacher, I noticed that some gender issues in school are minimized. Through questionnaires, checklists, observations and field notes as data collection instruments, I want to analyze how tenth-graders of “República de Colombia” public school deal with gender issues. The Language perspective used is that of Jean Piaget’s Cognitive.
(10) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 10. interactionism, which affirms “there is an interaction between a child and the environment, and this is a focal point for his theory”. He believed that children could not learn unless they were constantly interacting with their environment, making mistakes and then learning from them. Accordingly, “development results from interaction and transaction among children and their social and physical environment children build cognitive development through active learning” (Bickhard, 1997). This will be done in order to integrate the theory and the perspective which seeks to examine social issues in attitudinal development and awarenessraising in an educational context..
(11) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 11. Justification This research project is developed in order to explain and understand the perspectives students have about the gender roles in LGBTI community. Since I was starting my practicum in schools, I noticed this issue could be an interesting factor that could be studied from the students’ perspective. It has a social and pedagogical importance from the perspective of the teacher; it will give some solutions, contributions and even questions for the professional development. Additionally, this project would be a huge contribution for my personal life and the understanding of the thoughts of the society, the way those thoughts are acquired and put into practice by people. Due to the variety of the contexts of the population studied in this case, the contributions will be very different in each case; the contributions will not only be for the researcher and population studied. The idea of the project is also to give the future teacher-researchers some tools and evidences about this specific population, however this can be further studied or even compared with other populations, contexts or methodologies. It is evident that society has many stereotypes and prejudices towards some specific communities, and that will also be another social contribution in terms of being more objective at the moment of observing and criticizing something or someone. After every student has given his/her opinion and studied his/her own expectations about the project, they will be able to analyze their results with the help of the contributions and clarifications by the teacher. Besides, they are also going to acquire critical language thinking about gender and sexual diversity according to their experiences in the sessions and current situations. Additionally, the project is going to be a great experience for all of the students, who will observe the process and results of it..
(12) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 12. Chapter I Problem Statement Jacobs, J. (1996) affirms that gender inequality has been a real fact, not only in the field of education, but also in the societies at large. For example, women remain a minority of faculty and are disadvantaged in terms of rank and institutional prestige. I have found a lot of problems in classrooms, despite of my short experience, I have noticed a lot of things I can study and answer. Some of these problems have to do with gender issues. “Gender inequality in education takes many forms depending on the context. Though gender inequality affects girls and boys, women and men alike, girls and women are still more often disadvantaged” (UNESCO, 2015). Every student, by nature, tends to show (consciously or not) an attitude in issues related to gender. This has become such a relevant issue in today’s society, that it has even come to influence the way a class is developed. Atthill, C (2009) affirms: Gender is not a women’s issue; it is a people’s issue. “Feminity” does not exist in isolation from “Masculinity”. The construction and power of one determines the construction and power of the other. Gender relations are neither “natural” nor given, they are constructed to make unequal relations seem “natural”, and can be naturalized only under the duress of socialization. Thus, there is undue pressure on boys and girls to live up to the established “norms” of masculinity and femininity.. Taking into account this problem, I made research for finding out what perceptions or/and attitudes students have about gender roles and LGBTI community and how to raise critical thinking in the specific group. This was evidenced through their works, and was taken from some writings, videos and some activities they will make along the process. See Annex 11 to.
(13) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 13. check an example of the surveys done with students. This study was done with tenth graders in a public school. According to Grossman, Herbert and Grossman, Suzanne H., “females and males experience disparate educational outcomes and fulfill different gender-specific roles both in school and in the larger society”. Most of the times, we, as teachers notice that students are supposed to have a role in the society generally, as girls or boys. Therefore, everybody is supposed to develop a role in a community, talking specifically about school environment. It is well known but often overlooked that some examinations, by which children used to be selected for secondary schooling, were deliberately skewed so that girls had to achieve better results than boys in order to gain entry to selective grammar schools. To do something different would have meant that grammar schools would have been overwhelmingly populated by girls (Epstein, D. 1998, p. 5)..
(14) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 14. Research Questions 1.. How to shape students’ perceptions about gender and sexual diversity in tenth graders. of Republica de Colombia School through critical thinking? 2.. How can tenth graders of Republica de Colombia School raise critical thinking about. LGBTI communities in Bogota? Objectives General objectives. 1.. To identify how students’ discourse arise concerning gender issues and sexual. diversity. 2.. To foster students’ critical awareness about gender and sexual diversity through the. use of discourse. Specific Objectives 1.. To promote critical thinking in students.. 2.. To identify students’ perceptions on gender issues and sexual diversity. 3.. To desmitify some assumptions that students might have about LGBTI communities..
(15) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 15. Chapter II Literature Review Taking into account some issues that were transcendental in the development of the two main topics chosen for this research (critical thinking and gender issue), both complement the focus in order to facilitate the understanding of the project. I will take into account some historical issues that made the topics important for this research, forward I will analyze some aspects which were carried out for the early researchers of the topics and some contributions that gave a comprehensible way to know and develop the topic. Critical thinking and gender issues are together and linked to this project through the background which represents each one. Therefore, both in this project are seen like an analytical way to face the current and past facts that have affected issues as human behavior, educational system and language development. These in order to understand how the world works and reacts when is facing different situations, and in this case how population is aware of the social situation in a modern world divided by social status, gender violence, corruption, and war. These aspects are the key to start the project developing the socio-critical perspective towards the two other aspects in order to supply the theory, the background and the engagement with the education. Below I wanted to share some information found about the two main issues and how these have been looked along years until now. James T. Sears affirms in his paper Helping Students Understand and Accept Sexual Diversity that for students to realize their full potential, every school must acknowledge the special needs of homosexual students, but they must also enhance students’ understanding of the sexual diversity within each person. Then we can start analyzing the current situation of the LGBTI communities in Bogota. There are a lot of harassed communities because of the.
