Worbook 1. Modules V and VIII practices and exercises

Texto completo

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UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE NUEVO LEÓN

PREPARATORIA No. 2

ACADEMIA DE INGLES

MODULES V AND VIII

PRACTICES AND EXERCISES

Compiled by Profr. Mario A. Garza Morales

1 3

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2

/ o o f H t .

Adjectives: comparison

bigger

than,

more

intelligent

UNIVERSITARI PONDO, ,

Spelling rules for comparatives

• For one syllable words with one vowel and one consonant at the end, double the last consonant and add er big-bigger fat-fatter hot-hotter sad-sadder thin-thinner

• For one syllable words with one or two vowels or ending in two consonants, just add er long - longer tall - taller black - blacker weak - weaker soon - sooner

• For words of one or two syllables ending with e, just add r. nice - nicer wide — wider simple - simpler

• For words of two syllables ending with a consonant andy, change they to i and add er. pretty - prettier easy - easier funny - funnier smelly - smellier

• For most three syllable words and all longer ones, use more.

capable - more capable intelligent - more intelligent difficult - more difficult

Mr Adams A

Miss Brookes B

Mr Church C

Ms Dangerfield D

Examples: Mr Adams is older than Miss Brookes. Miss Brookes is prettier than Ms Dangerfield.

Ms Dangerfield is more intelligent than Miss Brookes. Mr Church is more handsome than Mr Adams.

E x e r c i s e A

Make sentences about the people above:

P E / y i a

Example: fat A / C 1 thin B / D

2 happy C / A

3 sad D / B

4 rich C / A

5 poor D / B

6 intelligent A / B

7 strong C / D

E x e r c i s e B

Do Exercise 1 on the cassette.

Mr Adams is fatter than Mr Church.

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2

/ o o f H t .

Adjectives: comparison

bigger

than,

more

intelligent

UNIVERSITARI PONDO, ,

Spelling rules for comparatives

• For one syllable words with one vowel and one consonant at the end, double the last consonant and add er big-bigger fat-fatter hot-hotter sad-sadder thin-thinner

• For one syllable words with one or two vowels or ending in two consonants, just add er long - longer tall - taller black - blacker weak - weaker soon - sooner

• For words of one or two syllables ending with e, just add r. nice - nicer wide — wider simple - simpler

• For words of two syllables ending with a consonant andy, change they to i and add er. pretty - prettier easy - easier funny - funnier smelly - smellier

• For most three syllable words and all longer ones, use more.

capable - more capable intelligent - more intelligent difficult - more difficult

Mr Adams A

Miss Brookes B

Mr Church C

Ms Dangerfield D

Examples: Mr Adams is older than Miss Brookes. Miss Brookes is prettier than Ms Dangerfield.

Ms Dangerfield is more intelligent than Miss Brookes. Mr Church is more handsome than Mr Adams.

E x e r c i s e A

Make sentences about the people above:

P E / y i a

Example: fat A / C 1 thin B / D

2 happy C / A

3 sad D / B

4 rich C / A

5 poor D / B

6 intelligent A / B

7 strong C / D

E x e r c i s e B

Do Exercise 1 on the cassette.

Mr Adams is fatter than Mr Church.

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ni Jt Adjectives: superlative

JÊ .... ?

the

biggest

Spelling rules for superlatives

• For one syllable words with one vowel and one consonant at the end, double the last consonant and add est.

big-biggest fat-fattest hot-hottest sad-saddest thin - thinnest

• For one syllable words ending in two consonants or with two vowels, j u s t add est. long-longest tall-tallest black - blackest weak-weakest

• For words of one or two syllables ending with e, j u s t add st. nice - nicest wide - widest simple - simplest

• For words of two syllables ending with a consonant a n d y , change t h e y to i and add est. pretty-prettiest easy - easiest funny - funniest smelly - smelliest

• For most three syllable words and all longer ones, use most.

capable - most capable intelligent - most intelligent difficult - most difficult

E x e r c i s e A

Arthur, Brenda, Charles and Delia are friends.

Examples: Arthur is the tallest of the four. Brenda is the happiest of the four. Charles is the.oldest ot the four. Delia is the most intelligent of the four.

Make sentences like the examples.

1 C h a r l e s - f a t _

2 Delia - slim — _ — _ —

3 Arthur - strong — — — --4 Brenda - elegant

E x e r c i s e B

Example: High mountains (world): Mont Blanc / Everest / Kilimanjaro Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

Make sentences like the example.

1 Long rivers (Europe): the Danube / the Rhine / the Seine

2 Big animals (Africa): the rhino / the elephant / the hippopotamus

3 Busy airports (England): Gatwick / Heathrow / Manchester

4 Expensive metals (world): platinum / silver / gold

5 Fast passenger planes (world): Concorde / the 747 / the Airbus

E x e r c i s e C

Do Exercise 3 on the cassette.

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Conjunctions

John and Mary

B U T AND

Tom is tall b u t Carol is short. I like ice-cream but I don't like fish Sweden is small-hut strong. She is rich but h e is poor. John is tall and Mary is tall.

I like ice-cream and you like chocolate Saudi Arabia is hot and sunny. I am sad and you are lonely.

BECAUSE (reason)

SO (result)

I'm going to bed because I'm tired. She stayed at home because it was wet. I eat ice-cream because I like it. I'm tired so I'm going to bed.

