English Evaristo Munguía Panti, Leopoldo Munguía Panti

Texto completo

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PROFR.Y LIC.EVARISTO MUNGUIA PANTI

PROFR.Y C.R LEOPOLOO MUNGUIA PANTI

I1111

2

U N I V E R S I D A D AUTONOMA DE N U E V O L E O N

COLEGIO C I V I L , P R E P A R A T O R I A

N O

2

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T

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U N I D A D I I I . P A G I N A S

3.1 P a r t i c i p i o P a s a d o » . H

3.2 C o n s t r u c c i ó n del P r e s e n t e P e r f e c t o S i m p l e y C o n t i n u o . 14

3.3 C o n s t r u c c i ó n del 'Pasado P e r f e c t o S i m p l e y C o n t i n u o . . . . 24

3.4 C o n s t r u c c i ó n del F u t u r o P e r f e c t o Simple y C o n t i n u o . . . . 30

3.5 T r a d u c c i ó n ( C o m p r e b e n s i o n R e a d i n g ) L e c t u r a que

c o n t i e n e los temas a n t e r i o r m e n t e v i s t o s . . . . 37

U N I D A D I V .

4 . 1 G r a d o s del A d j e t i v o I 4 0

C o m p a r a t i v o de Igualdad

D i s t i n c i ó n e n t r e el G r a d o C o m p a r a t i v o y S u p e r l a t i v o . . . .45

4 . 2 C o m p a r a c i ó n de S u p e r i o r i d a d 55

G r a d o s del Adjetivos II 56

4.3 C o m p a r a c i ó n de I n f e r i o r i d a d »63

E s t r u c t u r a ¿e los 5 -¿ p e r - a 11 v o = _

v S u p e r l a c i v o ¿e S u p e r i o r i d a d ; 68

E s t r u c t u r a de los S u p e r l a t i v o s II

< S u p e r l a t i v o s de I n f e r i o r i d a d ) •••72

- . : ; ; t . » ; £ . t: ». í Ii t z & . - r r l ^ e r l t i n v. "í

4.6 T r a d u c c i ó n ( Compr e h e n s ion R e a d i n g ) 81

C u a d r o R e s u m e n F i n a l * * •

U N I D A D T R E S

AL TERMINO DE LA UNIDAD EL ALUMNO COMPRENDERA FRAGMENTOS

ESCRITOS EN INGLES CUYAS ESTRUCTURAS VERBALES SEAN LOS

-SIMPLES ? PERFECTOS.

E L A L U M N O

IDENTIFICARA EL PARTICIPIO DE LOS VERBOS

REGU-LARES E IRREGUREGU-LARES EN INGLES.

: IDENTIFICARA LA CONSTRUCCION Y SIGNIFICADO DEL

PRESENTE PERFECTO SIMPLE Y CONTINUO.

TRADUCIRA FRASES CON PASADO PERFECTO SIMPLE

Y-CONTINUO.

DIFERENCIARA EL FUTURO PERFECTO SIMPLE DEL

-CONTINUO.

TRADUCIRA AL ESPAÑOI PARRAFOS QUE CONTENGAN

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O B S E R V E

•John a n s w e r e d all the t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s y e s t e r d a y .

B e g i n Buy Come Dr ink

ens e Began Bough t Came Dr ank

John a n s w e r e d all the t e a c h e r ' s

P a s t Tens

B e g a n B o u g h t Came Drank

q u e s t i o n s t o d a y .

e Pat P a r t i c i p l e j

Begun B o u g h t Come Drunk

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3.1.COMO HAS O B S E R V A D O f LA T E R C E R A F I G U R A T I E N E UNA N U E V A E S T R U C T U R A

V E R B A L EN D O N D E SE USA EL P A R T I C I P I O P A S A D O ( P A S T P A R T I C I P L E )

--PARA I N D I C A R QUE EL H E C H O O C U R R I O EN EL P A S A D O Y N U E V A M E N T E

OCURRE EN EL P R E S E N T E . POR E S O LAS E X P R E S I O N E S QUE A C O M P A Ñ A N A L

-P R E S E N T -P E R F E C T ( -P R E S E N T E -P E R F E C T O O A N T E -P R E S E N T E ) , S U E L E N

SERr-» /

T O D A Y j T H I S W E E K , T H I S Y E A R , T H I S S E M E S T E R

ETC-E x a m p 1 e s ( ETC-E j e m p l o s )

I c o p i e d t h r e e e x e r c i s e s y e s t e r d a y . Yo c o p i e tres e j e r c i c i o s ayer

I c o p i e d t h r e e e x e r c i s e s t o d a y .

Ya c o p i e tres e j e r c i c i o s h o y .

I h a v e c o p i e d three e x e r c i s e s this w e e k .

Yo he c o p i a d o tres e j e r c i c i o s e s t a s e m a n a .

She d r a n k 3 c u p s of c o f f e e y e s t e r d a y .

She d r a n k 3 c u p s of c o f f e e this m o r n i n g

She has d r u n k 3 c u p s of c o f f e e r e c e n t l y

-3 . 2 . O b s e r v a c o m o se e s t r u c t u r a e s t a f o r m a v e r b a l .

I h a v e b o u g h t . Yo he c o m p r a d o .

You h a v e b o u g h t Tu h a s c o m p r a d o .

He h a s b o u g h t El ha c o m p r a d o

-She has b o u g h t . E l l a ha c o m p r a d o .

We h a v e b o u g h t N o s o t r o s h e m o s c o m p r a d o

You h a v e b o u g h t . U s t e d e s han c o m p r a d o .

They h a v e b o u g h t . Ellos, han c o m p r a d o .

EL V E R B O " H A V E " P U E D E .UTILIZARSE CON C O N T R A C C I O N E S Y Q U E D A R I A

DE LA S I G U I E N T E M A N E R A :

I've b o u g h t .

Y o u ' v e b o u g h t .

He ' s b o u g h t .

She * s b o u g h t

It's b o u g h t

-We've b o u g h t .

You W e b o u g h t .

They *ve b ough t.

9

El p r e s e n t e p e r f e c t o se usa t a m b i é n con J U S T y R E C E N T L Y p a r a

--i n d --i c a r que algo que o c u r r --i ó hace u n o s --i n s t a n t e s t o d a v í a es --

im-p o r t a n t e en el t i e m im-p o im-p r e s e n t e .

John has just u n d e r s t o o d this new t o p i c .

Mary has r e c e n t l y m e m o r i z e d the new s t r u c t u r e s .

A n d r e w has v i s i t e d the m u s e u m r e c e n t l y .

T a m b i é n es p o s i b l e e n c o n t r a r el p r e s e n t e p e r f e c t o con las expre

s i o n e s SINC E^ FOR o SO FAR ,

SINCE e s t a b l e c e un p u n t o en el t i e m p o

She has w a i t e d for the m a n a g e r since early this m o r n i n g .

We h a v e studied hard since we k n e w the e x a m ' s

dates-I h a v e t r a v e l e d to New York since 1980.

FOR s e g u i d o de e x p r e s i o n e s de t i e m p o

r e p r e s e n t a una c a n t i d a d de t i e m p o

Albert has read that novel for 2 h o u r s .

The b o y s have f o l l o w e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s for 3 s e m e s t e r s

The M a r t i n e z e s have v i s i t e d P a r i s for 2 w e e k s .

SO FAR indica "al m o m e n t o de h a b l a r á

W e ' v e f i n i s h e d 2 u n i t s of this book so

far-I've c o p i e d 3 M a t h e m a t i c s e x e r c i s e s so far.

W e » v e liked C a n t i n f l a s p i c t u r e s so f a r .

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Antes de inciar los e j e r c i c i o s

' P r e s e n t P e r f e c t ) r e c o r d e m o s y

bo H A V E en t i e m p o p r e s e n t e ^ el

es t r u c t u r a .

sobre el P r e s e n t e P e r f e c t o

-a p r e n d -a m o s de m e m o r i -a el ve

cual es b á s i c o p a r a e s t a

-H A V E C O N T R A C C I O N

I H A V E

YOU H A V E

HE HAS

SHE HAS

IT HAS

WE H A V E

YOU HAVE

THEY H A V E I' VE

YOU * VE

HE * S

SHE 1 S

IT1 S

WE * VE

Y O U ' V E

THEY 1V E

O b s e r v a la s i g u i e n t e e s t r u c t u r a

1 H A V E S T U D I E D .

¿De c u a n t a s p a r t e s C o n s t a ?

¿Cual es el primer v e r b o ?

¿En que tiempo esta e % p r i m e r verb~>?

¿Y el s e g u n d o v e r b o en que t i e m p o e s t a ?

Por lo t a n t o , s i r e s p o n d i s t e c o r r e c t a m e n t e a estas b r e v e s pregv

t a s; el s i g u i e n t e paso sera a p r e n d e r j,®^, g e r b o s que a

c ion a p a r e c e n en P a r t i c i p i o P a s a d o P a r t i c i p l e ) .