(16) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 16. intolerance of some people. This paper aims to explore all these contents in order to promote that critical language awareness in students, and they need to experience some cases to get the understanding of some situations. However, it is important to notice how, teachers allow and back up students to perpetuate themselves in a power or less powerful position, preventing other students from learning or participating in classes; and this kind of actions can be compared to Francisco Rondon’s works, where he found that the opportunities that an EFL class offers for gendered-narratives are evidenced in these accounts (Rondon, F. 2012), for instance, the addressed classes aimed at revising grammar topics like superlatives, present perfect, simple past tense, or vocabulary exercises like parts of the body and diseases. This author also has another interesting work: LGBT Students’ Short Range Narratives and Gender. It really got my attention in terms of the results of the research. His participants were children who really demonstrated their critical language thinking about the LGBTI communities in general, although it should be clarified that my project attempts to clarify this visions in a local term. In addition to linguistic theory, the approach draws from social theory and contributions from Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu in order to examine ideologies and power relations involved in discourse and actions. Language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology, and through being both a site of, and a stake in, struggles for power. Ideology has been called the basis of the social representations of groups. Gender. Holmes, J. and Meyerhoff, M (2003) affirm: “Gender is treated as the accomplishment and product of social interaction. The focus.
(17) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 17. is on the way individuals "do" or "perform" their gender identity in interaction with others, and there is an emphasis on dynamic aspects of interaction. Gender emerges over time in interaction with others”. Nowadays, Gender looks for analyze how people behave in different situation, gender is a means to understand some aspects of the human behavior like changes and attitudes and the importance in their social development. However, gender is understood as the way how a person behaves in his/her context but it is relative when people try to behave who they are or when they behave as the society hopes, and in this aspect is when gender couldn’t be mentioned as part of the human development. I have found many studies related to gender, for example Maria Ximena Rojas in her study “Female EFL teachers shifting and multiple gender and language-learner identities”, identifies specific moments where some students are more powerful than others. This author affirms that power is always circulating among teachers and students. That power relation can be very visible even in our classes in university, it is very clear that academy is a process and a moment to teach and learn, nevertheless, the vision of the academy that most of the people have refers to the teacher as the owner of the only truth and the student as the empty space to fill. In the same way, I analyzed Norma Duran’s paper, “Exploring gender differences in the EFL classroom”, where she analyzes and identifies some important strategies and factors which clarify my paper. In the findings of that research, the strategies used by the teacher showed how her discourse as well as her attitude, generated differential treatment towards the students, who showed their evolving conceptions about the opposite sex and at the same time, such conceptions operated as shapers of their own identity as well as their peers, it is very.
(18) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 18. important to notice that at the beginning of the research, students show a clear attitude and positioning either male or female, but the author affirms the gender goes beyond. Despite of time, people still follow their beliefs and it produces they judge based on what is good or bad according to moral and subjective issues. Gender is a continuous fight between the stronger and weaker, and here is where the problem emerges. Gender Roles in the Last Centuries. In the western world (21st century), people treated kind of skeptically the idea that men and women naturally had different characteristics, however this idea is almost a universal imaginary since eighteenth century. “Ideas about gender difference were derived from classical thought, Christian ideology, and contemporary science and medicine. Men and women were thought to inhabit bodies with different physical make-ups and to possess fundamentally different qualities and virtues” (Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T. & Shoemaker, R., 2016). Therefore, as men were viewed as the strong sex, they were supposed to be courageous, brave, determined and intelligent. On the other hand, women were more supposed to be more emotional and sentimental, therefore their actions had to be with modesty, compassion, love chastity, etc. Emsley, C; Hitchcock, T and Shoemaker R (2016). By those years, men were expected to be more aggressive; and women more submissive and almost inferior to men. Such differences were reflected in the aspects to which each one was expected to be likely. Men were inclined to violence, obstinacy, and even selfishness, while women were viewed as the emotional ones, their actions were the result of their tendency to be ruled by their bodies and their feelings, notably lust, excessive passion, illtemper, and laziness..
(19) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 19. It is evident that even by this epoch, everybody assumes a role according to his/her gender identity. Emsley, C; Hitchcock, T and Shoemaker R (2016) affirm: “Expectations of male and female conduct derived from perceived virtues and weaknesses. In marriage, men were expected to rule over their wives, and all property (except in some cases property acquired by the woman before marriage) belonged to the husband. Men were the primary wage earners, while women were expected to be primarily responsible for housework and childcare, though both sexes participated in all these activities” Gender Roles in Current Societies “The national trend toward a total integration of gender roles is reflected in women's education, professional achievement, and family income contributions. Currently, more women than men are enrolled in college, and women are expected to earn more graduate degrees than men over the next several years. In 2005, 22% of American households had two income earners, which suggests the presence of women in the workforce. However, in most contexts, women are still expected to be the primary homemakers, even if they are contributing to household income by working outside the home”. Boundless Sociology, “Gender Roles in the U.S.” (2016). Nowadays, everyone, even men or women are supposed to develop some activities in the society and some specific situations. Although there are many feminist groups who promote the change of traditional gender roles, we can still notice that the gender equity is lacking a lot of issues. Many people tend to confuse the feminism with sexism, which attempts to victimize women over men or vice versa, but the history has demonstrated the achievements men and women have done in terms of culture, politics, education, etc..