It Was wet so she stayed at home I like ice-cream so I eat a lot of it.

numbered spaces below. so we had a long swim. but she hates sport. and it has green eyes. and h a s a big car. but I haven't finished. because he was very angry. so we couldn't buy any cigarettes. because he is a good Muslim. and it flows through many countries but I didn't want to go.

so they had to walk. because I worked hard. Join the pairs of sentences. Write a to / in the

1 The shop was closed a

2 My father shouted at me b 3 The water was very warm c 4 Our cat has a long tail d 5 Mikki loves pop music e 6 The Nile is a very long river f

7 They missed the bus g 8 My boss was very pleased h

9 Tomoko asked me to a party i 10 Mustapha prays five times a day j 11 I've been working very h a r d k 12 He lives in a large house 1

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15

Prepositions: place

ot home in bed

AT IN ON

at home/work/school at the beginning/end at the theatre/cinema at the station/airport at a party/dance/concert

in Rome (town or city) in France (country) in a car

in a room/house/garden in your tea/drink in bed/hospital/prison in the air

on the table/shelf on the ground/floor on a bus/train/plane on the wall/ceiling on the left/right

E x e r c i s e A

Write in the correct prepositions.

Where's John? He's not

Where's your cup?

Do you take sugar

work today.

your coffee?

the airport?

Where were you last night, a party? Has the plane arrived

Have you seen my football?

Where do you live?

8 I can't find my shoes.

9 Did you meet him the station?

10 Where is Mr Smith?

beside / next to on

E x e r c i s e B

in between

Now look at the picture and answer the questions. Example: Where is the car?

1 Where is the taxi?

2 Where is the plane? faty

3 Where is the bus?

4 Where is the lorry?

5 Where is the helicopter?

6 Where is the boat?

7 Where is the bicycle?

8 Where is the dog?

No, he's bed _

It's the table.

hospital.

No thanks.

No, it's still

No, I was _

Yes, it's

the air.

the theatre London.

the grass

Trento, a small town

They're the floor

the garden.

_ Italy.

the train. No, he wasn't

He's the third room

the kitchen.

the left.

above behind in front of under below

It's in front of the taxi.

the car and the bus.

the helicopter,

the taxi,

the bus.

the plane,

the lorry,

the car.

the car.

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SHaMSNV

Prepositions: time

ot four o'clock on Saturday

IN (months /years/seasons)

OH (days/dates)

AT (times /festivals)

in July in 1992 in winter in the morning on Mone lay

on 15th May on April 3rd at four o'clock

at 3.15 at Christmas at the weekend

E x e r c i s e A

Example: When does the plane leave? It leaves at 6.30.

1 When did you arrive?

2 What time shall we start?

3 When do the shops close?

4 What time does the film begin?

E x e r c i s e B

Example: When is Christmas Day? Friday 1 When is New Year's Day? 4th July /

2 When is American Independence Day? "*25th December

3 On which day do Christians go to church? 1st J a n u a r y

4 On which day to Muslims go to the mosque? Sunday

Christmas Day is on 25th December.

E x e r c i s e C

Fill in the gaps in the sentences with on, in or aL

1 Monday, Susan woke up five o'clock the morning.

2 In England they play football winter and cricket summer.

3 My sister arrived half past three the afternoon.

4 I usually play badminton Wednesdays and tennis Saturdays.

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28

Questions: wh~

What

is this?

Wh- questions begin with question words like What, Wfcen, Who, W W , Why, Which, 1i J. _ M /J Ll ^>1/1

Where, and How.

What is your name?

E x e r c i s e A

Write the questions.

QUESTION ANSWER

What is your name? (verb) (subject) Where are the children?

My name is Maria. (subject) (verb)

The children are in the garden. (verb) (subject)

When is she coming? (verb) (subject> (verb)

The verb comes before the subject.

(subject) (verb)

She is coming at 8 o'clock. (subject) (verb)

The verb c o m e s after the subject

What

Where

Who _

Why _

How old

Whose car

i n tSE I

His name is Juan.

The pyramids are in Egypt.

Alain was sick at the party.

I am learning English because of my job.

She is 20.

It's my car.

P R E S E N T T E N S E

a) Joan knows Mike. (subject) (verb) (object)

Joan knows-jwho? 1 Who'*^Zoes Joan know? (object) (subject)

b) Joan knows Mike. (subject) (verb) (object)

Cp knows Mike? Who knows Mike? (subject) (verb) (object)

PAST T E N S E

Joan knew Mike. (subject) (verb) (object)

1 Joan juitaau\who? i

Who * did Joan know? (object) (subject).

Joan knew Mike. (subject) (verb) (object)

[ f j knew . Mike? Who knew Mike? (subject) (verb) (object)

E x e r c i s e B

Write the questions.

Examples: Who arrived at 7 o'clock ? Who did he see yesterday? Where

How many books

Who

When

Which car

What

What

Whose pen

f~?1 arrived at 7 o'clock. He saw ¡TJyesterday.

He went to [T) last week.

John bought (Tj books last year.

[ f j bought a new car last month.

Phyllis went to China [?]

I like the [Tjcar.

r?l happened.

[Y] You want ?

She took ?'s pen.

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Verbs: future with going to

SHORTANSWER QUESTION

STATEMENT

are. aren't. are

're are not aren't

going to sing.

We use going to when we know what is going to happen, or we think the other person knows what is going to happen.

Examples

Is he going to play the drums?

No, he isn't. He's going to play the piano. What are you

going to do?

I'm going to play the piano.

E x e r c i s e A

What is going to happen?

