Parkin.Cap.11-Competencia Perfecta

45 

Texto completo

(1)

cios cios poralmenre? poralmenre? L e L ec tc tu ru r e ne n r er e { E{ En en ea sa s abejas. abejas. Ex

Explplicicarar cocomomo sedesedetetermrmininanan elel precio

precio lala roroduducccc onon unun industria

industria papa ququ lala erernpnpreresasa entran

entran sasalele dede unun ininduduststriri Pr

Prededecec osos efefecec asas dede unun caca bibi en

en lala dedemamandnd unun avavanan tecnoloqico

tecnoloqico cam

campetpetencenciaia perperfecfectata

239 239

(2)

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(3)

240

240 COMCOM l'l'ETENETEN CICI I'I' I'I'EeTAEeTA

,Que

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Ia el

el revreveladelad forografico,forografico, lolo seservrvicicioio dede jajardrdininereriaia plorne- plorne-ri

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servrvicicioio LaLa escalaescala eficieficienteente minima

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peroro popodrdrfafa vevendnderer todatoda susu produccionproduccion d od o a ra re se s pOl'pOl' ki

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utilidades utilidades econdmicas, econdmicas, cos

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sa ngngreresoso ototalal dede 25

25 dodolalareres,s, sesea,a, 2222 dodolalareres,s, so

so (ln,(ln, ququ rereprpresesenentata grgrafaficica- a-so

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t\ t\ l'l'E R F E CE R F E C A?A? 241241 re re -0 -0 (; (; J2. J2. :Q :Q 5050 'E'E (; (; ITIT (; (; DemondoDemondo de de CoComimisoso :0

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sustst tutuirirsese asas caca sasa popo ototroro bibieneneses servicios.servicios.

et

(6)

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(7)

242

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(8)

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PFRFJ:CL\ PFRFJ:CL\ 243243 :Q :Q (; (; 0.. 0.. 300 300 3!. 3!. :§ :§ .2 .2 225225

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(11)

Pi

PiTUTULOLO IIII :>:>'l'l F.F. ENEN I'I'FRFRr:r:ECEC

An

Anal

alis

isls

ls ma

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al

and

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bia. ninivevelele dede prprododucuccici6n6n bajos,bajos, elel cocostst mamargrgininalal di

dismsmininuyuye,e, peperoro aumentaaumenta lala lalargrga.a. PoPo tanto,tanto, in

ingrgreses arargiginanal,l, elel osos rgrgininalal estdestd aumenrando.aumenrando.

cosro

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mas mas excedeexcede

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an o,o, susu ututilil dada ec

econonomomicic crcrecec sisi lala prprododucuccicionon aumenta.aumenta.

ginal

ginal (s(s IMgIMg CMg),CMg),

tanto, tanto, su

su urur lilidada ececononororninicaca didisrsrnininunu sisi prpr duduccccioio disminuye. disminuye. Si

Si elel iningrgreses mamargrgininalal iguigualal alal COSCOStotomarmarginginalal (si

(si ),),

regIa

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pr duduccccioio ququ axax ce lacela ututilil dada eses ecec n6n6 caca de

de unun ememprpreses

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r-dolares,

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excedealal cocosrsr mamargrgininalal lala ututililididadad ececononomomicic auaumementnta.a. ul

ul imim coco umumnana dede tata rnuernueststrara ququ utut lili adad

dolares,

dolares, EsEstata ututililidaida ececonon6m6micic dederirivavadada dede novenanovena ca

camimisasa sese ililusustrtr cocomomo areaarea dede coco oror zuzu fifi urura.a. Si

Si mpmp rnisas,

rnisas, ngngreresoso arar ininalal erer ananecec enen 2525 ololarareses

Pr

Prododucuccici6n6n ququ mamaxiximimizaza las

las utiutilidlidadeade

10 10

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Cantinti adad IngrIngreses (IMg)(IMg) CostaCosta (CMg)(CMg) UtilidadUtilidad

(Q)

(Q) totaltotal (d(d lalarere papar-r- totaltotal (d6lares(d6lares econ6micaecon6mica

(camlsas

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(dolares]

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. . . 2 5 . . . 2 5 . .. . . .. . 1 91 9 . . . . 225 225 183183 4242 II II in

ingrgreses mamargrgininalal eses igualigual al coalcostst mamargrgininalal LaLa tatablbl mumuesestrtr

lala e le l cocostst mamar- r-d6lares,

d6lares, ma

margrgininalal dede d6d6lalareres.s. SiSi

carnisas,

(12)

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LA

LA DECISIONESDECISIONES DEDE L1L1 LMLMPRPRESES:\:\ COMI'LlENCIACOMI'LlENCIA I'ERrrCT!\I'ERrrCT!\ 4545

Utilidades

Utilidades

plazo,

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lala

ri

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rl rara

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perder perdidaperdida ececononororninicaca LaLa utilidadutilidad

sa

sa P,P,

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P P

- r-mal.