(20) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 20. Gender concerns the physiological, social and cultural differences between males and females. “By discourse are to be understood units and forms of speech of interaction, which can be part of everyday linguistics behavior”. (Brünner, G & Graefen, G, 1994). Gender and discourse facilitate people interaction between their role in the society and the way how they perform that role in aspects like social life, jobs, family. E.g.: the workplace, as well as the family. The discourse and gender work together looking for establish relations among men and women, and the idea is to help researchers realize how their discourses are, how different or how similar, what kind of aspects could be rescued and what other should be avoided. It facilitates an understanding that comes from the background of each individual, and the awareness with each current issue. The discourse is result and part of a process which gives evidence of the input of each individual. Gender inequality. Gender inequality tends to focus on the disparities that exist among people based on their gender rather than objective differences in skills, abilities, or even other characteristics. Gender inequalities may be obvious (e.g., not having the same kinds of jobs in many cases) or subtle (e.g., not being given the same opportunities for working or studying). In spite of the strides taken to eradicate gender inequality over years, it still remains in societies. There are many feminist perspectives of gender inequality, including that of liberal feminism, socialist feminism, radical feminism, and multiracial feminism (Research Starters, Feminist Theories of Gender Inequality,2016). Every feminist perspective attempts to generate gender equality, independently of men, women or whoever. Nevertheless, it is important to clarify that gender equity goes beyond getting equal pay, equal work level, and education. Equity must be understood in every sense, such as cultural, political, social, economic, educational, etc..
(21) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 21. A minority or subordinated group or community is identified for some different factors, such as treatment, characteristics that distinguish them from the dominant group (for example cultural features), involuntary membership, status in society, payment, among others. In this case, the groups have a gender order. According to Ahl, H. (2003), “the prohibition is the first and most obvious of the exclusion procedures” in specific situations and society in general and it is evident when we observe historical issues in which women were forbidden some actions and aspects such as taking decisions by themselves; we actually know that women have done many fights in order to be heard and respected by others. The achievements have been a lot; however, women are still punished and rejected by society when they do some actions in order to feel free and autonomous. There are clearly some countries and communities where those rejections and punishing actions are more evident. We can also find some religions that treat women as inferior, and this has a historical explanation. As it was mentioned before, in the last centuries the vision about women was a little different to the current, however, some cultures haven’t changed their visions and even their gender roles. Islam is a good example of this, Carland, S. (2017), affirms that Muslim women are a skeptical community because they are a minority, commonly feeling under siege or risk. She also does an interesting comparison and blooper when she mentions the word “Hislam”, an approximation to the male focus of that religion. Feminism. It is one of the most major contemporary sociological theories; it analyzes the status of men and women in a culture or society in order to use that analysis to improve people’s lives and to eradicate gender violence, men over women, and viceversa. However, feminist.
(22) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 22. theories are more concerned to give a voice to women, because along the history, they have been oppressed by the other gender, just because they are and were considered weak by many people. Judith Lorber manages to explain very well the variety of feminisms and their contributions in fields, there are 11 types of feminism which will be briefly explained here in order to understand the debates and contributions along history. Liberal Feminism: Its main goal in the United States was to ask for the same rights in the constitution, and the diffusion of discrimination factors, such as gendered job markets and inequitable wage scales. Activists organized themselves and their main contribution in societies (around the world) has been demonstrating and making public how modern and old societies have discriminated women. Marxist and socialist feminisms. It had been based on Marxist analysis of the society structure of capitalism, which explained the way a person could be a capitalist or even part of the proletariat. In that analysis, Marx didn’t let place to the wives of business man, who could get to be proletariat, and at the same time wives of capitalist men. That was actually the main contribution of socialist feminists, who put housewives into the structure of capitalism, and gave them the importance in society. Development feminism. The main goal for it has been fighting and analyzing for women role in global economy. The author well demonstrated that in most of the countries, men are better paid than women. Development feminism made an important theoretical contribution in equating women's status with control of economic resources. Radical feminism. In this case, the inequality is viewed more socially, radical feminists mainly wanted to eradicate “patriarchy”, which according to themselves is not so easy.
(23) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 23. because its root is eradicated in minds. So it can be resisted but forming spaces where men and women could act and think free. Lesbian feminism. One theoretical lesbian feminism concept is that of the lesbian continuum, where a lesbian can be any independent, woman identified woman. This lesbian metaphor transforms love between women into an identity, a community, and a culture. And that is the main goal for them, related to having only “women relationships”. Psychoanalytic feminism. It claims that the source of men's domination of women is men's unconscious two-sided need for women's emotionality and rejection of them as potential castrators. That theory is linked to some psychological theories of personality development centers around the Oedipus complex. Standpoint feminism. Here, women and women’s perspectives must be central of knowledge and values. According to this feminists, they must be heard if women are to challenge hegemonic values. Multi-ethnic feminism. The important point made by multi-ethnic feminism is that the subordinate group is not marked just by gender or by ethnicity or religion, but is in a social location in multiple systems of domination. Men are as oppressed as women, but men and women of disadvantaged groups are often oppressed in different ways. Men’s feminism. This applies the theories but in men and masculinity. The main idea is to make men conscious about the inequality over them too. Social construction feminism. It mainly looks at the structure of the gendered social order as a whole. It sees gender as a societal structure and power relations. Postmodern feminism and queer theory. “They critique a politics based on a universal.