P r e s e n t Pas t Past Pat t iciplfe M e a n i n g

Carry c a r r i e d c a r r Led c arg ado

C l o s e c 1 o s e d •

Copy copied ,

C h a n g e c h a n g e d

Dane e d anc ed

D e c i d e dec i d e d

E n j o y enjoyed

1 i

P r e s e n t

Enter

F i n i s h

F o 1Ac w

Like

Look

M e m o r i z e

Ob s e rve

Open Play Raise Stop Study Tr ave1 Use Visit Want Walk Work Begin Buy Come Dr ink Dr ive Eat

F o r g e t

Get Give Go Hav e Know Let Read Run Say See

Past Past P a r t i c i p l e M e a n i n g

e n t e r e d

f i n i s h e d _

foil 6r d

liked

looked _ .

m e m o r i z ed

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P r e s e n t Pas t Pas t Par t ic ip le Meaning

Sing

Sit d o w n

Sleep

Sw im

Take

Tel 1

U n d e r s t a n d

Wr i te

E X E R C I S E S .

( E J E R C I C I O S )

C O M P L E T A LOS E S P A C I O S V A C I O S .

I H A V E I I Have

You H A V E h a v e h a v e

HE HAS He has

SHE H A S has has

IT HAS It has

WE H A V E have h a v e

YOU HAVE You have

T H E Y H A V E h a v e __ h a v e

I I . - L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S V A C I O S U S A N D O H A V E 0 HAS

I H A V E SAID 3 S E N T E N C E S SO FAR.

The girl

Mr - Smith

The boys

3 S t u d e n t s

We

M i s s G a r c i a

You

Alice _

She and I

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T U . E S C R I B E UNA R O UNA I A LA I Z Q U I E R D A DE CADA V E R B O SI ES R E G U

LAR O I R R E G U L A R . A LA D E R E C H A E S C R I B E EL P A R T I C I P I O P A S A D O Y

-T R A D U C E AL E S P A Ñ O L .

E i emp1 o :

I drink

m e m o r i ze

go

take

foil ow

c l o s e

like

d r i v e

buy

dec id e

copy

read

eat

h a v e

play

w r i t e

P a r t i c i p i o P a s a d o

drunk

Tr aducc ion

b e b i d o

I V . - E S C R I B E EN INGLES EL P A R T I C I P I O P A S A D O DE LOS S I G U I E N T E S V E R B O S :

E s p a ñ o l

ver

e n t r a r

c a m i n a r

c o n s e g u i r

v i a j a r

v e n i r

v i s i t a r

P a r t i c i p i o P a s a d o E s p a ñ o l P a r t i c i p i o Pasado

d i s f r u t a r

c o r r e r

e s t u d i a r

d o r m i r

o l v i d a r _ _

a b r i r

p e r m i t i r

d e t e n e r

N O T A : P R E S E N T P E R F E C T S I G N I F I C A A N T E P R E S E N T E EN E S P A N O L ,

V . - S U B R A Y A LA F O R M A DEL V E R B O EN T I E M P O A N T E P R E S E N T E Y E N L I S T A L A

EN-LA D E R E C H A :

1. We have v i s i t e d the m u s e u m r e c e n t l y

-2.- Some s t u d e n t ? h a v e come late t o d a y . —

3 . - It has r a i n e d twice this w e e k . —

4. Many s c h o o l s have f o l l o w e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s

-5 - I h a v e u n d e r s t o o d 20 v e r b s so far

6. They h a v e seen that p i c t u r e b e f o r e

7 She has w o r k e d o v e r t i m e since this m o r n i n g

-8.- Mr R o d r i g u e z has b o u g h t a new car for his

family9. The b o y s h a v e run for 45 m i n u t e s this w e e k e n d

10. You have copied this e x e r c i s e c o r r e c t l y

-V I . - S U B R A Y A LA FORMA DE P R E S E N T S P E R F E C T O . E N L I S T A L A Y T R A D U C E L A .

1.- John has p a s s e d all the s u b j e c t s this s e m e s t e r .

2.- We h a v e read that b o o k b e f o r e

3.- J o s e p h i n e has w o r k e d three o v e r t i m e h o u r s

4.- The c a r s h a v e run 200 m i l e s per hour

5 - S o m e b o d y has opened the door —

6.- They h a v e e n j o y e d their v a c a t i o n in

Cancun-7.- The s t u d e n t s h a v e k n o w n s o m e t h i n g about energy

8 - Mary and Joe have p l a y e d in the p a r k .

9.- My r e l a t i v e s have come from M i c h i g a n

10. We h a v e f i n i s h e d this e x e r c i s e

-V I I . E S C R I B E EL P R E S E N T E P E R F E C T O EN LOS E S P A C I O S -

VACIOS-L. _ x three s e n t e n c e s in p r e s e n t p e r f e c t - (say).

n e cTicho ' , ,

2.- The tourists vhe m a c r o p l a z a this w e e k v i s i t ; h a n v'isitado

3.- My f r i e n d s o m e t h i n g a b o u t ; this topic- '^copv

ha c op i ad o

4 _ _ They the e x p e r i m e n t in the l a b o r a t o r y - ¡ w a t c h )

han o b s e r v a d o

5.- Susan her V o l k s w a g e n for 2 v e a r s . ( d r i v e )

ha m a n e j ado

6.- Mrs Rogers in C a l i f o r n i a 2 y e a r s so far. ( l i v e )

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' ' w e the new S a t u r d a y p r o g r a m s (like).

n o s Ka gust a cfo

5 -• The E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r close to the -

--P r e s i d e n t ( s i t )

se ha s e n t a d o

9.- I to see that p i c t u r e since 1983 ( w a n t )

"e q u e r i d o

10.- Sh e black shoes for 3 years (buy).

ha c o m p r a d o

for 3 years (buy).

- L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S VACIOS, USANDO EL PRESENTE

PERFECTO-(Read ) f _ - We th i s topic for three c l a s s e s .

(Want ) 2 . - The M i l l e r s to visit the new s q u a r e .

( Run ) 3 - Mike and Georg e in the c o m p e t i t i o n this

week .

(Sing ) 4 . - Mr. Allen the song " Y e s t e r d a y " in c l a s s

( S l e e p ) 5 . - Phe dogs in the g a r d e n r e c e n t l y .

( G e t ) 6 . - George a n e w record p l a y e r for $5 0 . 0 0 .

( H a v e ) 7 - Mary to study o v e r t i m e d u r i n g exams

(Swim ) 8 , - The boys in the b e a c h for 45 m i n u t e s .

( D r i v e ) 9 . - FranK his new car around the

square-( Eat ) 10. - J o h n n v i n a r e s t a u r a n t since S e p t e m b e r .

I X . - T R A D U Z C A LAS S I G U I E N T E S O R A C I O N E S

I - - She h a s seen a new m o d e l r e c e n t l y

2.- Three d o c t o r s have come from Cai i f o r m

3. The s t u d e n t s have followed the i n s t r u c t ioris

-4.- Thev h a v e b o u g h t a new b o o k for six h u n d r e d p e s o s

5.- We h a v e eaten b r e a k f a s t at 7.00 A.M. this

week-7.- They h a v e f o r g o t t e n to w r i t e their n a m e s

8.- My friend has gone to D i s n e y lana.

9 - - All the s t u d e n t s have used the new s t r u a u r e .

10.- They have m e m o r i z e d a l m o s t all the v e r b s .

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M i c h a e l has read the n e w s p a p e r

s i n c e 1980

M i c h a e l is r e a d i n g a n e w s p a p e r now.

M i c h a e l has b e e n r e a d i n g the n e w s p a p e r t „ r five y e a r s

Paul has eaten b r e a k f a s t at 7:2 0 since 1975.

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C o m e n t a r i o s : El P r e s e n t P e r f e c t P r o g r e s s i v e o C o n t i n u o u s t i e n e

lugar c u a n d o la a c c i ó n de la c u a l se h a b l a ha s u c e d i d o en el

-p a s a d o y sigue s u c e d i e n d o en el -p r e s e n t e en el m o m e n t o de h a b l a r

E j e m p l o :

We h a v e s t u d i e d one s e m e s t e r

We are s t u d y i n g now

"We h a v e b e e n s t u d y i n g for one s e m e s t e r -_J

Esta estructura c o n s t a de tres p a r t e s

Have b e e n s tudy ing

H a b e r e s t a d o e s t u d i a n d o

E X E R C I S E S

L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S V A C I O S CON H A V E BEEN 0 HAS BEEN. > " " J 1

I h a v e b e e n I __ _ b e e n .

You h a v e b e e n have b e e n b e e n .

He has b e e n He • __ ^ b e e n .

She h a s b e e n b e e n - V b e e n

It h a s b e e n has ... ' ^rS'-.- b e e n

We h a v e b e e n We ; . '. • l b e e n .

They h a v e b e e n b e e n _ _ _ _ _ _ b e e n

L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S V A C I O S PARA F O R M A R EL P R E S E N T P E R F E C T P R O G R E

-S -S I V E

1 - They _ b u y i n g some food in the g r o c e r y s t o r e .