1 She / read / a book —

2 They / watch / TV

3 He / not play / the drums _

4 She / not do / her homework

5 I / do / my homework

6 You / do / your homework?

7 It / rain — —

-8 It / not / rain —

9 It / rain? —

10 They /notcome / to the party

E x e r c i s e B

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I t h i n k I'll h a v e fish.

QUESTION

Will

I you we they

he she it

come? I

you we they

he she it

40

Verbs: future with v/lll

I'll g o . . .

STATEMENT SHORTANSWER

will,

won't.

Example:

I think I / stay / in bed tomorrow. 1 think f t

1 I don't think she / go / to the party. 2 The weather / be / sunny in June. 3 You / help / me?

4 There / not be / enough water next summer. 5 I think I / go / to the bank.

6 He / pay / you tomorrow. 7 I / have / soup, please.

8 The government says we / have / more money next year.

9 You / marry / me?

10 No, I / not lend / you any money.

PROMISE PREDICTION QUICK D ECISION

We use the future with will to express the following.

I n S c o t l a n d it. w i l l r a i n t o m o r r o w . I n t h e s o u t h of E n g l a n d i t will b e s u n n y . _

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S H 3 M S N V

Verbs: modal auxiliaries can/could

c a n , I could.

SHORTANSWER QUESTION

STATEMENT

can

swim swim.

Can - I know how to do it, or it is possible for me to do it.

Example: Can you swim? Yes, I can. Can you ski? No, I can't. You can't dive in here.

E x e r c i s e A

Write statements with can or can't.

ft -0-^

oh ,, W- - \

drive. dance

E x e r c i s e B

The past tense of can/can't is could / couldn't. Complete these sentences.

-g—i Se Moot Bf

ptj MoroniMG

3 Last year she 1 Last year they

dance.

We also use can or could for making requests. (Could is very polite.)

Exa mple:

I v S / c a n I use your j t B j l L ^ s / Could you help i M < 7 phone? ! f r n ^ S v m e'p I e a s e ?

/ 6 o u l d y o u c l o s e t h e y^ w i n d o w , p l e a s e ?

E x e r c i s e C

Write requests using can or could.

1 You want to read someone's newspaper. 2 You want a friend to post a letter for you 3 You want someone to pass the salt. 4 You want to watch TV.

SAUp

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I / Y o u

We/They

He/She/It come work.

We use may or might when we think something is possible.

May is often more possible t h a n might.

Examples: What are you going to do this afternoon? We don't know yet. We may watch a video. We might not like this video. No, this one might be better.

E x e r c i s e A

Write sentences with may (not) and might [not : for the following situations.

G O B Y B U S ? B E S U N N Y ?

G O BY T A X I ? R A I N ?

P E A C E I N T H E W O R L D ?

O R K ?

G O T O T H E C I N E M A ?

A N O T H E R W A R ?

a) There

47

Verbs: modal auxiliaries with may/might

We

may

do that. ^

E x e r c i s e B

May J. . .? means Is it OK if I. . .?

Example: May I use your pen? Yes, here you are Ask:

] You want to read someone's newspaper-. • 9

2 You want to open a window. 9

3 You want to turn on the TV. 9

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Verbs: modal auxiliaries with must/mustn't/needn't

• ~ M J \

-We must do this.

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Must or mustn't means it is necessary. Neeon t means it is not necessary.

You musí drive on the left in England. You take this medicine. You mu^tnt walk on the grass. You must not drive on the right, You needn't stay m bed. You needn t go home yet.

P e r s o n a l o p i n i o n :

Examples: We must hurry or we'll be late. I mustn't make any mistakes. You needn't clean the window. I did it yesterday.

E x e r c i s e B

take an umbrella. I go to the bank. be late. when you go to England.

be late for school.

You change your English money when you go to Scotland.

smoke in the classroom.

Use must / mustn't I needn't.

1

need not needn't

doesn't need not needn't

go,

work.

E x e r c i s e A

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Verbs: modal auxiliaries with should

We should do thet .

I/You We/They He/She/It

should should not shouldn't

We use should when it is a good thing to do. We also use it to give advice.

We use should not or shouldn't when it is a bad thing to do.

Examples: You shouldn't bite your finger nails! You should study hard and go to university.

E x e r c i s e A

Change these orders into advice.

Examples: Write to your mother! You should write to your mother. Don't put your feet on the table! You shouldn't put your feet on the table.

1 It's a nice day. Don't stay in the house!

2 Go for a walk!

4 She

to the police.

5 They 6 He.

his car.

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SH3MSKV 3 Visit your aunt!

4 Respect older people!

5 Don't watch TV all day!

E x e r c i s e B

Now use should or shouldn't to give advice to these people.

1 She eat so much. 2 He 3 He to the dentist. c h o k i n g

KILLSf

T

i--Verbs: present continuous

I am going.

/ 3

STATEMENT

You We They

He She It

am 'm 'm not, are 're are not 're not is 's is not isn't 's not

g o i n g .

QUESTION

Am

Are

Is

you —we-they

he she it

going?

SHORT ANSWER

Yes, I

am. 'm not,.

Yes, you

we are.

No,

they

No, he

she it

is. isn't.

The present continuous tense talks about what is happening now. Look at the picture. It's 3 o'clock on Sunday afternoon.

V- 'tiSfy

The dog is chasing the cat.

The children are playing with a ball.

The fish is swimming.

Grandad is sleeping.

Examples: What is the fish d o i n g ? — - ^swimming. Is the fish swimming? Yes, it is.