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pr

precec eses enenoror que

que ososroro tototata eded o,o, lala

de

de lala FIFIgugurara 1111.4.4 dolares.dolares.

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lala ememprpreses obobtitienen

20

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(4.6.6 d6d6lalarere

ra ra

urilidad

urilidad popo caca isis .6.6 dolares,dolares, lala babasese la

la cacanrnrididadad dede cacamimisasa prprododucucididasas l'dil'dia,a, asas ququ re

re riri En

En IaIa lala ngurngur 1111 4,4, os

os ototalal eded perdidaperdida

ec

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lareses pOpOl'l'camcamisaisa

lidades

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olarareses),), osos 'ca

'ca la

laperdidaperdida dolaresdolares pOl'camisapOl'camisa 'el 'el re re ). ). rara no

nornrnicic popo amam sasa 3.3.1414 dodo arareses cantidadcantidad re re FIGURA FIGURA

~tiy*o);lre18)

~tiy*o);lre18)

'E 'E 30 30.00.00 CMg CMg CMg CMg 30 30 0000 30.0030.00 (; (; (;(;

(14)

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ar

ar enen orornpnpetet vava ueuesrsrrara coco fafa prprodod cccc onon ququ ax

aximimiziz lala ututililididadadeses vavarfrf coconfnforormeme ad

ad caca iaia ieientntrara osos dedernrn fafa rororere erer anan cece re

re rnrn

of

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si

si prprececioio babajaja mama alaliaia dede COCOStSt vavaririabablele memedidi mimininimama de de prprececioio to

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ng

ngreresoso arargiginana eses1Mgo1Mgo roro st

st as

as ququ

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precio precio to totatal.l. PaPa la

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plaza plaza SiSi prpr cici eses papa empresa empresa .§ .§ a. a. 31 31

I-~~~-~~=~~=~---"~

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Cancel Anytime. 1'[[,I'ECT:\ 1'[[,I'ECT:\ 247247 La La da da la

la prpresesasas dede lala ininduduststriria.a.

re re ca

cadada prprececioio lala canti-

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fe rara lala industria.industria. prprecec osos popo dedebabajojo un un da

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po po camisa)camisa) popo iaia 17 17 20 20 25 25 90009000 10 10 1000010000

(18)

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248 248

ro

rodu

du io

ion,

n, pr

pr ci

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utllidades

utllidades

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lala cacanrnrididadad cocom- m-prada

prada enendididada enen unun erercacadodo ererfefectct mementnt coco pepe iv

ivo,o, ececeses tata anan lilizaza coco ininteteraracncn anan dede anandada lala fefe esrudiaresrudiar unun mer

mercadcad perperfecfectamtamentent competitivocompetitivo

es es

fijo

fijo cacadada ememprpreses tienetiene plaplanrnr dererdererrn

rni-i-nado. nado.

lala ofoferer dede ndndusus riri dede erer ininanan pr

precec erercacadodo prprododucuccici6n6n dede ndndusustrtr a.a. cu

curvrv dede ofoferer O[O[

ca

camimisasa CaCadada ememprpreses susumeme esesteteprprecec alal coco estaesta

industria industria esti

esti cornpuesracornpuesra

Los

Los cambioscambios mu

muesestrtr didichchosos cacarnrnbibiosos la

la dedemamandnd aurnenta,aurnenta,

de

despsplalazaza hahacici dederere haha lares.

lares. esteeste iliili

de

despsplalazaza hahacici iziz uiuiererdada EIEI prprececioio hahajaja enentotoncnceses 17

17 eses prprecec o,o, lala prpresesasas axaximim zaza susu ut

ut lilidadadede didisrsrnininunu enendodo susu prprodod cccc onon nunuevev ivivelel 00

00 caca sasa popo dfadfa paparara rorodada ndndusus riria.a.