(24) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 24. category, Woman, presenting instead a more subversive view that undermines the solidity of a social order built on concepts of two sexes, two sexualities, and two genders”. (Lorber, J, 1997, p. 32) The Functionalist Perspective. “The functionalist perspective attempts to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual and social needs. It is sometimes called structural-functionalism because it often focuses on the ways social structures (e.g., social institutions) meet social needs”. Boundless. “The Functionalist Perspective.” 2016. It has studied and downplayed the individual action, over the social action, nevertheless, in this case is important because it focuses on some specific actions, for example the actions about gender, about women over men or viceversa. According to Durkheim, E, the functionalism is characterized by an empiric approach that defends advantages of the field work. The author analyzes the structure of society but he lands it in educational context. He thinks the person is conformed by an individual and a social being, defined by the social norms and conducts; that is why he affirms the importance of the education in the social being, because it is also viewed as a socialization process, whose main social function is to implement social norms, beliefs and feelings which the person will put into practice further. LGBTI Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual and intersexual people are nowadays discriminated by many people, and shortly accepted by others. One of the obstacles for permitting and implementing more inclusive actions in Colombia, more specifically, is that it.
(25) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 25. is a catholic country in its majority, which would be expected to show conservative attitudes. However, there are some organizations who clearly fight for defending their rights in society. Taking into account the different perspectives or main topics of the research, I have taken into account some different works already done which have to do with my topics of interest, which are the project work approach, critical language awareness and gender issues I wanted to explore researches which involved my topics of interest and also found Affirming diversity through reading where Julia Posada explains that there is an internalization of the values which characterize the Western capitalist society we live in. A society ruled by dichotomies such as male/female, white/black, and rich/poor, here we can identify some important factors, not only about gender but also reading on social inequalities there are nowadays. Another paper that involves gender is an interesting thesis, made by Johanna Robles in 2009; Exploring gender issues through critical reading of fairy tales was a way to discover that students are able to develop critical reading processes where they can identify and analyze how gender is portrayed in fairy tales. The author affirms that the students reflected about the construction and implementation that gender has in their society and life, in addition, they discovered their own perceptions about this issue and became aware of different situations about gender, and despite of the lack of the motivation people nowadays have for reading and writing, the author proves that it is possible to create narratives and new knowledges through the use of reading and writing. On the other hand, Karen Castiblanco (2007) also researched on gender issues and workshops to find out students positioning, she explored at student’s perspectives with workshops, where readings, role plays, etc., can be found. The author found that most of the students are influenced by those activities and their way of think has to do with that..
(26) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 26. There are also some papers that were not made in Colombian contexts, however, they have very important data and experiences which contribute to my project. Fateme Esmaily affirms in her paper that there is no doubt regarding the crucial role textbooks play in learning language. One of the issues recently attracted the attentions of researchers especially the critical discourse analysts, is the investigation of gender bias or sexism in different domains including textbooks. Textbooks are places for instilling every society’s ideology. ELT textbooks among other textbooks are the places of portraying and challenging gender. On the other hand, Zebun Nisa Khan, studies the roles of gender in the educational environment. He concludes that girls are disadvantaged or underprivileged because they have not been able to take the full benefit of the available opportunities and amenities due to several economic factors and social-cultural. Critical Awareness I took into account some aspects in terms of language, such as communicative competences, relationship between language and learning, language and thinking. Then, this term is taken into account because it played an important role for promoting critical in students. Clark and Ivanic (1999) refer to this approach focusing on the relationship between language and social context, “it includes awareness of the ways in which language represents the world and reflects and constructs the power relations” (Clark and Ivanicˇ, 1999). Fairclough also shares with some authors who advocate the communicative approach the view that language practice should be purpose-oriented and closely related to the real needs and motivations of specific real audiences, in that case, the language teaching and learning should have specific objectives, related to the context of the students for making things more understandable for them..
(27) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 27. Critical Language Thinking It can be defined as “the disciplined art of ensuring that we use the best thinking we are capable of in any set of circumstances. The general goal of thinking is to "figure out the lay of the land." We all have multiple choices to make. We need the best information to make the best choices.” (Elder, L & Paul, R, 2001). That can be used in many fields, and in this case, I will take this into account for promoting Critical Language Awareness in students. This will be developed and evidenced in the data collected; at the end of the project, the students will be able to produce a critical thinking, according to their experiences and knowledge, and additionally according to the specific topic treated in this project (gender issues and LGBTI communities) Critical Thinking According to Glaser, E., (1941) the ability to think critically, involves different things such as an attitude of being willing to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of own experiences, he also affirms it is important the knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, and finally some skill in applying those methods. Critical thinking is used in this research as an objective and also as a means to understand how students perceive the concern of the study. At the end of this research, they will be able to express their ideas critically and argument instead of just giving opinions. It is important to take into account that this is an autonomous process in which students will have the ability to criticize the opinions and arguments around them, being rational, reasonable, empathical, and of course aware. Discourse Analysis.
(28) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 28. According to Maclure, M. (2003), “notions of discourse have now disseminated so widely across the arts and social sciences that they can be found “inside” almost every discipline, under hybrid names that do not always explicitly advertise their discursive orientation”. In this case, educational research will help me understand the definition and type of discourse evidenced here. Its main function is to examine patterns of language across texts or speech and considers the relationship between language and also the social and cultural contexts in which it can be used (Paltridge, B, 2006, p. 2). The idea of using this as a tool is to have a better organization for analyzing what students think and say about the central topic of the project (gender issues and LGBTI communities). According to Gee, P. (2000), there are some cultural models, which can be about appropriate attitudes, viewpoints beliefs and values, ways of acting, interacting, participating, and so on. Those cultural models are evident in the discourse of each student, and in that case the researcher must be very objective and stablish some parameters for having always into account the objectives of the analyses. According to Van Dijk, T (1985), “The presupposition of such analyses is that ideologies of speakers or writers may be uncovered by close reading, understanding or systematic analysis, if language users explicitly or unwittingly express their ideologies through language and communication”. So the idea of this project is also to understand how well students use their understandings and English language for expressing their ideas, opinions and arguments..