2 The s t u d e n t s v i s i t i n g the |©r 2 w e e k s

3 Carol r e p e a t i n g w i t h u s . w ;

-4 - The J o n e s e s _ living in C h i c a g o for 3 y e a r s

5 - John _ w a l k i n g in the s t r e e t s

6 - 3 s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c i n g the n e W f o r m u l a

7 - P e d r o V a r g a s _ s i n g i n g s i n c e

8 - The s w i m m e r s e n j o y i n g their dpy«*• of f •

9 - The Second bhift b e g i n n i n g a # l 2 . 2 0 since August. - : ' .

1984- "p. V

ID The M a r t i n e z e s _ _ _ _ s l e e p i n g at 1 1 : 0 0 P.M for 10 y e a r s

-I -I -I . L L E N A LOS E S P A C -I O S V A C -I O S CON LA F O R M A DEL P R E S E N T E P E R F E C T O CON-T I N U O .

( e a t ) 1.- Mr. Smith i n a r e s t a u r a n t since

Fe-b r u a r y .

( p l a y ) 2.- The F o o t b a l l p l a y e r s fo r 35 m i n u t e s .

( s l e e p ) 3.- The b a b y s i n c e 8- 0-ci0 c k.

( t e a c h ) 4.- D a l i a E n g l i s h since 1974.

( b u y ) 5.- M a r y and Jane n e w d r e s s e s .

( r e a d ) 6.- They i n E n g i i s h g i n c e 1 2 : 20 .

( t e l l ) 7.- C h a r l e s s o m e j o k e s d u r i n g cia g s.

( r a i s e ) 8.- My u n c l e c o w g a n d h o r s e s for ten

--y e a r s .

( u n d e r s t a n d ) 9.- We E n g l i s h p e r f e c t l y w e l l .

( r e a d ) 10.*- Tom and John c o m i c s for 20 m i n u t e s .

IV. 7TRADUCE LAS S I G U I E N T E S O R A C I O N E S

-1-- John has b e e n w o r k i n g in a f a c t o r y for 3 m o n t h s .

2.- I h a v e b e e n t a k i n g c l a s s since F e b r u a r y .

3.- Some c h i l d r e n h a v e b e e n c o p y i n g d u r i n g the e x a m .

4.- B a r b a r a has b e e n l i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o for 2 h o u r s .

5.- Bill and M i k e have b e e n w r i t i n g the a n s w e r s .

6 - Only six s t u d e n t s have b e e n c o m i n g on time.

7. - They have b e e n d a n c i n g since 9 : 0 0 P.M.

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9.- She has b e e n d r i n k i n g some m e d i c i n e .

10.- We h a v e b e e n f o r g e t t i n g s o m e t h i n g important "Exams'

0 B S E

.4.Alfred s t u d i e d very h a r d .

A l f r e d e s t u d i ó m u c h í s i m o .

R V E

He got a one hundred in M a t h e m a t i c

El o b t u v o un cien en m a t e m á t i c a s .

He got a one h u n d r e d .

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E X E R C I S E S :

LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS, ESCRIBE LA FORMA DEL ANTEPRETERITO.

E x a m p l e :

Charles had opened his book before the teacher asked us to. (open)

1.- They in this school for 2 years, (study).

2.- We that novel before, (read)

3.- The teams to play when it began to rain, (begin)

4.- The fans Michael since he showed up on the stage, (see)

5.- The tourists in that area before the accident happened.

(swim)

6.- Michael and Mary only two tickets for tonight, (get)

*

7.- The Lopezes to school because their son failed the semester,

(come)

8.- Mr. Rodriguez his homework when the bell rang, (finish)

9.- Many people a lot of dollars before it raised, (change)

10.- I the experiment before I studied the topic, (observe)

TRADUCE LAS SIGUIENTES 0RACI0NES:

1.- They had followed the instructions because it was necessary.

2.- Many students had decided to stay home.

3.- She had understood all the information she received.

4.- His brother had explained him how to do it.

5.- Joe and Liz had bought some popcorn before they went in.

6.- Henry had liked the first p i c t u r e .

7.- They had w o r k e d in that f a c t o r y b e f o r e .

8.- J o h n a t h a n had c h e c k e d up his car b e f o r e v a c a t i o n s b e g a n

9.- N o b o d y had w r i t t e n the first e x e r c i s e .

10.- J o h n n y had sung that song in a p a r t y .

III.- L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S V A G I O S - D E A C U E R D O CON LO QUE SE INDICA.

1.- Anna all the past p a r t i c i p l e rules h ab i a m e m o r izado

(memor i z e )

2. The R e a g a n s to stay in C a l i f o r n i a -(habTan d e c i d ido )

( d e c i d e )

3.- The p r o g r a m a t P.M. ( f i n i s h )

h a b í a t. e r m i n a d o

4.- Elvis to sing w h e n he w a s a b o y . ( b e g i n ) h ab i a c o m e n z a d o

5.- The t e a c h e r ^^ the new l a b o r a t o r y , ( v i s i t ) h a b T a visit ad o

6.- Tom the first s e n t e n c e , ( s a y ) h ab i a d i c h o

7. - The s t u d e n t s their b o o k s to the l a b o r a t o r y

/ ^ h a b í a n c a r g a d o

( c a r r y ) °

8 - - She h er v a c a t i o n s in C a n a d a , ( e n j o y ) h a b í a d i s f r u t a d o

9.- Don us some funny j o k e s , ( t e l l )

nos h a b í a c o n t a d o

(17)

2.7

E S E R C I S E S :

LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS, ESCRIBE EL PASADO PERFECTO PROGRESIVO.

E x a m p l e :

Cristina HAD BEEN BUYING some shoes before the shoe store closed.

1.- The Biology teacher a new topic, (teach)

2.- Bob

3.- We

before Jane arrived, (sleep)

(study)

4.- They

5.- Mr. Thompson

6.- Billy v

a new lesson when she knocked the door.

on the divan before their mother got. (play)

for 8 hours, (work)

7.- The students

8.- Gregory

9.- We

before Mary called up. (sing)

since four o'clock, (copy)

some jokes in class, (tell)

some exams before vacation began, (take)

10.- She some sentences before he asked her to. (say)

LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS.

1.- She a new magazine, (read) hab ía estado leyendo

2.- It for an hour, (rain) había estado lloviendo

3.- Steve in a school, (work) había estado trabajando

4.- Jennifer

había estado abriendo

5.- Kate

6.- Jacki ie

7.- Adolph

.- We

había estado sentándose

hab ía estado viajando

había estado observando

habíamos estado comprando

9.- Dorothy

había estado estudiando

her book during exams, (open)

close to Mario (sit down)

to Greece, (travel)

some experiments, (observe)

new books, (buy)

in the U.S.A. (stydy)

10.- They

habían estado conociendo

28

(18)

I I I . - T R A D U C E AL E S P A N O L .

1. They had b e e n s l e e p i n g b e f o r e Ann got h o m e .

2.- My f r i e n d s had b e e n u s i n g my n e w d i c t i o n a r y .

The t e a c h e r had b e e n d r i n k i n g some cups of c o f f e e .

Only five s t u d e n t s had b e e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g this new topic

It had b e e n r a i n i n g in the South of C a l i f o r n i a .

7.- They had b e e n d e c i d i n g the d a t e since A u g u s t .

8.- You had b e e n f o l l o w i n g the new r u l e s .

9.- We had b e e n u s i n g this new s t r u c t u r e .

10.- Some b o y s had b e e n r e a d i n g some F r e n c h w o r a s

V

L I B R A

^n nr

u-4 i - i L . it* U rg'l

jf" jl'y

(19)

LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS CON LA FORMA DEL FUTURO PERFECTO.

E j e m p l o : f :

Hellen WILL HAVE SLEPT till 10.00 A.M. (sleep)

1.- These workers

2.- By tomorrow, they

3.- They

4.- She

_this building by August, (finish)

24 hours, (drive)

5.- They

6.- Mike and Angel

7.- The tourist guide (travel)

8.- They *

_many souvenirs in Europe, (buy)

something about the Eiffel Tower.

_ the subway in Paris, (take)

s o m e words in French, (understand)

many times before this one.

-9.- Mr. Lopez

10.- The Lopezes

many interesting places, (visit)

the French wines. <like)

where to stay tonight, (decide)

LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS,

1.-The teachers

2.- Some people habrán leído"

some advertisements.(read)

habrán copiado 3.- They

habrán visto

4.- Three or four people

(want)

5.- Mrs. Harrison

the most important ones, (copy)

something new. (see)

_ to discuss the first part. habrán querido

some notes, (take) habrá tomado

6.- Most of them

7.- They

habrán trabajado

eight hours daily, (wortc)

habrán obtenido

8.- Miss Allen

habrá tenido

good results, (get)

(20)

9.- A n y w a y ^ she the w h o l e i n f o r m a t i o n .

h a b r a e n t e n d i d o

(under s tand )

10.- E v e r y b o d y s o m e t h i n g about the g i v e n

h a b r a n escr i to

i n f o r m a t i o n , ( w r i t e )

I I I . T R A D U C E AL E S P A N O L

-1 „ - They w i l l have en joyed their v a c a t i o n in M i a m i

2.- Mary and C h a r l e s w i l l have run on the b e a c h .