des

desplplazaz aiaiinin

el

el rerecici erer ananecec coco ststanancece

dolares, dolares,

ho

horirizozo tata eses prprecec o.o. lglgununasas ememprpresesasas coconrnr iaia camisas

camisas

mismo mismo cu

cualalququieierara dede esestata dodo alalteternrnatativivasas OS

OS frfr ototalal ElEl ruru memeroro dede emem reresasa ququ coco ririruru anan fi fi fafa ib ib plazoplazo "2 "2 'E'E "'"' "2 "2 ·E·E '"'" Au

Aumementnt enen [a[a dedemamandndo:o: las las

ernpresos

ernpresos oumentonoumenton 10

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PRODUCCI(lN,

PRODUCCI(lN, PRECIOPRECIO l'ERFF.CTAl'ERFF.CTA 249249

A j

A ju s

u s e s

e s

a r

a rg o

g o

plazo

plazo

En

En ilil toto br

br nene ututililididadadeses ecec n6n6mimicacas,s, inin ururriri peperdrdidid puntO puntO qu

quililibibriri ).). AuAunqnqueue lala trtreses sisitutu ciciononeses coconsnstititutu enen qu

quililibibririosos orortoto lalazaza s6s61010 unun dede eleliaia cocorrrreses onondede

in

in titi

la

largrg plpl zozo nana ininduduststriri ajajususcaca dede dodo rnrnanan raras:s:

!iii

!iii rarnafiorarnafio dede lala lalantnt

entrada

entrada sasalilidada dede ememprpreses s.s.

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m p

m p e s

e s

la

largrg plazo,plazo, lala utili-

utili-dades

dades ererdidi asas cocon6n6mimicaca enentrtrarar la

la emem reresasa papartrticicipipanantete estaesta btbt ninienendodo ututililididadadeses co

co oror icicasas sasalele llll cucuanandodo lala mpmpreresasa paparrrricici- i-ta

ta inin idid

urilidades

urilidades erer ididasas tete poporaralele roro caca enentrtr dada

lala trtr

in

inflfl yeye enen lala ilil dad

dadeses gengeneraeradasdas inin esrasesras decisionesdecisiones

lala fefe fe fe fe fe la

la ofeofe didismsmininuyuy fefe de

despsplalazaza hahacici lala izizququieierdrda.a. un

un ininduduststriria.a.

ti

ti aumentaaumenta dede

industria,

industria, jdisminu)'ejdisminu)'e susu proproducducci6ci6n!n! DebidoDebido pre- pre-cio

cio baja,baja, adad emem reresasa sese espesplala haha iaia abab jojo largolargo pr

prododucuc memenonos.s. SiSi emembabargrgo,o, como

como mimeromimero inin

la

la tata

pr

pr cici ajaj 2020 ololarar pOl'capOl'ca isisa,a, lala ururililididadadeses ic

ic br

brieie unun ututililididadad orormamal.l.

io io me

medididada ququ nuevasnuevas ememprpresesasas enentrtranan unun ininduduststriria,a, elel pre

preciocio bajbaj laslas utilidutilidadesades economicaseconomicas

emp

empresresasas parparticticipaipantente disdisminminuyeuyen.n. io io

decada decada

so

sonanaleles.s. CuCuanandodo

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inin irir iaia poc

poc corcornpenpetentenciacia prpr cici adad roro ororcici nanababa enormes

enormes utiutililidadadesdes IBIBM.M. SiSi emembabargrgo,o, nunuevevasas ememprpresesasas

Entrada

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250

250 [T[T 1111 !v!v 'F'F NCNC!A!A 'E'ER!R!:E:E

in

induduststriri caca rnrnaqaquiuinana rerecncnolologogicicamamenentete ididenenriricaca lala dede IB

IBM.M. hehe hehe erer tata sisimimilalarere ququ sese lele dedenonornrnininabab "clones".

"clones". EsraEsra ntntrara mamasisi em reem resasa lala inin usustrtriaia dede la

la cocompmpututadadororasas pepersrsononalaleses ococasasioionono unun dedespsplalazazamimienentoto io

io lala utiutililidadadesdes ecoeconornorninicacas.s.

un

un ininduduststriaria

fafa

in

induduststriria.a. SuSupopongng ququ lolo cosroscosros

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sas salsalen,en, lala iaia la la ieie Ca Ca ta ta in in riri IaIa prpr duduccccioio ueue mama i- i-plants plants in in lili do do lala le

le enen afafioio rerecicienentete haha umum ntntadad

ur

ur erer memetrtr cucu drdradadosos io

io mp

mprere asas ququ auaumeme tata fi

fi dede obobrerenene mamayoyorere ururililididadad s.s.