(29) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 29. Chapter III Instructional Design For my pedagogical intervention, I worked with Vigotsky’s Social Development Theory, which talks about the importance of the cognitive development through social actions. As it was already mentioned, the author stablishes there are two levels in the individual development, the social and the individual one. After someone interacts with other people, he/she tends to internalize all the knowledge of the interaction. In this case, students will be able to share ideas and arguments one another, being critical. Instructional Objective To identify how social development theory affects students’ thinking. To promote critical thinking on students about gender and sexual diversity. Pedagogical Question How can Social Development Theory strengthen or change students’ perceptions about gender roles and LGBTI communities? Intervention as innovation There have been many studies about gender in education; however, in this case I will explore further how gender issues and LGBTI communities are evidenced and perceived by the students and how the critical thinking can be arisen by them. That is why I will use SDT; in this project, social interaction will be one of the most important issues to evidence the perspective of the students and discourse analysis will help me classifying, understanding and analyzing the written and spoken discourses of the students..
(30) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 30. Theory of Language This theory recognizes that both biological and environmental factors are important in the development of the cognitive process in each individual. Vygotsky affirms that learning a second language “must be studied in all its breadth and in all its depth as it affects the whole mental development of the child’s personality taken as a whole” (1997b, p. 259). Additionally, he describes an aspect called the “Zone of proximal development”, which is a key for understanding his theory: It has two levels, the first one is the “present level of development” that shows what the person is actually capable of doing. The second level is called the “potential level of development”, and it shows what the person could be potentially able of doing with the help of others. So the gap between the level 1 and 2 is what Vigotsky actually defines as the zone of proximal development, he affirmed that with the help of more people, a person is capable of more things than without help. However, this help must be recognized and interiorized by the child, or this ZPD won’t be effective. This can be better understood in the Figure 1. Many schools have traditionally conducted an instructionist model in which a teacher transmits or gives information to the students. In contrast, Vygotsky’s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning. Roles of the teacher and student are shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students. Learning then becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teacher too..
(31) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 31. Figure 1: Graphic of “Zone of proximal development”. Theory of Language Learning There have been many types of discussions related to the language learning, well first or second language learning and acquisition. There have been authors whose focus is the second language learning, and in that sense, they argue that language can be taught to children in the same way we teach them any other thing. There have been others, who really give the focus to the language and recognize its importance and its complexity for being explained or taught. It is well known the linguistic or innatist theories that affirm the first language is acquired by imitation, and it has many aspects that are preprogrammed in the individual and it is not mandatory to be taught in explicit ways. However, our focus will be the second language learning, which actually has many theories, they differ from the aspects in shape for teaching, learning, to the aspects in the contents and also environment. In sociocultural model, we can also notice that “the interaction is observed by the child and then the behavior later develops inside the child” (Henschen, K, 2012)..
(32) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 32. This instructional design is going to be developed in a short time with 10th graders, this is going to be the fundamental basis or argument for the project, because the students are who will show the results of the research as a whole. For that reason, in addition to the research objectives, there is also an instructional objective that will guide the application of the surveys, questionnaires, etc., that objective is designed for maintaining the research line and focus. Description of the Lessons The instructional design was developed in three sessions. The main objective applied in these, was to discover what students know and ignore about gender issues and LGBTI community. Every session was basically divided in three phases, which were the activation of the topic or the introduction of it, the second phase had to do with the presentation of what I was going to work on. After that, the students carried out some writing activities for expressing different aspects that would be further analyzed, such as their experiences, their thoughts, previous knowledge, etc. Sample of the Lessons Lesson No. 1 (Annex 1) Topic: Professions Grade: 1003 Date: April 26th 2017 Objectives: 1.. To relate the topic to students’ future life..
(33) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 33. 2.. To reinforce and show some new vocabulary.. 3.. To start a reading comprehension in order to acquire critical thinking language.. 4.. To acquire historical knowledge about the Women’s day. 5.. To give critical arguments about women’s day. Grammar Structure: Simple tenses New Vocabulary: Encounter, gender, worker, admist, commemorate, campaign, discussions, jobs, professions, roles, careers. Opening of the Lesson: Activation of previous knowledge. Students are supposed to start giving some key words about professions. Then they’ll develop a short worksheet. Then, the teacher will explain some professions, in order to know what students want to study. This, for recognizing how students see themselves in the future, and for discovering what their expectations of roles in the society are. Presentation: In this stage, the teacher will present the video “Jobs and Occupations: English Language” in which the students will know some of the professions in the English language, and then they must answer this question: - What can be the ideal profession for you as a man or woman? Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=so2QHzbU_Eg.
(34) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 34. Production: The students are supposed to have some color papers and information about their career, they must make a brochures explaining what the career is about. Then, students must organize the brochures in which they show what the ideal professions for men and women are, according to what they think.. Learner’s Role In the development of this research project, I expected students to be autonomous of their own learning process, in addition to express their thoughts and perspectives towards the topic of the research. Students were supposed to follow certain steps to express their ideas and feelings too. They had to be aware of their own process, and interpreters of what they understood..