3.- They w i l l h a v e swum e v e r y d a y . ,

4.- His p a r e n t s w i l l h a v e v i s i t e d m a n y stores

5.- They w i l l h a v e g o t t e n good c l o t h i n g .

— — 4

I ; (

7.- The R a m i r e z e s w i l l have had time to go to the m o v i e s

8.- In August^ they will have come b a c k £o M e x i c o ,

9.- They w i l l have changed some d o l l a r s .1

%

10.- Their sons w i l l have gone to thè d i s c o t h e q u e s .

i

Jane s t u d i e s first year

in a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l .

She w i l l have b e e n c o m p l e t i n g

her first year b e f o r e the

(21)

LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS CON LA FORMA DEL FUTURO PROGRESIVO.

E x a m p l e :

At 7.00 P.M. They WILL HAVE BEEN STUDYING 3 hours, (study)

1.- Blanca t h e exercises, (copy)

2.- Before next month she some classes here.

(take)

3.- The students to school, (come)

4.- They these new structures, (read)

5.- Angela and Louis _ these exercises, (explain)

6.- John in class with us. (work)

7.- The boys this new form, (memorize)

8.- Everybody to the teacher, (listen)

9.- Somebody _ _ _ _ _ ^is n°tebooks. (write)

10.- Most of the students at 8.30. (finish)

. LLENA LOS ESPACIOS VACIOS.

E x a m p l e :

Group # 15 WILL HAVE BEEN WRITING all the exercises, (write)

habrá estado escribiendo

They the last news, (read)

habrán estado leyendo

2.- Somebody on this chair, (sit down) habrá estado sentándose

3.- Mr. Miller around; the world, (travej habrá estado viajando

4.- Our team two hours a day. (run) habrá estado corriendo

5.- Some visitors t h e macroplaza. (look at)

habrán estado mirando

6.- George and Paul . - ,. , , . , — in English, (sing)

habrán estado cantando

7.- Only ten students „ •. , , ^ , v _ unit four, (study) habrán estado estudiando

8.- The Aliens i . _ , , . x ; during an hour, (swim)

habran estado nadando

9.- Mary some new dresses, (buy) habrá estado comprando

1 0 - We

— this new structure, (understand) habremos estado entendiendo

III.- TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH. (TRADUZCA AL ESPANOL)

1.- They will have been understanding this sentence perfectly well.

*

2.- Johnathan will have benn drinking some soft drinks.

3.- Mrs. Reagan will have been traveling with her husband

4.- Jennifer will have been enjoying her vacation in California.

5.- She will have been visiting many interesting places

6.- Catherine will have been sending some post cards

7.- Roger will have been working in this new film.

Mickey will have been playing chess in the club

9.- Liz will have been buying some new dresses.

(22)

3.5 C O M P R E H E N S I O N R E A D I N G .

I am about to finish my second semester and I can realize about

something very important. I must study everyday if I want to become a

-very good student. During my student life I have seen many of my

friends-fail and stop studying, maybe they could not understand that they were

playing with their own future. It might be there was nobody to advice

-them about the mistakes they were making.

I admire my friend Fred, he has been studying hard since he —

entered to the Preparatory last year.

I think everybody should try to be both: good students and

---excellent kids at home.

"Next semester I shall begin a new course and everybody will —

come anxious to learn something new.

I had decided to get some information all about the careers

--that are taught at the university and I am going to do it next week.

I think that everyone ought to work hard: students and teachers

I had been copying this exercise when Fred entered and said:

"Wouldn't it be better to review all the auxiliaries now so we have no

-mistakes ?"

By tomorrow Paul and George will have written this translation

and if we hurry up by tomorrow afternoon we will have been reading this

-exercise in class, too.

U N I D A D I V .

AL TERMINO DE LA UNIDAD, El ALUMNO : COMPRENDERA LAS FORMAS

DEL COMPARATIVO Y SUPERLATIVO EN TEXTOS ESCRITOS EN INGLES.

E L A L U M N O :

N

IDENTIFICARA LOS COMPARATIVOS DE IGUALDAD EN INGLES

DISTINGUIRA LAS FORMAS DEL COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORI-DAD.

DISTINGUIRA LAS FORMAS DEL COMPARATIVO DE IINFERIORI-DAD EN INGLES.

— — RECONOCERA LOS SUPERLATIVOS EN INGLES.

... DIFERENCIARA EL USO DE LOS COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATL VOS IRREGULARES.

(23)

4.1 G R A D O S D E L A D J E T I V O I

ESCRIBE CINCO VECES CADA UNA DE LAS SIGUIENTES PALABRAS EN INGLES

(Grande) (Efectivo) (Fresco)

BIG E F F E C T I V E FRESH

(Feliz) (Necesario)

(24)

(Viejo) (Rico) (Nuevo )

RICH

SATISFACTORY ANXIOUS ï OUNG

COMPARACION DE IGUALDAD. OBSERVA LO SIGUIENTE:

Luis Miguel is as famous as Lorenzo Antonio. Luis Miguel es tan famoso corno Lorenzo Antonio.

Lorenzo Antonio is as brilliant as Luis Miguel. Lorenzo Antonio es tan brillante corno Luis Miguel.

Luis Miguel is as distinguished as Lorenzo Antonio. Luis Miguel es tan distinguido como Lorenzo Antonio. Lorenzo Antonio is as young as Luis Miguel.

Lorenzo Antonio es tan joven corno Luis Miguel.

M E M O R I Z E

COMPARISONS OF EQUALITY:

COMPARACIONES DE IGUALDAD:

(25)

I.- R E P A S O D E L V O C A B U L A R I O

ANOTA EN EL PARENTESIS DE CADA ORACION, EL NUMERO CORRESPONDIENTE AL

ADJETIVO USADO EN LA MISMA.

( ) Hello, Evelyn, How are you today? You look young.

Thank you. It is not necessary to say those compliments.

( ) Welcome, sit down and have a glass of fresh lemonade.

( ) O.K. How is your family? I have not seen your ugly husband.

( ) Well, he is in the office and he says he feels old.

( ) You must be happy living with him.

( ) YeS, he is wonderful.

( ) He is very rich.

( ) And he is an important man.

( ) Yes, people say he is famous.

( ) Well, he is a distinguished architect.

( ) We recently bought a new house.

( ) It is a big house.

( ) We know it is satisfactory having it.

( ) I was always anxious about buying this house.

( ) O.K. See you tomorrow, this has been an interesting talk.

1.- ANSIOSO 10.- INTERESANTE

2.- DISTINGUIDO 11.- JOVEN

3.- FAMOSO 12.- LENTO

4.- FELIZ 13.- MARAVILLOSO

5.- FEO 14.- NECESARIO

6.- FRESCO 15.- NUEVO

7.- GORDO 16.- RICO

8.- GRANDE 17.- SATISFACTORIO

9.- IMPORTANTE 18.- VIEJO

II.-LLENA LOS ESPACIOS.

1.- Going to class is

° going to the movies, tan satisfactorio como

2.- Good vacations are j j- •

c - a good medicine.

tan efectivas como

3.- The horse is t h e C Q W_

tan grande como

4.- This fruit is t h o g e v e g e t a b l e s.

tan fresca como 5.- Water is

air. tan necesaria como

F r e d i s Nancy.

tan feliz como

7.- My car is Robert's.

tan nuevo como

8 - Lopez Portillo is L u l s Echeverría.

tan importante como

9.- Your Ford is y o u r Mercedes Benz.

tan viejo como

(26)

DISTINCION ENTRE EL GRADO COMPARATIVO Y EL SUPERLATIVO.

(Agradable) (At ent o ) (Cuidadoso ^

AGREEABLE ATTENTIVE CAREFUL

(Delie ioso)

DELICIOUS

4-5

Refrescante) (Chaparro) (Lent o ) (Delgado)

(27)

OBS ERVA LO SIGUIENTE :

Burt is taller than Ted.

Burt es mas alto que Ted.. GRADO COMPARATIVO

Burt is the tallest in this family. GRADO Burt es el mas alto en esta familia.

SUPERLATIVO

He is the tallest of everybody. GRADO

El es el mas alto de todos. SUPERLATIVO

Es importante distinguir el grado COMPARATIVO del SUPERLATIVO:

En el priner dibujo el contraste es entre Burt y otra persona, se dice que

esta eb grado COMBARATIVO.

En el segando dibujo el contraste es entre Burt y un grupo de personas -( 2 o mas). Se dice que el adjetivo está en grado S U P E R L A T I V O

Observa mas ejemplos:

Report Card

Algebra 5

History 8

Algebra es mas dificil que Historia. Algebra is more difficult than History

"Difficult" esta en grado c ornparat ivo . ¿Por que?

V7

Report Card

Algebra 5 History... .8 Ehglish 9

Biology 8 Physic al

Ed\x at ion ... .10

Algebra es la más difícil de todas las materias.

Algebra is the most difficult of all sub j ec ts

-"Difficult" está en grado superlativo.

¿Por qué?

The turtle is slower than the r a b b i t .

La tortuga es mas lenta que el conejo.

"Slower" es un adjetivo que está en grado

T h e turtle is the slowest of all these animals.

4 ?