1 What is Mrs Smith doing?

2 Is Grandad reading?

3 What is the cat doing?

4 Is the dog sleeping?

5 What are the children playing with?

6 What is the dog doing?

7 What is Mr Smith doing?

8 Are Mrs Smith and Grandad working?

9 Is Mr Smith working?

10 Are y ou worki ng? !

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Verbs: present perfect continuous

I have been working

STATEMENT QUESTION SHORTANSWER

have 've have not haven't

have, haven't.

Have been working?

been working.

hasn't.

The present perfect continuous tense looks m t E e p r e s e n t a t an action wETch~started

have finished or may be continuing. in the past and may

Why is she crying?

She's been chopping onions.

E x e r c i s e A

Why is the Smith family tired?

I'm tired. I've been

painting this room all day. They're fed up. They've been waiting for the bus for 30 minutes.

Mr Smith (drive)

(chase) the cat.

Mrs Smith (garder.) Grandma and Grandpa

(walk) in the park.

The children (ploy] football,

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8H3MSMV

strong beautiful tired happy

a student a police officer a champion footballers singers a painter

Verbs: to be

STATEMENT QUESTION

-

/S-SHORT ANSWER

am. 'm not. are. aren't.

is. isn't.

E x e r c i s e ^ A

To be + ADJECTIVE Example: He is angry!

Complete the sentences choosing from the adjectives given below.

E x e r c i s e B

To be + NOUN Example: She is a nurse. am . . .

' m . . . am not are. . . ' r e . . . aren't. is.. . ' s . . . isn't..

6 We Is

Isn't Am Aren't Are Aren't

1 They

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¿^uapn^-B n o A A I Y £ JAAUT¿^uapn^-BD ¿^uapn^-B SI A Q S Z s j a i [ B Q ^ o o j AIE ¿ A Q X \ «

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(12)

68

Irregular verb fable

E x e r c i s e A

Write the meaning in your own language.

I n f i n i t i v e P a s t

be begin bite break bring buy catch choose come cost drink drive eat fall feel find fly forget get give g o grow have hear hold keep know leave let

P a s t M e a n i n g p a r t i c i p l e in y o u r

l a n g u a g e

I n f i n i t i v e P a s t

was began bit broke brought bought, caught chose came cost drank drove ate fell felt found flew forgot got gave went grew had heard held kept knew left let been begun bitten broken brought bought caught chosen come cost drunk driven eaten fallen felt found flown forgotten got given gone grown had heard held kept known left let lose make mean meet

p a y

put read ride run say see sell send show shoot shut sing sit speak 7 spend stand swim take teach tell think

p a s t M e a n i n g p a r t i c i p l e in y o u r

l a n g u a g e

lost made meant met paid put read rode ran said saw sold sent showed shot shut sang sat spoke spent stood swam took taught told thought lost made meant met paid put read ridden run said seen sold sent shown shot shut sung sat spoken spent stood swum taken taught told thought

understand understood understood

wear wore worn

write wrote written

Exercise B

r \ - TT> I O x o D o a f t a

6

Adverbs: formation

She plays

beautifully.

m

ADJECTIVE ADVERB

strong + iy = strongly

cheerful +• ly =• cheerfully

happy y > i + ly = happily

Example: Susan is a careful driver. ^±drit^arefiUly._

E x e r c i s e A

Make a sentence for each picture.

1 John is a quick runner.

2 Mohammed is a brave fighter.

3 Geoffrey is a bad writer.

4 Maria is a beautiful singer.

5 Sheila is a strong swimmer.

6 Andy is a noisy eater.

7 Ilanova is a graceful dancer.

8 Ann is a dangerous driver.

9 Joe is a careless painter.

10 The bird is a loud singer.

I E x e r c i s e B

Do Exercise 4 on the cassette.

K3 *J3

Ö A ñ

H e He He She She He She She He It

•Äjpno] sSuis ){ o i •.^ssapjBO s^uiBd OH 6 ^[sno.iaSuRp saAup aqs 3

• % n j a o e a 3 s a a u a p a q s L A'usiou s^ea a n 9 A[3uoJis sun/As aqs S •¿[injyirmaq sSuts aqs P ^ipeq

(13)

34

Verbs: conditional I

i f . . .

Conditional I is used when things usually happen, or are likely to happen.

E x e r c i s e A

GENERAL CONDITIONS

Example: If you put milk into the fridge, it stays coid. (present simple) (present simple) or: Milk stays cold if you put it into the fridge.

Choose the correct endings.

Water boils if

If I am late for work,

My teacher gets angry if

If I feel tired,

I don't like driving if

If the weather is cold,

my boss gets very angry I always wear a coat I don't do my homework

the roads are busy you heat it to 100°C I usually go to bed early

E x e r c i s e B

LIKELY CONDITIONS

Choose the correct endings.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Example: You will catch the bus if you hurry. (future) (present tense) or: If you hurry, you will catch the bus.

'present simple) (future)

If it rains,

My teacher will be pleased if

If I study hard, I'll be disappointed if

If you're not busy this evening,

The boys will play football

I do my homework tonight will you come to the party?

I won't go for a walk if they have time I don't pass my exams my English will improve

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S H 3 A V S M V

E

35

Verbs: conditional If

if I were you ...

Conditional II is used for imaginary situations, or situations which are not likely to happen.

Examples:

If I met a rich young man, I would marry him. (past simple) (would + verb)

If I married him, I would buy a lot of clothes, (or: I would, buy a lot of clothes if I married him.