(35) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 35. At the beginning they were supposed to activate their previous knowledge and develop some activities that were useful for them to clarify concepts, express ideas, and develop critical language thinking. Finally, students were able to understand what they read, to express opinions and to think and even speak critically about gender issues and LGBTI community. Teacher’s Role The role of the teacher in this case, can be defined in many aspects, starting with designing and developing the lessons done in this project. It must be clear that the teacher has to domain all of the topics that would be treated in class, besides he/she must be able to clarify students’ questions and doubts. The teacher would also be a guide for the students, in terms of doing accomplishment but not taking the direction of the learning process. This means that the process will be lead more by the students that the teacher. In my practicum, I have noticed that most of the students are used to depend on what a teacher says or orders. In this case, I would only accompany learners in the development of the project..
(36) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 36. Chapter IV Research Design Research questions. What kind of perspectives can be evidenced in tenth graders of Republica de Colombia School about gender and sexual diversity? How can tenth graders of Republica de Colombia School raise critical language awareness about LGBTI communities in Bogota through project work? Objectives. General Objectives To identify how students’ discourse emerge and develop in regards to gender issues and sexual diversity. To foster students’ awareness about gender and sexual diversity through the use of discourse. Specific Objectives To promote critical language thinking in students. To identify students’ perceptions on gender issue and sexual diversity To desmitify some assumptions that students have about LGBTI communities..
(37) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 37. Type of Research Approach This project is developed through qualitative research, which attempts to explore on the students’ perspectives, interaction, behavior and discourse. It is mostly used in small groups, because it doesn’t have statistics structure, but it guides and supports the possible constructions of hypotheses. In that sense, the expected results will be descriptive, more than predictive. Additionally, in qualitative research, special attention is given to the researcher and also to the research participants, in this case the researcher needs to be involved in the students’ context, at least in the academic. According to Flick, U (2006, p. 32) there is a list of qualitative research features: Appropriateness of theories and methods. There are studies that can be held in many theories of methods, however it is depending on the length of the research, that the researcher will decide which method(s) to use in the project. Perspectives of the participants and their diversity. This is a very important feature in qualitative research, due to most of the times those perspectives are the target of the research. So the researcher must take in to account those perspectives as group and as individual too. Reflexivity of the researcher and the research. “Researchers' reflections on their actions and observations in the field, their impressions, irritations, feelings, and so on, become data in their own right, forming part of the interpretation” (Flick, U, 2006, p. 34) Variety of approaches and methods in qualitative research. This, in addition to a feature, becomes a tool for making the research innovative, because there are lots of approaches and methods that the researcher can use and make unique and new the investigation..
(38) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 38. In this project, the main tools and topics are gender, LGBTI communities, discourse analysis and social learning. The relationship between the two last has to do with the complement from one to the other, so, for analyzing the discourse of the students, I will stablish some parameters from social development theory, because that will be the basis for working in the classroom, where students interact, learn and even teach too. This will also help me solving my questions because I will evidence the perspectives of the students based on the social interaction, and the data collected will be analyzed through the discourse analysis.. Type of Study Action research. According to Watts (1985, p. 118), “Action research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research”. Those techniques used by researchers can be assumed based on some assumptions, such as problems identified for themselves, assessing their own work and looking for ways to work differently, collaborative work, and professional development. Then, there are different ways of Action Research, within I’m going to work on Individual Teacher Research, which focuses on a single issue in the classroom and the researcher attempts to seeking solutions to problems in many aspects, such as classroom management, instructional strategies, implementation of pedagogical material or strategies, etc. In this case, I am going to work on this type of research because the participants are also going to develop their own projects, they will be autonomous but also guided by the teachers..
(39) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 39. While Noffke suggests that this research methodology lends itself effectively to a broad range of beliefs and relationships - analogous to a family, Reason and Bradbury postulate that collaborative efforts help develop practical ideas to assist with the pursuit of worthwhile human purposes. Specifically, they contend that the participatory, democratic process of action research seeks to bring together action and reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in the pursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people, and more generally the flourishing of individual persons and their communities. I analyze and understand action research from different points of view which also involve research development as well, in this case education is a means to understand and facilitate our study works. Therefore, “action research is an attractive option for teacher researchers, school administrative staff, and other stakeholders in the teaching and learning environment to consider” (Mills, 2011). Specifically, action research in education can be defined as the process of studying a school situation to understand and improve the quality of the educative process (Hensen, 1996; Johnson, 2012; McTaggart, 1997). That has many results as practitioners with new critical knowledge and understanding about how to improve educational practices or solve specific significant problems in classrooms and schools (Mills, 2011; Stringer, 2008). These opportunities also facilitate the professional development of teachers (Barone et al., 1996), increasing teacher empowerment and linking the process of research and practice. A group of teachers or even a single teacher can lead an educational action research who share interests in a common problem, or even in a specific setting. These are seven steps which describe the action: 1.. Selecting a focus.
(40) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 2.. Clarifying theories. 3.. Identifying research questions. 4.. Collecting data. 5.. Analyzing data. 6.. Reporting results. 7.. Taking informed action. 40. Selecting a focus. It demands on today's classroom teachers facilitate researchers’ looks for analyzing what aspects of student learning we wish to investigate. This is an initial but one of the most transcendental steps in research design. Clarifying theories. It identifies the values, beliefs, and theoretical perspectives the researchers hold relating to his focus. Researcher must take into account his research area and also identifies backgrounds to support his study. In this case I aim to know students’ positioning in gender issues and LGBTI communities and clarify some approaches by using discourse analysis in order to raise awareness in the main topic. Identifying research questions. The researcher's perspectives and beliefs about the focus help in the study to address what is the main perspective to work on, this develops on researcher a need to make goals in the development of meaningful research questions to guide the inquiry. Collecting data. Validity and feasibility are the main tools when we work on collecting data, researchers must think beyond of what data will be evidenced and how this can or can’t impact in the study, the researcher is in charge of piloting their study in order to provide confidence before they start to carry out the study..