la

la iaia icic

ic ic

doumsizing

doumsizing rarnafio,rarnafio,

Ca Ca

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Cancel Anytime. PERFECTA PERFECTA 251251 af af ntnt equilibrioequilibrio go go

]"

]"

40 40 (; (; 25 25 20 20 F-~~~~;;_F-~~~~;;_ 14 14 :':' "5l¢~== "5l¢~== gogo =---IMg) =---IMg) CMgo CMgo YlYl CTMCP CTMCP l p rl p r in

ingrgr soso rgrginin dede lala ememprpr sasa es

es IMIM anantltldada ququ xi izxi iz lala tltllilidadadede orortoto to to

tr

triaia auaurnrnenentata

ra

ra fefe riri

re

recici rereduducece asas titi dadadede cocon6n6 cacas.s. re

re ci

cipapa enen elel eses enen gagananandnd utut lilidadadede ecec n6n6 caca

en

enoror osos e,e, dede anan dede exex anandidirsrse.e.

S i

S i l al a empempresresasas quequeparticipanparticipan unun ndnd ststriri coco

petitiva

petitiva inincucurrrrenen enenperdidasperdidas econecon6m6micicasas alalgugunana dedeellasellas saldran

saldran dede lala ininduduststriria.a. SiSi laslasernpresasernpresas pupuededenen babajaja susu cocos- s-to

to didismsmininuyuyenendodo elel tatamamafifi dede susu plplanantata haran,haran, CadaCada

estas

estas acacciciononeses didismsmininuyuy lalaoferraoferra dede lala ininduduststriria,a,

desplaza

desplaza cucurvrv dede ofoferer dede ndndusus riri hahacici lalaizquierda,izquierda,

sube

sube prprececioio didismsmininuyuy lalaperdidaperdida econ6mica.econ6mica. re

re lala ndnd ststriria,a, lala peper- r-ra ra

em

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252

252 (:!.\(:!.\ PI::PI::RFFCTARFFCTA

la

la

avances

avances

tecnolcqicos

tecnolcqicos

ri ri rt rt rrrr roro ra ra id id co

co peperiririri cucuanandodo haha nana isis nunucici6n6n pepermrmananenen su

su

ra ra co

cocicinana dede papapepel,l, vividrdrioio plasplas icic sfsf coco enenvovo rururara

'su 'su du

ducrcrosos auaumementnta?a? Lo

Lo avavanancece ececnono 6g6gicic babajaja coconsnstatantnterernenenrnr osos

I>I> cadacada

ql ql en en rere al al prprececioio sefial

sefial paparara ueue alalgugu asas ha-fe fe fe fe fen fen va va dede fefertrt an anecec enen elel auau enen a.a.

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Cancel Anytime. 253 253 U R U R 'u 'uII)II) ct ct

"""'''''''''''''''''''17

"""'''''''''''''''''''17

Contidad Contidad (a

(a IndIndustrustriaia

li

li iviv

industria,

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de

de equequiliilibribrio,o, CaCadada ememprpreses

CMg CMg (b (b EmEm resaresa ta ta itit ioio ncnc in in trtr du

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Cancel Anytime. 54 54 fTfT 1111 F NF N rn rn rvrv la

la indindustustriaria (OLP;j)(OLP;j) eses peperfrfececrararnrnenentete elelasas icica.a. EnEn esestete

DI DI

rt rt in

induduststriri auaumementnt lala ],], qu

qu didisrsrnininunuyeye prprecec dede PoPo yaumemayaumema

QI

QI

La La grgrafaficic (b)(b) rv rv pl

plazaz dede ndndusustrtr (OLP(OLP

Do Do

Db

Db

subesube precioprecio rtrt rgrg

p l p la za zo ,o , A IA I ro ro cantidad cantidad

lala ininduduststriri auaumementnt lala

cu

cualal elel prprecec

lala roro

en

en esespapacici aeaerereo,o, eueualal dada pOpOl'resl'resululraradodo reretrtrasasosos

as

as rara lolo avavioionenes.s. Es

Esrara esesecec nono fafa exexteternrnasas rnrnplpl caca quque,e, eded dada se

se ncncrerememe tata (e(e auausesencnc de avde avanancece ececnono ogogicicosos),), di

dienentete asascecendndenentete PoPo pr

precec o.o. (N(N obobststanantete asas inin usustrtr asas re re fe fe mu mu la

laindustriaindustria {OLPd{OLPd

aumenra

aumenra dismi-

dismi-de

demamandnd prprovovococ unun

re re

Q,.