E x e r c i s e A

Complete the following sentences.

1 If he - harder, he

(work) [pas.;)

2 She to Am erica if she

(go)

_ the exam.

enough money.

3 If England

(have)

better weather more tourists to visit.

(have) (come)

Conditional II is also used for giving advice. Example:

C

lf I were you, I'd sell that car!

I / we / you

If he / she / it / they were. . .

NB: In spoken English, some people say I was, he was or she was.

E x e r c i s e B

Give advice to these people.

(eat less)

SMOWHG IS

BAD

FOR

you

(stop smoking)

(go to the dentist)

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•318IA cxj

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(14)

54

Verbs: post simple with irregular verbs _ ^

I came, he

went.

STATEMENT I You We They He She It got up. woke up. h a d . . . went. drank. ate. left. came. read. wrote. NEGATIVE I You We They He She It didn't get up. wake up. h a v e . . . go. drink. eat. leave. come. read. write. QUESTION Did Didn't we he she it get up? wake up? have? go? drink? eat? leave? come? read? write? SHORT ANSWER I you we

Yes, ; they

w : T fr®

didn't'j she it

did.

Mr and Mrs Smith got up.

The children got up.

Mr Smith had his breakfast and then drove to work.

The children ran to school. They didn't go by car.

Mrs Smith went to work.

Mr Smith drank a cup of coffee. The children didn't drink anyt hing.

Mr Smith ate his sandwiches at the office. T'UU L-iiii T'UU •mi •uu

O-iin Û'UU

1 I-I . » 1 1 1 I U'UU

1 I - 1 . I Ì I Ì I U'UU

1 1 -lili I I "UU

Mrs Smith came home.

The children left school.

The Smith family had dinner.

The children went to bed.

Mr Smith read the newspaper.

Mrs Smith wrote a letter.

Mr and Mrs Smith went to bed.

What did the Smith family do today? Fill in the blanks.

Mr Smith: I at 7 o'clock and my breakfast at 8.30 and then work. At 10.30 I a cup of coffee. At 12 o'clock

evening I my newspaper and to bed at 11.

My wife at 7 o'clock and at 9 o'clock

at 4 o'clock and at 6 o'clock we dinner.

and to bed at the same time as me. T he children

to school at 8.45. didn't by car. They _

us at 6 o'clock. Then at 9 o'clock to bed.

my sandwiches. In the

to work. She.

to

a letter at 10 o'clock

at 8 o'clock. They

school at 4 and dinner with

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SH31AVSNV

55

Verbs: post simple with regular verbs

I

listened

, he

talked.

2h

STATEMENT I You We They He listened, didn't listen. She It SHORT ANSWER Yes, No, I you we they he she it did. didn't

The past simple tense is used for regular actions in the past, or single actions.

What did the Smith family do yesterday*'

At 8.15 the children washed their hands and faces.

At 9 o'clock Mr Smith arrived at the office.

At 10 o'clock the children played with their friends.

At 12.30 Mr Smith walked to the pub for lunch. He didn't stay in the office.

3U

n-iin I'UU

8:313

i n-nri I U'UU

At 3.30 the children finished school.

At 7 o'clock Mr Smith cleaned the car.

At 8.30 the children cleaned their teeth. They didn't brush their hair.

At 10 o'clock Mr Smith talked to his wife.

E x e r c i s e A

Mrs Smith worked at the hospital all day. When she arrived home she asked the family some questions.

Fill in the blanks in the conversations below.

1 Mrs Smith:' y o u y o u r h a n d s a n d f a c e s t h i s m o r n i n g ? '

Family: ' Y e s , '

2 Mrs Smith: ' W h a t

Family: ' W e

3 Mrs Smith:'

Family: ' N o , I .

4 Mrs Smith: ' W h o .

Family : '

5 Mrs Smith: '

Family: ' T h e y .

y o u d o a t s c h o o l ? '

. w i t h o u r f r i e n d s . '

y o u .

I _

i n t h e o f f i c e f o r l u n c h ? '

„ t c t h e p u b . '

t h e c a r ? '

. t h e c h i l d r e n . t h e i r t e e t h a n d

t h e i r t e e t h b u t

„ t h e i r h a i r ? '

, t h e i r h a i r . '

E x e r c i s e B

Do Exercise 19 on the cassette.

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"Ar

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(15)

64

Verbs: present simple

! sleep/

he

sleeps

STATEMENT

I

You We Thçy

He

She It

sleep.

sleeps.

NEGATIVE

I You

We

They

He She It

don't.

doesn't sleep.

QUESTION

Do

Does 1 you we they

he she it

sleep?

The present simple tense is used to describe things we do regularly, every day.

SHORTANSWER

Yes,

No,

Yes,

No, I you we they

he she it

do.

don't.

does.

doesn't.

W h a t do t h e S m i t h family do every day?

Mr Smith goes to bed at 11 o'clock.

Mr Smith reads the newspaper. The children go to bed at 9 o'clock.

The children finish school. Mr Smith doesn't finish work.

The children go home for lunch.

Mr Smith stays at work. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

At 7 o'clock Mr Smith gets up.

At 8 o'clock the children get up.

At 8.30 Mr Smith goes to work.

At 9 o'clock the children go to school.

At 10.30 am Mr Smith drinks coffee. The children don't drink coffee; they play.

Use the diagram above to answer these questions.