(41) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 41. Analyzing data. The researcher can acquire a better understanding of the phenomenon under investigation and as a result can end up producing grounded theory regarding what might be done to improve the situation. This is a careful process to notice if the findings in the study are useful and also how to address them in terms of research analysis. Reporting results. Researchers are writing up their work for publication or to help fulfill requirements in graduate programs. Regardless the technique educators select for reporting on research is important to provide information about the research project results, how the researcher collected all this information and what was the methodology used. Taking informed action. Action planning refers on how the uncover areas are evident taking into account the previous steps and this analysis on both, teacher and students learning. Research could be directed with errors found along the study and these should be avoided. More than a reinforcement this looks for rebuilt some aspects according to validate and makes this reliable from the data of the study. Action inquiry cycle. Action inquiry is a generic term for any process that follows a cycle in which one improves practice by systematically oscillating between taking actions in the field of practice, and inquiring into it. 0ne plans, implements, describes, and evaluates an improving change to one’s practice, learning more about both the practice and action inquiry in the process. Population This project will be held in Republica de Colombia School, located in Bogota, a diverse city, full of people from different regions, situations, and socioeconomic status. The school is located in the west of the city, the zone is called “Engativa” and most of the people there, have socioeconomic status 2 or 3. The name of the neighborhood is “La Estrada”, and the.
(42) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 42. school is well located, near many places. However, the school is public, so the level of demand and academic requirements for the students is not high. The population who I am going to work with is a group of 32 adolescents of tenth grade. Most of them are of socioeconomic status 1 or 2, they are students who have different needs and perspectives about life, conditioned many times by their own experiences. The school has been actually recognized by one of the best public schools in Bogota, and it also offers elementary, basic and middle education, in mornings, afternoons, and nights (for adults). It is well to recognize that many graduated from there, have gotten excellent academic careers. Data Gathering There are many types of instruments for collecting the data needed in this research. According to Olsen, W (2011, p. 3) “Research consists in more intensive study, usually involving getting information that would surprise some audiences, and analyzing the information carefully before writing up the results”, So the research can’t be obvious in terms of the expectations of the results, taking into account this is a qualitative research, and I will work with humans, the results can vary and turn different the line of investigation. Understanding the techniques based on participant observation "combines participation in the lives of the people being studied with maintenance of a professional distance that allows adequate observation and recording of data" (Fetterman, 1998). This study facilitates the use of observation in each lesson proposed by using a formal research paper which teacher could report each lesson based on lesson’s objectives and teaching as well. I will support my observation according to the instruments selected and defined below where researcher can analyze student’s reactions, perceptions, behaviors and changes along the pedagogical intervention is being developed..
(43) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 43. Data Collection Instruments In this case, I will use some instruments that’ll be useful for determining what the students think about gender roles and LGBTI community. Questionnaire. It is an instrument for collecting the primary data (Cohen,2013). It is done in a series of specific questions designed to elicit information, where participants will answer according to their knowledge or experiences. Although it is the most common instrument in data collection, it facilitates such the teacher as the students, understanding the problematics and the objectives of the project. It is important to know that the questionnaires can be done in oral or written way too, however, I will apply them written. Within these questionnaires there will be some open-ended questions (those where participants are asked to answer each question in their own words), and some closed-ended questions (those that might have a list of predetermined responses from which to choose). Checklists. There are items that comprise some questions on a topic and ask to the same response format. The idea of the checklists is more specific; they are used when the researcher wants to know or stablish some specific parameters or statistics of the topic. Observation. This is also of the main instruments in qualitative research, because it is widely open to the response of the participants. According to Lynn, D (2010) “a researcher may interact with participants and become part of their community”. There are structured and also unstructured observations, and each one has different characteristics and moments to be used. Structured observation requires of preparing record-keeping forms such as category systems, rating scales or checklists. Unstructured observation is characterized because it is a method that has opponents and proponents, and it can be up to the participants and results..
(44) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 44. Chapter V Data Analysis This section presents the analysis done, the methodology and procedures followed for this process. Discourse analysis was the basis for developing this project; according to Fasold (1990, p. 65) “the study of discourse is the study of language use”, so I used this as a tool for analyze what the students think and how they do. Therefore, discourse analysis takes into account the human, colloquial and cultural use of language in specific contexts. It is important to clarify that discourses can be written or spoken, and in this case, written discourses will be analyzed. Data analysis procedures. In this case, there were some steps done in order to find out some previous knowledge and opinions that students can have about gender issues and LGBTI community. The first thing I wanted to find out was stereotypes, which have to do with the previous education (formal or not) on the topics. I first designed two surveys in which 13 students should just write or select options according to their opinions. The first “worksheet” was about making a circle in the couples they considered normal in the society. As follows: Categories. After analyzing the data collected, I identified four main categories which help answering the research question of this project. 1. 2.. Stereotypes of students related to family and gender roles Students’ Gender Identity.
(45) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 3. 4.. 45. General Knowledge about Gender Hierarchy Stablished in Society, Roles, Common and Uncommon Behaviors Variations and Changes in Perceptions about Family Roles and Gender Roles in the Classroom.. 7 6 5. 1st Survey 4 3 2 1 Heterosexual Couples. Homosexual Couples. Figure 2. Survey about “Regular Couples in Society” (Results) In the first survey, students were supposed to circle the couples “normal in society” according to their opinion. The chart had some different pictures of heterosexual and homosexual couples. It was evident that more than half of the students agreed with “Homosexual couples” as regular in societies. The 6 students who only circled the heterosexual couples correspond to the 46% of the participants in this research. In the other graphic (See Figure 1) second graphic, it is noticed that students developed a questionnaire in which they read some questions about gender roles in society and had to put.