-La tortuga es el mas lento de todos estos animales

(28)

I — E J E R C I C I O S

ANOTA AL FINAL DE CADA ORACION "COMPARATIVO" O "SUPERLATIVO" SEGUN EL GRADO EN QUE SE ENCUENTRE EL ADJETIVO USADO EN CADA CASO.

1.- Miss Mexico is PRETTIER THAN your sister.

La Srita. Mexico es MAS BONITA QUE tu hermana.

2.- She is the PRETTIEST girl in Mexico City.

Ella es la muchacha MAS BONITA de la Ciudad de Mexico":

3.- Mr. Dawson is THINNER THAN you. El Sr. Dawson es MAS DELGADO QUE tú.

4.- He is THE THINNEST OF everybody. El es EL MAS DELGADO DE todos.

5.- I am MORE GENEROUS THAN my friend. Yo soy MAS GENEROSO QUE mi amigo.

6.- His brother is THE MOST GENEROUS OF everybody. Su hermano es EL MAS GENEROSO DE todos.

7.- The students of this group are THE MOST ATTENTIVE IN

all the Prepa.

Los estudiantes de este grupo son LOS MAS ATENTOS de toda la Prepa.

8.- You should be MORE CAREFUL THAN your friends. Tu debes ser MAS CUIDADOSO QUE tus amigos.

9.- These sentences are the EASIEST OF the book.

Estas oraciones son las MAS FACILES DEL libro.

10.- "íhglish One" is EASIER THAN "English Two". "Ingles Uno" es MAS FACIL QUE "Ingles dos".

4'9

D i b u j o # 1,

OBSERVA LO SIGUIENTE:

Ted is LESS TALL THAN Burt

Ted es MENOS ALTO QUE Burt GRADO COMPARATIVO

Ted is the LEAST TALL in this family. GRADO Ted es el menos ALTO de est a familia. SUPERLATIVO

He is THE LEAST TALL OF everybody. GRADO

El es EL MENOS ALTO DE todos . SUPERLATIVO

D i b u j o

En el primer dibujo el contraste entre Ted y otra persona, se dice que está en grado COMPARATIVO.

En el segundo dibujo, el contraste es entre TED y un grupo de personas - ' (2 o mas). Se dice que el adjetivo está en grado SUPERLATIVO.

Observa más ejemplos:

Report Card

Algebra 5

History 8

Algebra es MENOS FACIL QUE Historia Algebra is LESS EASY THAN History.

"Easy" está en grado comparativo. ¿Por qué?

(29)

Report Gard

Algebra 5

History 8

English 9

Biology 8

Physic al

Education ...10

Algebra es LA HENOS FACIL DE todas las materias. Algebra is THE LEAST DIFFICULT of all s u b j e c t s

"DIFFICULT" está en grado superlativo.

¿Por qué?

Ihe rabbit is LESS SLOW THAN the turtle

El cone jo es MENOS LENTO QUE la tortuga

"LESS SLOW" est a en grado

?

' A

The rabbit is THE LEAST SLOW OF all these - - • animals.

El conejo es EL MENOS LENTO DE todos estos ani. males.

II.-REPASO DEL VOCABULARIO.

II»-ANOTA EN EL PARENTESIS DE CADA ORACION, EL NUMERO CORRESPONDIENTE AL ADJETIVO USADO EN LA MISMA.

) John's sister is very pretty.

) She is agreeable.

) She is also attentive.

) She prepared a refreshing lemonade. ) It was delicious.

) It was not difficult to prepare it.

) John is not as careful as her sister.

) He is not generous either.

) He is rather fat .

) He is short .

) And he is slow at work.

) He is as thin as you.

1 . Bon it a 2. At ent a 3 . De lie ioso 4. Gordo

5. Refrescante 6 . Cuidadoso

7 . Generoso 8. Delgado 9. Lento 10. Chaparro 11. Fuerte 12. Util 13 . Agradable 14. Difícil

III.-E J III.-E R C I C I O S

ANOTA AL FINAL DE CADA ORACION "COMPARATIVO" O " SUPERLATIVO", SEGUN EL

GRADO EN QUE SE ENCUENTRE EL ADJETIVO USADO EN CADA CASO.

P R I M E R A P A R T E

1-- Your sister is LESS PRETTY THAN Miss Mexico.

Tu hermana es MENOS BONITA QUE i. a S r i t a , M e x i c o .

2.- She is THE LEAST PRETTY in your family.

. Ella es LA MENOS BONITA DE t u f ami lis.

3.- You are LESS THIN THAN Mr. Dawson. Tú eras MENOS DELGADO QUE el Sr. Dawson .

4.- You are THE LEAST THIN of everybody. Tú eres el MENOS DELGADO de t o d o s .

5.- Your friend is LESS GENEROUS THAN Peter. Tu amigo es MENOS GENEROSO QUE Peter.

1 0 2 0 1 1 5 2 3 5

(30)

6 He is THE LEAST GENEROUS OF all our friends.

El es EL MENOS GENEROSO DE todos nuestros amigos.

7.- The students of Prepa # 95 are LESS ATTENTIVE THAN our students.

Los estudiantes de la Prepa # 95 son MENOS ATENTOS que nuestros estudiantes.

8.- The students of Prepa # 80 are THE LEAST ATTENTIVE OF all.

Los estudiantes de la Prepa # 80 son LOS MENOS -ATENTOS DE todos.

9.- These sentences are LESS EASY THAN the ones in —

"English Three".

Estas oraciones son MENOS FACILES QUE las de - —

"Ingle's Tres".

10.- "English Four" is THE LEAST EASY of the whole —

c ourse.

"Ingles Cuatro" es EL MENOS FACIL de todo el c ur so.

SEGUNDA PARTE.

11.- Mr. Sinatra is LESS YOUNG THAN' Christopher

Cross .

El Sr. Sinatra es MENOS JOVEN QUE Christopher -Cross .

12.- He is THE LEAST YOUNG singer.

El es el cantante MENOS JOVEN.

13.- Julian Lennon is YOUNGER THAN Nt Cartney.

Julian Lennon es MAS JOVEN QUE tfc Cartney.

14.- He is THE YOUNGEST OF all modern singers.

El es EL MAS JOVEN DE todos los cantantes moder nos .

15.- Steve Wonder is MORE POPULAR THAN Lionel Ritchie.

Steve Wonder es MAS POPULAR QUE Lionel Ritchie.

\

16 Steve was THE MOST POPULAR person in the Festival.

Steve fue la persona MAS POPULAR en el Festival.

17.- Cindy Lauper is THE LEAST TALL OF all modern singers .

Cindy Lauper es LA MENOS ALTA DE todas las cant antes modernas .

18.- tj

Van Ha11en is LESS FAT THAN Vittorino.

Van Hallen es MENOS GORDO QUE Vittorino.

19.- Vittorino is FATTER THAN you.

Vittorino es MAS GORDO QUE tu.

20.- He is THE FATTEST OF everybody.

El,es EL MAS GORDO DE todos.

C O N C L U S I O N

EL GRADO COMPARATIVO se usa para expresar contraste entre dos personas, animales o cosas.

E L G g y O SUPERLATIVO So usa para expresar el contraste que

(31)

COMPARACION DE SUPERIORIDAD.

CASO # 1.

La mayor parte de los adjetivos de una sílaba forman su grado comparativo

de superioridad agregando la terminación "ER". Ejemplos:

Brooke Shields is YOUNGER THAN Liz Taylor.

Brooke Shields es MAS JOVEN que Liz Taylor.

Mr. Reagan is OLDER THAN our President.

El Sr. Reagan es MAS VIEJO que nuestro Presidente.

CASO # 2.

Los adjetivos de mas de dos sílabas forman su grado comparativo de superio

ridad con la palabra "MORE". Ejemplos:

Water is MORE NECESSARY than any other element.

El agua es MAS NECESARIA que cualquier otro elemento.

Michael Jackson is MORE DISTINGUISHED THAN John Smith.

Michael Jackson es MAS DISTINGUIDO que John Smith.

55

O B S E R V E

New

Wonderful

Rich

Important

Big

NewER than

MORE wonderful than

RichER than

MORE important than

BiggER than

MAS nuevo que

MAS maravilloso que

MAS rico que

MAS importante que

MAS grande que

CASO # 3.

Algunos adjetivos de dos sílabas forman su grado comparativo de supe-rioridad agregando la terminación "ER" y otros lo forman con la palabra ''MORE".

O B S E R V E :

Happy HappiER than MAS feliz que

Famous MORE famous than MAS famoso que

Ugly UgliER MAS feo que

Anxious MORE anxious than MAS ansioso que

R E S U M E N :

OLD OLDER than

C A S 0

#

1 FRESH

YOUNG

FRESHER than

YOUNGER than

EFFECTIVE MORE EFFECTIVE than C A S 0

#

2 DISTINGUISHED MORE DISTINGUISHED than

WONDERFUL MORE WONDERFUL than

FAMOUS MORE FAMOUS than

0

#

UGLY UGLIER than 0

#

BRILLIANT

HAPPY

MORE BRILLIANT than

(32)

I.- LLENA LOS ESPACIOS EN BLANCO CON UNA DE LAS OPCIONES QUE SE P ANTEA*.