1 What does Mr Smith do at 7 o'clock? —

2 Do the children get up at 7 o'clock? —

3 What does Mr Smith do at 8.30 am?

4 Do the children drink coffee at 10.30 am? —

5 What do the children do at 10.30 am? —

6 Do the children go home for lunch? —

7 Does Mr Smith finish work at 3.30 pm?

8 What does Mr Smith do in the evening?

9 When do the children go to bed? —

10 Does Mr Smith go to bed at 11 o'clock? —

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S M 3 A V S N V

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5 What's he done?

the windows, (clean)

6 What have they done?

the window! (break)

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S H S L A V S N V

I

have

seen.

3 What she done?

a letter, (write)

Verbs: present perfect simple

1 What have they done? 2 What he done?

4 What's

a film, (see) (wash)

done?

the milk, (drink) He's cleaned the car.

STATEMENT QUESTION SHORT ANSWER

I have

You 've We have not They haven't

He has

She 's It has not

hasn't

seen... (past participle)

Have

s e e n . . . ' (past participle)

The present perfect tense looks in the present at actions completed in the

(16)

There is (There's)

< , i ' Will1 w.v\ n

an elephant some grass

We use There are with plural nouns

There are two trees

two trees some flowers a few people a lot of birds

Two astronauts have landed on a strange planet. They are reporting to Earth about what they can see. Fill in the blanks with There is or There are.

Hello, Earth. This planet is very interesting. I can see lots of things

-1 a dog with two heads.

2 some strange trees.

3 And two moons in the sky.

4 snow on the mountains.

5 — a lot of holes in the ground.

6 a few houses in the distance.

7 And — some smoke coming from them

8 some vehicles outside the houses.

9 And a lot of noise.

10 I think a party going on!

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SH3AVSNV

m

msm verbs: there is arid there ore

O / -

m There are

many things.

We use There is . . . with singular or uncountable nouns. UNCOUNTABLE

fj m Quantifiers: a little/a few

mm I I've got

a

little money.

COUNTABLE

o few bottles

E x e r c i s e A

Complete

There others?

There is

Can I have

We ate _

There was coming.

He only smoked

I gave the cat

There were early.

I only have holiday.

or a little.

students m the class. Where are the

_ bread in the cupboard, but most of it has gone.

sugar in my coffee? I don't like it without.

. sandwiches and gave the rest to the birds.

snow on the gro and this morning. Winter is

. cigarettes today. He's slowly giving up.

milk. It looked thirsty.

.people on the baaoh, although it was very

money in the bank, so I'm not having a

10 She's got

E x e r c i s e B

Do Exercise 11 on the cassette.

.friends, so she is not usually lonely.

a little money

a little milk

a few people a little sugar

(17)

9

Adverbials: concession and contrast

t:

-Although it was raining, we went for a walk,

x U ' ^ r ' ^ ^ nvxx- v \ \ \ X - — • •• > • v . . . V , v y

V ^ x ^ . i v . A

The following words and phrases are used to contrast two ideas:

but / yet / however / although / even though / despite / in spite of

Look at the following examples.

It was raining, but we went for a walk. It was raining, yet we went for a walk. It was raining. However, we went for a walk. Although it was raining, we went for a walk. Even though it was raining, we went for a walk . Despite the rain, we went for a walk.

In spite of the rain, we went for a walk.

Despite the fact that it was raining, we went for a walk. In spite of the fact that it was raining, we went for a walk.

(in the middle of a sentence) (in the middle of a sentence) (at the start of a new sentence) (followed by a subject and verb) (followed by a subject and verb) (followed by a noun)

(followed by a noun)

(followed by a subject and verb) (followed by a subject and verb)

Use one of the above words or phrases in the fol lowing sentences.

1 they are always arguing, Jack and Jill still say they love each other.

2 Paris is an expensive city, it's still a great place for a holiday.

3 The rate of inflation has come down to 3% this year. , the unemployment figures are still

rising.

4 They're still going ahead with the wedding her father's death.

5 They won the football match they only had ten players.

6 the bad weather, they're having a gocd time.

7 He's had several bad accidents, he still loves skiing.

8 She made her granddaughter a lovely dress, the fact that she had arthritis in her hands.

9 she had lost her passport and ticket, Sue went to the airport and tried to get on the plane.

10 Tony lost his job last month and doesn't kno « where he's going to get another one. , he's

still cheerful and hopes to get married soon.

11 the recession, Mr. Leech's company ie doing well.

12 the fact t h a t the company kept losing money, the director increased his salary.

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SH3M8NV

of time: of, in, on, from .. .to, by

it happened

at

8 o'clock

in

the morning on Monday.

8 o'clock tii t h e m o r n i n g on M o n d a y .

A T IS O N

at f o u r o'clock

at t h e w e e k e n d

at n i g h t

at C h r i s t m a s

at first (in c o n t r a s t with a c h a n g e l a t e r : At first I liked him but then I changed my mind.)

at l a s t ( a f t e r a long w a i t : At last the bus is here - we've been waiting for ages!) at t h e b e g i n n i n g / a i t h e e n d

(with s o m e t h i n g which h a s a b e g i n n i n g a n d a n end: At the beginning of the month I get lots of bills. At the end of the month 1 get my salary.) at t h e t i m e ( a t t h a t m o m e n t :

7 couldn't phone you as I hadn't got your number at the time.)

in April (months;)

in 1994 (years)

in s p r i n g ( s e a s o n s )

in t i m e (before i>. is too late) in t h e m o r n i n g (times of t h e

d a y )

in t h e end a f t e r difficulties or effort: I vock my driving test 5 times, b it. pas sed in the end.)