(46) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 46. an X where they fitted in, the options for answers were: Strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The main objective for doing these two exercises was to find out the first category, “stereotypes” which are defined as “shared beliefs about the characteristics and attributes associated with each sex” (Fiske & Taylor, 1991). In the first question most of the students (62%) strongly agreed with the fact stablished; this was the most significative fact analyzing this survey, it is very interesting the way how students perceive the female roles in society. In questions number 2 and 5, most of the students agreed too, and in this case, they also viewed men as “superior” in some cases, not only socially but also mentally. There was something very interesting in the 2 last questions, related to diverse families, in these two questions; nevertheless, these became ambiguous for some students because after solving the paper, they thought about two mothers like “mother and grandmother” (as an example) and two fathers as their actual father and the mother’s current boyfriend or something. However, this was clarified to the students and they could show their opinions about the topic as they were supposed to. 1.. Category 1. Stereotypes of students related to family and gender roles.. This category was evidenced according to a questionnaire that students solved and showed their thoughts and constructs. According to Schneider, D. (2003), “Stereotypes are the common colds of social interaction—ubiquitous, infectious, irritating, and hard to get rid of”, they have origins in social practices and are acquired by many people. Nevertheless, when applied to people, then, stereotypes are rigid, and they stamp all to whom they apply to with the same characteristics..
(47) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 47. Students showed some stereotypes when solving the first questionnaire, in which they had to answer what the responsibilities of mothers and fathers were, as following:.
(48) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 48. Student N. 2 explained in a detailed way how he/she thinks mother and father must work at home, and most of the students, answered as well as student N. 1 did. For them, mothers’ responsibilities are focused on taking care of children, organizing houses, feeding others, etc. On the other hand, fathers’ responsibilities have to do with the economic support at home, hard work and giving a good life quality for the whole family. Category 2. Students’ Gender Identity. In this survey, there was a specific question about how students saw themselves inside a typical man or woman. This was actually very interesting because students showed how they perceive their roles in society. Here, the question was: Do you consider yourself as a typical man/woman? Why? Can you name some “typical” characteristics of each?.
(49) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 49. In this case, there were no generalities in students’ responses; most of them had different perspectives and visions of themselves inside a society. I can affirm this also reflects how active they are in the communities they live and how they can contribute to promote critical thinking. Student N. 1 is a man, who doesn’t consider himself as a typical man, but student N. 5 is a girl who actually considers herself as a typical woman but it might be because she looks at it inside a “typical or common society”. These constructs start at home in most of the cases, as the majority of the students showed in their speeches in some speaking activities.
(50) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 50. developed in class, such as “My mother always taught me to talk like this” or “my dad never let me cry in public”, in this way students started to build a self-image and behavior, what makes them be who they are today. Category 3. General Knowledge about Gender Hierarchy Stablished in Society, Roles, Common and Uncommon Behaviors Students were asked if they knew what a “machista” person was and they had many ideas about the answer, however, they got to similar conclusions. In these answers, students coincided in many words such as superiority, humiliate, etc. Most of the students made the teacher know they have met people with these behaviors, and they actually have had some of these attitudes. The Spanish word “machista” is understood in English as “male chauvinist”, defined by Kokemuller, N as “an attitude that causes men to talk about women and behave toward them in a certain way. Any behavior that conveys disrespect toward a colleague or co-worker based specifically on her gender suggests a feeling of superiority”..
(51) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 51. Category 4. Variations and Changes in Perceptions about Family Roles and Gender Roles in the Classroom.
(52) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 52. In the final session we had, students showed some differences in terms of opinions and perceptions towards the topic of this research. As I did some talks, and showed them some videos which were debated, few students shaped their subjectivity when talking about roles, identity and vision of the others. They acquired some knowledge and some discourses changed, students were able to develop it more than when they started. Grammatically, they still had many mistakes although they had the ability to express their ideas and make them understandable for the others..
(53) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 53. Chapter VI Conclusions The main concern of this research project was to inquire on students’ perspectives and thoughts of gender identity, roles and LGBTI community. This process showed that the focus of the content serves to approach formal and informal aspects of the language, it also helps and allows the expression of ideas, opinions and arguments. It also showed that the language can become a tool and also a scenario where students can develop and also promote critical language on gender issues. Students showed their level of understanding in regards to gender issues and LGBTI community. They also understood and noticed that there are some stereotypes present in society, and most of them are due to some constructs they learned and acquired. Therefore, it was very important to make students feel part of the whole process, they could identify themselves into gender. Additionally, many students recognized their families as responsible for keeping and teaching those stereotypes to them. It was evident that many students have some mean attitudes towards the opposite gender to theirs, and in some cases they weren’t aware of it. As time has passed families have had many traditions and beliefs that are part of the culture and of course there are some stereotypes taught generation by generation. In this sense, students understood that for acquiring critical language thinking it is necessary to overcome all the personal opinions and stereotypes people have about something or someone. They considered education as the best mechanism to help kids and teenagers to generate critical thinking, not only about gender and LGBTI, but also about every social issue in any community and space..
(54) CRITICAL THINKING IN 10TH GRADE BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS. 54. The application of the different activities and discussions in classes, helped students to analyze and reflect themselves on their attitudes towards the others. They had different ways to analyze and discuss, to share ideas each other taking into account their previous knowledge about the topic (gender, social problems, LGBTI community, etc.) Finally, the work on reading and writing showed that students really improved their understanding levels of English language, practicing on different grammar topics and applying them in real context, they understood the correct use and practice of the different skills..