1.- I got good grades. I am very • happy - happier than

2.- Studying is _____ _ going t o t h e *o v i e s

-important - more -important than

3.- Good grades are _ l o w grades.

satisfactory more satisfactory than

4.- Your Economy book is .. your English booi . big - bigger than

5.- We know that progress is very — ' important - more important than

6.- Water is __ ' necessary - more necessary than

7.- Mr. Garza has 10 millions capital. Her sister has 20 millions. She is " __ _ M r . Garza.

rich - richer than:

8.- Frankestein is you. ugly - uglier than

9.- Mary is 14 years old. You are 20 years old.

She is you. older than - younger than

You are ___ she. older than - younger than

II.-LLENA LOS ESPACIOS EN BLANCO.

1.- I am you about the exams. mas ansioso que

2.- My house is yours . mas nueva que

3.- Vacations in Can Cun are ___ a good m e d i c i n e mas efectivas que

4.- Going to the movies is going t o c l a ss .

mas satisfactorio que

5.- This mango is _ that apple. mas" fresco que

6.- Water is __ ood . mas necesaria que

7.- The Rockefellers are the Smiths. mas ricos que

8.- Michael is Steeve Wonder. mas joven que

9.- The Beatles' music is disco music. mas maravillosa que

10.- Mick Jagger was . ^Michael. mas famoso que

III.- LLENA LOS ESPACIOS EN BLANCO CON UNA DE LAS DOS OPCIONES QUE SE PLANTEAN

EN CADA CASO.

1.- I read a novel yesterday. It was

2 . "

this one. wonderful -as wonderful as

No, the story that the teacher told us is

your novel.

I am going to write a novel and I will be 3.

4.- I would like to be

5.

6.

wonderful-more wonderful than

Cervant® famous-as famous as

_Garcia Marquez. famous - more famous than

My brother wants to be simply

famous - more famous than

If you write an important novel you might be

7.- You are not y o u s a y >

rich - as rich as

8.- You can be rich if you work in a circus. You are

Frankenstein.

I. f a m o u s - a s f a m o u s as

ugly - as ugly as

9.- I am not

Frankenstein

10

ugly - uglier than

You say that, because I am

distinguished - more distinguished

you,

IV.- LLENA LOS ESPACIOS EN BLANCO.

1.- Students love the month of May because there are many holidays.

When it begins, we are

2.-r We are

3.- I am

mas felices que

tan feliz COBJO

4.- We are very

ansiosos

5.- May aid June are very

felices .

.when we went to South Padre Island

children in Christmas.

about the graduation days.

months.

importantes

(33)

6.- They are

mas importantes que

7.- Our graduation is

the other months of the year,

the whole course. tan importante como

. - Getting good marks now is last semesters

9.- I know we can be

mas necesario que

our distinguished friends.

tan brillantes como

10.- Having my diploma will be very

satisfactorio

V .-LLENA LOS ESPACIOS CORRESPONDIENTES A CADA ADJETIVO, SEGUN LOS DOS PRIMEROS

CASOS USADOS COMO EJEMPLOS:

ANSIOSO

BRILLANTE

ADJETIVO

EN INGLES

ANXIOUS

BRILLIANT

COMPARATIVO DE

IGUALDAD

.AS ANXIOUS AS..

.AS BRILLIANT AS

COMPARATIVO DE

SUPERIORIDAD

..MORE ANXIOUS THAN,

MORE BRILLIANT THAN,

1. DISTINGUIDO ,

2. EFECTIVO __ _

3 . FAMOSO .

4. FELIZ

5. FEO

6. FRESCO _____ __

7. GRANDE

8. IMPORTANTE _

9. JOVEN

10. MARAVILLOSO

11. NECESARIO

12. NUEVO

13. RICO

14. SATISFACTORIO

15.- VIEJO

NOTA: SI HAY DUDA AL EJECUTAR ESTE ULTIMO EJERCICIO, REPASA LOS ANTERIORES PARA TENER UNA MAYOR SEGURIDAD EN EL USO DE LOS GRADOS ESTUDIADOS.

59

TODO LO VISTO HASTA HORA SOBRE ADJETIVOS ESTA RESUMIDO EN EL SIGUIENTE

CUADRO. AL LLEGAR A ESTE PUNTO, TODO DEBE HABER SIDO COMPRENDIDO, SI ES

-ASI, MEMORIZA EL MENCIONADO CUADRO, DE LO CONTRARIO, REPASA ANTES AQUELLO

QUE NO HAYAS COMPRENDIDO.

COMPARATIVO DE

IGUALDAD: ...AS

COMPARATIVO ADJETIVOS DE UNA SILABA: ER (Than)

D E ADJETIVOS DE DOS SILABAS: ER (Than)

SUPERIORIDAD ADJETIVOS DE DOS SILABAS: MORE (Than)

(34)

G R A D O S D E L A D J E T I V O II

ESCRIBE CINCO VECES CADA UNA DE LAS SIGUIENTES PALABRAS EN INGLES:

(Atractivo.) (Hermoso)

ATTRACTIVE BEAUTIFUL

(Capaz)

CAPABLE

(Rápido)

(Interesante) (Tarde)

FAST

INTERESTING LATE

(Pobre) (Triste)

(Pequeño)

POOR SAD

(35)

"»»min

( F u e r t e )

S T R O N G

( A l t o )

T A L L

( U t i l )

U S E F U L

• ;¡¡ si

4 . 3 . . C O M P A R A C I O N DE I N F E R I O R I D A D . O B S E R V A LO S I G U I E N T E

S ara

I am 40

y e a r s o l d . Frank

I am 50

y e a r s old

F r a n k is less rich t h a n S a m .

F r a n k es m e n o s rico que S a m .

Sam is 1 s s oíd than F r a n k .

Sam es m nos v i e j o que F r a n k .

F r a n k is less tall than S a m .

F r a n k es m e n o s alto que S a m .

Sam is less sad than F r a n k .

Sam e s t á m e n o s t r i s t e que F r a n k .

M E M 0 R I Z A R

C O M P A R A T I V O DE INFERIORIDAD

• . «LESS

Than

E X E R C I S E S

L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S EN B L A N C O CON E L C O M P A R A T I V O DE I N F E R I O R I D A D .

F I L L IN THE B L A N K S .

You are T a r z a n

(36)

A

' 1 > 1 : '<

"Un*

i. i

I"'"1' H,,,,,

The b i c y c l e is the ca: f a s t

XI.- L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S EN B L A N C O .

1.- I v i s i t e d L a r e d o an San A n t o n i o last v a c a t i o n . L a r e s o is

San A n t o n i o .

m e n o s i n t e r e s a n t e que

2.- My b r o t h e r b o u g h t a t e l e v i s i o n set and r a d i o in L a r e d o .

The r a d i o w a s _ t h e t e l e v i s i o n s e t .

m e n o s caro que

3.- R e s t a u r a n t s in L a r e d o are r e s t a u r a m e n o s a t r a c t i v o s que

in San A n t o n i o .

4 . - We r e t u r n e d h o m e at 5.00 P . M . It w a s

the o t h e r d a y .

5.- I b o u g h t a small T . V . s e t . It is

m e n o s tarde que

my

-m e n o s h e r -m o s a que b r o t h e r ' s .

6.- B e n j a m i n b o u g h t an " A t a r i " . " A t a r i s " are

r a d i o s .

7.- R a d i o s from the U . S . A . are

m e n o s u t i l e s que

r a d i o s

m e n o s p e q u e ñ o s que

from J a p a n .

8.- U s i n g a m i c r o - c o m p u t e r is

m e n o s f a c i l que

v i d e o g a m e s .

9.- P l a y i n g d o m i n o r e q u i r e s m o v e m e n t s w h i c h are

those for p l a y i n g v i d e o g a m e s . que

p l a y i n g

-m e n o s r á p i d o s

10.- R a d i o s are u s u a l l y T . V . s e t s . m e n o s g r a n d e s que

6-5

III.-LLENA LOS E S P A C I O S EN B L A N C O .

1.- P e t e r is y o u i n M a t h e m a t i c s .

m e n o s c a p a z que

2.- You are _ h i m .

m a s a p l i c a d o que

3.- My c o m p o s i t i o n s in g r a m m a r are _____ y o u r s .

tan i n t e r e s a n t e s como

4.- E n g l i s h is M a t h e m a t i c s .

m a s f á c i l que

5.- S p a n i s h is A l g e b r a .

m e n o s d i f í c i l que

6.- A l g e b r a is T r i g o n o m e t r y .

tan ú t i l como

7.- M a t h e m a t i c s is L i t e r a t u r e .

m e n o s i n t e r e s a n t e que

8.- T r i g o n o m e t r y is M a t h e m a t i c s .

tan d i f í c i l c o m o

9.- Ana is B e r t h a . tan c a p a z como

1 0 . - This e x e r c i s e w a s _ _ _ _ _ _ the f i r s t o n e . m e n o s d i f í c i l que

IV.- L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S EN B L A N C O CON LAS E X P R E S I O N E S QUE SE DAN

--A L P R I N C I P I O , B U S C --A N D O UN--A R E S P U E S T --A L O G I C --A .