in a m o n t h ( a f t e r a period of t i m e : I'U bt going home in a

month.)

on S a t u r d a y (days)

on 2 0 t h J u n e (dates)

on h o l i d a y

on t i m e ( a t t h e a p p o i n t e d t i m e )

at f o u r o'clock

at t h e w e e k e n d

at n i g h t

at C h r i s t m a s

at first (in c o n t r a s t with a c h a n g e l a t e r : At first I liked him but then I changed my mind.)

at l a s t ( a f t e r a long w a i t : At last the bus is here - we've been waiting for ages!) at t h e b e g i n n i n g / a i t h e e n d

(with s o m e t h i n g which h a s a b e g i n n i n g a n d a n end: At the beginning of the month I get lots of bills. At the end of the month 1 get my salary.) at t h e t i m e ( a t t h a t m o m e n t :

7 couldn't phone you as I hadn't got your number at the time.)

in April (months;)

in 1994 (years)

in s p r i n g ( s e a s o n s )

in t i m e (before i>. is too late) in t h e m o r n i n g (times of t h e

d a y )

in t h e end a f t e r difficulties or effort: I vock my driving test 5 times, b it. pas sed in the end.)

in a m o n t h ( a f t e r a period of t i m e : I'U bt going home in a

month.)

F R O M . . . T O

at f o u r o'clock

at t h e w e e k e n d

at n i g h t

at C h r i s t m a s

at first (in c o n t r a s t with a c h a n g e l a t e r : At first I liked him but then I changed my mind.)

at l a s t ( a f t e r a long w a i t : At last the bus is here - we've been waiting for ages!) at t h e b e g i n n i n g / a i t h e e n d

(with s o m e t h i n g which h a s a b e g i n n i n g a n d a n end: At the beginning of the month I get lots of bills. At the end of the month 1 get my salary.) at t h e t i m e ( a t t h a t m o m e n t :

7 couldn't phone you as I hadn't got your number at the time.)

in April (months;)

in 1994 (years)

in s p r i n g ( s e a s o n s )

in t i m e (before i>. is too late) in t h e m o r n i n g (times of t h e

d a y )

in t h e end a f t e r difficulties or effort: I vock my driving test 5 times, b it. pas sed in the end.)

in a m o n t h ( a f t e r a period of t i m e : I'U bt going home in a

month.)

from M a y to J u l y (a period of time)

at f o u r o'clock

at t h e w e e k e n d

at n i g h t

at C h r i s t m a s

at first (in c o n t r a s t with a c h a n g e l a t e r : At first I liked him but then I changed my mind.)

at l a s t ( a f t e r a long w a i t : At last the bus is here - we've been waiting for ages!) at t h e b e g i n n i n g / a i t h e e n d

(with s o m e t h i n g which h a s a b e g i n n i n g a n d a n end: At the beginning of the month I get lots of bills. At the end of the month 1 get my salary.) at t h e t i m e ( a t t h a t m o m e n t :

7 couldn't phone you as I hadn't got your number at the time.)

in April (months;)

in 1994 (years)

in s p r i n g ( s e a s o n s )

in t i m e (before i>. is too late) in t h e m o r n i n g (times of t h e

d a y )

in t h e end a f t e r difficulties or effort: I vock my driving test 5 times, b it. pas sed in the end.)

in a m o n t h ( a f t e r a period of t i m e : I'U bt going home in a

month.)

BY

at f o u r o'clock

at t h e w e e k e n d

at n i g h t

at C h r i s t m a s

at first (in c o n t r a s t with a c h a n g e l a t e r : At first I liked him but then I changed my mind.)

at l a s t ( a f t e r a long w a i t : At last the bus is here - we've been waiting for ages!) at t h e b e g i n n i n g / a i t h e e n d

(with s o m e t h i n g which h a s a b e g i n n i n g a n d a n end: At the beginning of the month I get lots of bills. At the end of the month 1 get my salary.) at t h e t i m e ( a t t h a t m o m e n t :

7 couldn't phone you as I hadn't got your number at the time.)

in April (months;)

in 1994 (years)

in s p r i n g ( s e a s o n s )

in t i m e (before i>. is too late) in t h e m o r n i n g (times of t h e

d a y )

in t h e end a f t e r difficulties or effort: I vock my driving test 5 times, b it. pas sed in the end.)

in a m o n t h ( a f t e r a period of t i m e : I'U bt going home in a

month.)

by 5 o'clock ( w i t h i n a c e r t a i n t i m e l i m i t : I'll finish this by 5 o'clock.)

P u t t h e correct p r e p o s i t i o n s i n t o e a c h space.

1 I'm w a t c h i n g TV - I'll p h o n e you back 9 30 t h e e n d of t h e p r o g r a m m e .

2 We're going h o l i d a y t h r e e w e e k s ' t i m e .

3 So t h e r e you a r e last! C a n ' t you ever b e t i m e ?

4 first, I i n t e n d e d to s t a y t h e whole t i m e , but t h e e n d I decided to l e a v e b e f o r e t h e e n d .

5 S h o u l d n ' t you h a v e finished t h i s n o w ? - Fv« got to leave _ _ _ _ _ noon a t t h e l a t e s t .

6 S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g I'm going to work 9.00 11.30.

7 W e u s u a l l y s t a y a t h o m e C h r i s t m a s , h u t go out New Y e a r ' s E v e .

8 I've n e v e r b e e n to G r e e c e s p r i n g befor»; - I d i d n ' t realise i t would b e a s w a r m a s t h i s

May.