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(32)

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i\

i\M IM I I.I. I'I' l'l' l'l' R F N C I AR F N C I A A VA V A N CA N C l'l' l'l' I.()I.()

in

incrcrememenen enen elel sisiglgl IXIX prprinincicipipi dede xxxx osos seservrv

ci

ciosos didispspononibiblele paparara lolo agagriricucultltororeses sese amamplpliaiaroron.n. NuNuevevasas em

emprpresesasas sese esespepecicia1a1izizararonon enen elel dedesasarrrrolollolo lala cocornrnerercicialali- i-za

zacicionon aqaquiuinanariri feferrrr lilizazanrnreses EnEn coconsnsececueuencnc a,a, lolo co

coststosos agagrlrlcocolala prpromomededioio babajajaroron.n. LaLa grgrananjaja didisfsfrurutataroro os

os bebenenefificiciosos dede asas ececononorornfnfasas exex erernana y,ay,a ededidid ququ Ia

Ia de ndde nd dede prprodod ctctosos agagrfrfcoco asas auau enenroro prprodod c- c-ci

cionon tatambmbieie hihizozo peperoro lolo prprececioio babajajaroron.n. se

servrvicic osos haha didismsm nunuidido,o, nono cacausus dede ecec nono fafa exex erer as

as sisinono popo elel caca ioio tetecncnolologog coco cocontntininuauacicionon esestutu di

diararerernono esesrara ininflflueuencnciaia sosobrbr unun memercrcadad cocompmpereriririvivo,o,

Cam

Cambio

bio tec

tecnol

nol6gi

6gico

co

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du

du toto caca veve ejejororeses raracici lolo avavanancece rerecncnolol consumidores.

consumidores.

ri ri em

emprpresesasas ogograra urur lilidada eses cocononornrnicic ieientntrara ototrara

si

siononeses gege grgrafaficicasas exex anansisionon ememprpresesasas coco nunuevev te

tecncnolologogfafa rara prprosospeperiridada de

desoso adad s,s, enen anan ququ asas reregigiononeses rrrradadicic ononalal meme in

induduststririalaleses enendede eeee ininarar EnEn ococasasioionene lala emem reresasa

0[[0 0[[0papaisis mimienen re re fa fa

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256

256 1111 ENEN ERER

Competencia

Competencia

eflciencta

eflciencta

us

usanandodo s6s610lo10lo coconcncepep osos dede dedemama dada ofoferertata xcxcededenen del

del conconsumsumidoido exexcecededentnt dede prprododucuctotor,r, ananalalizizararnono ra ra qu qu sasabebemomo fe fe rere mercados. mercados.

ic

icie

ie

lo

lo ec

ec

se

servrvicicioio soso ququieienene

marginal. marginal. La

La ememprpresesasas coco peperiri vava roroduducece cacantnt dada rn

rn riri s,s, rn

rn

se

servrv cici cocorrrrenen coco rl

rl soc

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257 257

fificicienencici lala coco npnpetet ncnciaia peperfrfecectata

CM CM

'v'v

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np

np

no

no

Ii

Ii

http://nytimes.com http://nytimes.com

re

re

lo

lo

gr

gric

ic lt

lt re

re

varroa, varroa, queque

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Ana

Analis

lisis

is eco

econ6mi

n6mico

co

IJIJ IprIpr LasiLasitutuacac onon rnrnosos raradada

un

un ololmemenana auau enentata se

servrvieieioio dede popolilininizazacicionon

da

da dede eqequiuililibrbr isis nunu ye

ye sasa btbtieie enen unun titi ididadad el

el memercrcadad cocornrnpepetitititivovo dede apap cucultltoror inindidivividudualal ececonon6m6m caca poposisi iviva,a,

li-i>i>

nizacion.

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Los

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lq ililanan coco enenasas apap

pl

plagag dede vavarrrroaoa YtYt pl

plagag acacararosos ararroroa.a. CTM.

CTM. IauIau

li

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260

260 fTfT 1111 i\i\.J.J ETETENEN !A!A ERER!'!'ECEC

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ncept

pt

la

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ve

lQue lQue (pp,(pp, 240-240240-240 iii iii en en lala externas

externas (e(e prprececioio babajaja dedesesecocononornrnfasfas exexteternrnasas

(e(e prpreeeeioio susubebe ma

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Cancel Anytime. 1. 1. PROBLEMAS PROBLEMAS 261261 re re us us cocostst soson:n:

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