Less d i f f i c u l t than Less big than

Less old than

Less i m p o r t a n t than Less late than

Less n e c e s s a r y than

1.- M o n t e r r e y is M e x i c o City

2.- C e r r a lvo is _ _ M o n t e r r e y .

3.- S o d a s are w a t e r .

4. My t e a c h e r is 40 y e a r s o l d . I am 17 year's o l d . So, I am

-him .

5.- My t e a c h e r e n t e r e d to c l a s s 10 m i n u t e s late y e s t e r d a y .

He e n t e r e d 5 m i n u t e s late t o d a y , so today he w a s

(37)

L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S C O R R E S P O N D I E N T E S A CADA A D J E T I V O , SEGUN LOS

DOS P R I M E R O S C A S O S U S A D O S COMO E J E M P L O :

A T T R A C T I V E

E A S Y

C O M P A R A T I V O DE

I N F E R I O R I D A D

LESS A T T R A C T I V E THAN

L E S S E A S Y THAN

C O M P A R A T I V O DE

S U P E R I O R I D A D

M O R E A T T R A C T I V E THAh

E A S I E R T H A N .

1. - B E A U T I F U L

2 . - LATE

3 . - I M P O R T A N T

4 . - S M A L L

5 . - C A P A B L E

6 . - SAD,

7 . - D I L I G E N T

8 .- P O O R

9 . - E X P E N S I V E

10 . - F A S T

1 1 . - I N T E R E S T I N G

12 . - S T R O N G

13 . - U S E F U L

1 4 . - T A L L

15 , - N E C E S S A R Y

IT _

— —

T O D O LO V I S T O H A S T A A H O R A SOBRE A D J E T I V O S E S T A R E S U M I D O EN

S I G U I E N T E C U A D R O . R E V I S A L O Y M E M O R I Z A A Q U E L L O QUE C O N S I D E R E S

A U N NO D O M I N A R .

C O M P A R A T I V O DE I G U A L D A D :

C O M P A R A T I V O

D E

. . . AS

A D J E T I V O S DE UNA S I L A B A :

A D J E T I V O S DE DOS S I L A B A S :

A D J E T I V O S DE T R E S O MAS S I L A B A S : M O R E

C O M P A R A T I V O DE I N F E R I O R I D A D : L E S S

AS . .

ER ( T h a n )

ER ( T h a n )

S U P E R I O R I D A D A D J E T I V O S DE DOS S I L A B A S : M O R E ( T h a n )

( T h a n )

( T h a n )

6-7

ESTRUCTURA DE LOS SUPERLATIVOS I

CASO # 1.

Agustín Lara was the THINNEST of all musicians in the 6 0's.

Agustín Lara era el MAS DELGADO DE todos los músicos de los 6 0-s.

Mr. Vargas is the OLDEST of all good mexican singers.

El Sr. Vargas es el MAS VIEJO DE todos los buenos cantantes.

Nelson is the SHORTEST of all Brazilian singers.

Nelson es el MAS CHAPARRO DE todos los cantantes Brasileños.

Vittorino is the FATTEST singer of this program.

Vittorino es el cantante MAS GORDO de este programa.

Juan Gabriel is one of the YOUNGEST composers of popular music.

Juan Gabriel es uno de los MAS JOVENES compositores de música popular

THIN: The THINNEST of' OLD: The OLDEST of

SHORT: The SHORTEST of FAT: The FATTEST of

YOUNG: The YOUNGEST of

(

A los adjetivos de una sílaba se les agrega la terminación

EST.

CASO # 2.

- Many Housewives think that the MOST INTERESTING trip is going to - . Laredo.

Muchas amas de casa piensan que el viaje MAS INTERESANTE es ir a - — Laredo.

- Some people buy the MOST BEAUTIFUL presents in Mb Allen.

Algunas gentes compran los MAS HERMOSOS regalos en f-fc Alien.

- My father says: "The MOST WONDERFUL presents are the MOST EXPENSIVE"

•Mi papá die e: "Los regalos MAS MARAVILLOSOS son los MAS CAROS".

- The MOST DIFFICULT problem is passing the customs office.

El problema MAS DIFICIL es pasar la oficina de la aduana.

- Employees at the customs office are sometines the MOST AGREEABLE. Los empleados de la oficina de la aduana algunas veces son los MAS

(38)

I N T E R E S T I N G :

B E A U T I F U L :

W O N D E R F U L

E X P E N S I V E

D I F F I C U L T

A G R E E A B L E

The M O S T I N T E R E S T I N G of|

The M O S T B E A U T I F U L of

The M O S T W O N D E R F U L of

The M O S T E X P E N S I V E of

The M O S T D I F F I C U L T of

The M O S T A G R E E A B L E of

A los a d j e t i v o s de tres

o mas s í l a b a s se les

a n t e p o n e la p a l a b r a

-M O S T .

Caso # 3 .

1 During the exam I tried to be the M O S T C A R E F U L student w h e n

-a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n s .

D u r a n t e el e x a m e n trate de ser el e s t u d i a n t e MAS C U I D A D O S O

-al c o n t e s t a r las p r e g u n t a s .

2.- T h i s d i c t i o n a r y w a s the M O S T U S E F U L of all my b o o k s .

Este d i c c i o n a r i o fue el MAS U T I L de todos m i s l i b r o s .

3.- The f i r s t part w a s the E A S I E S T of all the exam.

La primfera p a r t e fue La MAS F A C I L de todo el e x a m e n .

4.- I was the M O S T A N X I O U S s t u d e n t a b o u t k n o w i n g my g r a d e s .

Yo era el e s t u d i a n t e que e s t a b a MAS A N S I O S O por c o n o c e r m i s -cal if icac iones .

5 We w e r e the H A P P I E S T s t u d e n t s in school w h e n the teacher read the r e s u l t s

-N o s o t r o s f u i m o s los e s t u d i a n t e s m a s f e l i c e s de la e s c u e l a --c u a n d o el m a e s t r o n o s dio los r e s u l t a d o s .

6.- This w a s the P R E T T I E S T r e p o r t card of all my s e m e s t e r s . Este fue el r e p o r t e de c a l i f i c a c i o n e s MAS B O N I T O de todos --m i s s e--me

stres-C A R E F U L

U S E F U L

A N X I O U S

E A S Y

H A P P Y

P R E T T Y

the M O S T C A R E F U L

the M O S T U S E F U L

The M O S T A N X I O U S

The E A S I E S T

T h e . H A P P I E S T

The P R E T T I E S T

of ) 6 a l g u n o s a d j e t i v o s d

o f. 7cíos s í l a b a s se les

j \ a n t e p o n e la p a l a b r a

-o f* ^ M O S T .

A o t r o s a d j e t i v o s (de dos s í l a b a s ) se les -a g r e g -a l-a t e r m i n -a c i ó n

ESTI. LLENA LOS ESPACIOS CON LAS EXPRESIONES QUE SE DAN AL PRINCIPIO DEL -EJERCICIO.

a) slower than a) more generous than a ) more delicious than

b) the slowest b) the most generous b) the most delicious

a) more refreshing than a) more attentive than a) more expensive than b) the most refreshing b) the most attentive b) the most expensive

1.- I want to have of all these sodas.

la mas refrescante

2.- You are going to drink orange juice.

el mas delicioso

3.- We are clients in this restaurant. los mas generosos

4.- People in this restaurant are

los mas atentos.

5.- Prices are not either.

los mas caros

\

II.-LLENA EL ESPACIO EN BIANCO DE CADA ORACION CON EL ADJETIVO QUE ESIA AL

PRINCI-PIO E N LA FORMA CORRECTA DEL COMPARATIVO CORRESPONDIENTE.

1.- (Old). Sam is 6 0 years old. Tom is 40 and Mike is 32. So, Sam is

of them all.

2.- (Tall) (Short). I am 1.75 mts. My brother is 1.35 mts. and my sister is

1.50 mts. So, I am of everybody and my brother is

of all.

3.- (Poor). Rafael is poor. He has 30 pesos. Juan is poor too, he has 20 pesos, but Miguel has only 5 pesos, so he is Qf all.

4.- (Slow) My car runs up to 20 Km.p.h. Peter's car rums up to 80 km.p.h.

--and Jane's car runs up to 100 Kmvp.h. so my car is

of these cars.

5. (Anxious). My sister was of all ray family about the

-c ar exhibit .

6 . (Useful). She knew that a car might be of all her

-properties .

(39)

8.- (Easy). Her car is °f a 1 1 t o d r i v e*

9.- (Pretty). It is of all our cars.

10.- (Happy). Having it, makes us _ _ p f all families in

our ranch.

III.LLENA LOS ESPACIOS EN BLANCO CON EL SUPERLATIVO DE SUPERIORIDAD DE LOS

-ADJETIVOS INDICADOS.

1.- We wanted to read story from this book. int ere sting

2.- Albert copied one of _exercises. easy

3.- Your story book is ____ of all. big

4.- It is also all these books. expensive

5.- This telephone book is of all the books you got. useful

6 Our Bible is ?f o u r books.

small

7.- It is the smallest and o f them.

old

8.- Encyclopedias are books in a library. important

9.- The librarian is person when the library is silent

happy

10.- We have book collection in our library.

new

71

ESTRUCTURA DE LOS SUPERLATIVOS II

1 - Agustin Lara was the LEAST FAT of all artists in the 60's

Agustín U r a era el MENOS GORDO de todos los artistas en los 6 0's

2.- vargas is the LEAST YOUNG of today's singers.

Vargas es el MENOS JOVEN de los cantantes de ahora.

3.- Nelson is the LEAST TALL of all Brazilian singers.

Nelson es el MENOS ALTO de todos los cantantes Brasileños.

4.- Vittorino is the LEAST THIN of all m o d e m singers

Vittorino es el MENOS DELGADO de todos los cantantes modernos.

5.- Juan Gabriel is the LEAST OLD of all modern composers

Juan Gabriel es el MENOS VIEJO de todos los compositores modernos.

FAT : The LEAST FAT of

YOUNG: The LEAST YOUNG of

TALL : The LEAST TALL of

THIN : The LEAST THIN of

OLD : The LEAST OLD of

El superlativo de inferioridad se formo' con (the) LEAST.

1 - Mr. Pavaroti is one of the LEAST DISTINGUISHED artists of pop music

El Sr. Pavaroti es uno de los MENOS DISTINGUIDOS artistas de música "pop".

2 - Singing pop music is the LEAST DIFFICULT of all tasks for opera singers

Cantar música "pop" es la MENOS DIFICIL de todas las tareas para los cantantes de ópera.

3.- It is also the LEAST SATISFACTORY for them.

Es también la MENOS SATISFACTORIA para ellos.

Being famous as a Rock singer is the LEAST ATTRACTIVE for Mr. Vargas.

Ser famoso como cantante de Rock es lo MENOS ATRACTIVO para el Sr Vargas .

5 - Man opera singers think that popular music is the LEAST WONDERFUL of all this art.

Muchos cantantes de ópera piensan que la música popular es la MENOS -MARAVILLOSA de todo este arte.

(40)

DISTINGUISHED

DIFFICULT

SATISFACTORY

ATTRACTIVE

WONDERFUL

The LEAST DISTINGUISHED of

The LEAST DIFFICULT of

The LEAST SATISFACTORY of

The LEAST ATTRACTIVE of The LEAST WONDERFUL of

El superlativo de inferioridad se -formó con

(the)-LEAST

C O N C L U S I O N

El superlativo de inferioridad se forma

con la expresión (the) LEAST.

Sin importar el número de sílabas del

-adjet ivo.

IV.LLENA LOS ESPACIOS EN BLANCO CON EL SUPERLATIVO DE INFERIORIDAD DE LOS

-ADJETIVOS INDICADOS.

THIN

TALL

FAT

1.- I prepared

OLD RICH SLOW WONDERFUL DELICIOUS AGREEABLE

el menos delicioso

2.- Don't eat hamburguers, I want you to be

EXPENSIVE

INTERESTING

LARGE

of these sandwiches.

of my friend•

3.- He likes

el Tien os gordo

wines when mating. los menos caros

4.- If we drink and eat a lot we will be

5.- Not eating is

in our family.

los menos delgados task we have now. la menos agradable

6 Few ladies like visiting

los menos maravill )sos

?.- When I went to Mexico City I visited

restaurants in town

restaurará .

el meno 5 grande

are ìs of the c it y 8.- It was in one of

las menos antiguas

9.- Its building is in that block. el menos alto

10.- It is visited not only by

las menos ricas

people.

R E P A S O DEL V O C A B U L A R I O

V. A N O T A EN EL PARENTFST«; nc- A T\ a

A 7 , _ A K-N T E SI S DE CADA O R A C I O N , EL N U M E R O C O R R E S P O N D I E N T F

AL A D J E T I V O IISAnn ttm TA

1 . Agr adab 1 e 2 . An s i o s o 3 . Atento 4 . Bon i ta(o ) 5 . Caro

6 . Cu idadoso 7 . Delgado 8 . Delicioso 9 . Feliz 10. Generoso 11 . Gordo 12 . Gr ande 13 . Joven 14 . Lento 15 . Pequeño 16. Rico 17. Veloz AL A D J E T I V O U S A D O EN LA MISMA

) Try to be a g r e e a b l e in s c h o o l .

) I say " H e l l o " to p r e t t y g irls o n l y,

) We are a t t e n t i v e to e v e r y b o d y . You looked a n x i o u s y e s t e r d a y .

Your car ran v e r y fast to s c h o o l .

N o , I w a s v e r y h a p p y y e s t e r d a y . It w a s b e c a u s e I saw a g e n e r o u s man

; H e 1 5 my u n c l e , a young m a n .

) Who is not very t h i n .

) He is r a t h e r fat. ) He w a l k s very slow.

) And c a m e in a small c a r . ) WitlT a c a r e f u l m o v e m e n t .

) He g a v e m e a big c a k e . ) Which w a s d e l i c i o u s .

I. L L E N A LOS E S P A C I O S EN B L A N C O CON LA E X P R E S I O N I N D I C A D A EN CADA uAoU .

P R I M E R A P A R T E

1-- You m u s t not buy ' ^f

y or these c a r s .

el m e n o s b o n i t o 2 - - Try to get ~ c J of t h e m .

el m e n os v e l o z 3 - - When you d r i v e it, you are not

4 - - We k n o w you are -i ^ k •

y u d r e in this g r o u p w h e n you d r i v e

el m&nos a g r a d a b l e

5- ~ If you drive this car you should not be

of a l l d r i v e r s . e T ' m e n o s " c u i d a d o s o "

6 - - Uncle Tom w i l l not b u y you a car. He is

our uncles- el m e n o s generoTo""

7- - I b o u g h t _ of t h e s e c a r s

el m e n o s p e q u e ñ o

8-- W h e n w e b o u g h t it Richard w a s o f a l l p r e s e n L.

p e o p l e el m e n o s a n s i o s o

(41)

9.- The car is of all the cars we have had. el mas lento

10.- It is of them. el menos lento

VII.- SEGUNDA PARTF

11.- To celebrate the acquisition we had a party, but M.-ry was

of ail our friends. la

menos atenta

12.- However, she was when serving the cake la mas rapida : .,

13.- She gave me ___ of all pieces of cake. el menos delicioso

' *' •v v'

14.- I wanted of these pieces.

el mas grande > '

' ' v > ^ • 35.- Her brother ate hamburguers. sodas and ca<e- Now. he is •

of everybody.

Jii'Mi el

menos delgado . lo.- We know he is in that family.

eí mas gordo

17. Michael eats onlv fruit because he wants to be -el menos of everybody.

18 - Now he is in my family. el mas delgado .. :,

1 9 H e is also of all this family. ¡.

e mas joven .

20. This family is one of in town

-las mas agradables

I ^ :

m

¿ ' f g ^

f--—

4M.'-. ml • ¿ v

y •'•:-.•, ' •

. . i

C

r

7 >?

^ I s ®

-7 5

VIII. LLENA LOS ESPACIOS CORRESPONDIENTES A CADA ADJETIVO SHGUN LOS PRIMEROS

CASOS USADOS COMO EJEMPLO:

THIN THE THINNEST (OF) THE LEAST THIN (OF)

DIFFICULT THE MOST DIFFICULT (OF) THE LEAST DIFFICULT (OF)

1.- AGREEABLE

2.- FAT

3.- ATTENTIVE

4.- SHORT

5 -- DELICIOUS

6.- SLOW

7.- GENEROUS

8.- BIG

9.- REFRESHING

10.- ANXIOUS

11.- CAREFUL

12.- EASY

13.- HAPPY

14.- PRETTY

(42)

COMENTARIO: SI AL DESARROLLAR ESTE EJERCICIO. SURGIERON DUDAS O CONFUSIONES

REPASA LOS EJERCICIOS ANTERIORES Y REPITE NUEVAMENTE ESTE

EJERCICIO-EL SIGUIENTE CUADRO NOS AYUDARA A VISUALIZAR LA ESTRUCTURA DEJERCICIO-EL GRADO

SUPERLATIVO. TANTO DEL DE SUPERIORIDAD. COMO EL DE INFERIORIDAD.

S U P E R L A T I V O S

DE SurtKIUKIDAD

ADJETIVOS DE UNA SILABA : (The) EST (of)

ADJETIVOS DE DOS SILABAS : (The) EST (of)

ADJETIVOS DE DOS SILABAS : (The) MOST (of)

ADJETIVOS DE TRES 0

MAS-SILABAS : (The) MOST (of)

*

DE INFERIORIDAD

ADJETIVOS DE UNA. DOS 0

MAS SILABAS : (The) LEAST (of)

4.5.-(Bueno )

GOOD

A D J E T I V O S I R R E G U L A R E S

( M a l - o ) r ir « -P ^ \

7 vEnfermo ;

BAD

ILL

(Bien )

1

2.

W E L L

( M u c h o s ) ( M u c h o )

e

M A N Y MUCH

( P o c o - s )

O

D

(Le j os )

Figure

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Referencias

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