9 I d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d w h a t h e m e a n t t,h»i t i m e , h u t it b e c a m e clear t h e e n d .

10 t h e t i m e we got t h e r e we w e r e j u s t t i m e for d i n n e r ,

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34

Verbs: conditionals I and II

if he

applies,

he 7/

get

the job.

We n o r m a l l y u s e conditional I (Jf + present + future} w h e n the outcome is likely, and conditional II

(//" + past + would) w h e n t h e outcome is unlikely.

Look a t t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t , f o r a job.

C o n d i t i o n a l I (likely)

BILL

/ a

Age 22

Degree in French and Spanish enjoys travel

sociable present salary £9,200

TRAVE1 COURIER Reqd ty l.o«:l Tourist Company

Qualification: Degree in Mod Langs.

Ags: 18-25

Applicant; musi enjoy meeting people and he willing to travel widely S a l a r y : £9,000pa plus bonuses

C o n d i t i o n a l I I (unlikely)

MIKE

Age 26 Degree in History

enjoys travel sociable present salary £6,000

If Bill applies, he'll p r o b a b l y t h e job.

If Bill applies for it, he'll ask for m o r e m o n e y //'Bill doesn't get m o r e m o n e y , h e won't accept t h e job.

Unless Bill gets m o r e money, h e won't accept t h e job.

N O T E Unless is s i m i l a r t o If not.

If M i k e applied, h e probably wouldn't get t h e job. / / ' M i k e were y o u n g e r , h e would apply for t h e job. M i k e isn't d e s p e r a t e for t h e job, so h e won't a p p l y for it.

M i k e wouldn't apply for t h e job unless h e

were (was.) d e s p e r a t e .

O t h e r people s a w t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t a n d w e r e ntc r e s t e d in t h e job. C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g conditional I or II.

Sally:

1 Tim:

2

3

Liz:

4

S a m :

5

'I'd love t h e job, b u t I'm m a r r i e d , so 1 won't a p p l y . '

If Sally (not be) m a r r i e d , she . (.apply) for t h e job.

'I h a v e a h o u s e in London. I d o n ' t w a n t to l e a v e it, so f m n o t very k e e n . '

If T i m (get) t h e job, h e (have to) l e a v e h i s house.

If h e (not have) a h o u s e in L o n d o n , h e (fee) q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e job.

'It looks g r e a t - I w o n d e r h o w long in> h o l i d a y s a r e ? I m u s t a s k . '

If t h e h o l i d a y s (be) long e n o u g h , Liz (apply) for t h e job.

'I will only t a k e a job w i t h a good p o n s i o r s c h e m e . '

S a m (not be) i n t e r e s t e d u n l e s s t h e r e (òe) a p e n s i o n s c h e m e .

M a g g i e : 'My d e g r e e ' s in C h i n e s e . I don't t h i n k they'll b e i n t e r e s t e d in me.'

6 I i ' M a g g i e ' s d e g r e e (not be) in C h i n e s e , s h e (send) in a n a p p l i c a t i o n .

M a r k : T h e s a l a r y i s n ' t a s m u c h a s I g e t now so I'm not p r e p a r e d t o l e a v e my p r e s e n t job.'

7 H e (not leave) h i s p r e s e n t j o b u n l e s s t h e y (.offer) h i m m o r e m o n e y .

8 If t h e s a l a r y (be) b e t t e / , t h e ob (appeal) to m a n y m o r e people.

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35

-

M

Verbs: conditional III

I would have colled if y o u had told m e .

W h e n we u s e if to t a l k a b o u t t h e p a s t ( t h e impossible conditional), we m u s t u s e had in t h e if clause, a n d

would, should, could or might + have in t h e m a i n clause.

^ ^ b f i mi Examples: T i e bomb might have exploded if you had trodden on it.

< _ could have saved a lot of t i m e if we had gone by t r a i n . T h e flood would not have happened if t h e y had

strengthened t h e defences.

We can s t a r t t h e s e n t e n c e w i t h I f . I n t h i s case, we s h o u l d s e p a r a t e t h e ¿/"clause from t h e m a i n c l a u s e by a comma.

Example: If t h e concert had started on t i m e , we might have missed

t h e b e g i n n i n g .

If I'd braked, w e would have crashed!

E x e r c i s e A

J o i n e a c h c l a u s e in A to a s u i t a b l e c l a u s e in B.

A

1 If i t h a d n ' t snowed t h i s w e e k , 2 H e m i g h t h a v e b e e n a r r e s t e d 3 If t h e d r o u g h t h a d c o n t i n u e d , 4 If J o h n h a d won t h e competition, 5 I w o u l d n ' t h a v e voted for t h i s p a r t y 6 If h e h a d i n v e s t e d m o r e wisely,

B

a) m o s t of t h e c a t t l e would h a v e died. b) if I h a d r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e y would r a i s e t a x e s . c) we couldn't h a v e g o n e skiing.

d) t h e c o m p a n y m i g h t not h a v e collapsed. e) h e would h a v e b e e n t h e local c h a m p i o n . f) if t h e police h a d b e e n m o r e a l e r t .

E x e r c i s e B

C o m p l e t e t h e following s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e v e r b given in a s u i t a b l e f o r m , a s in t h e e x a m p l e .

Example: S h e (not marry) h i m if s h e h a d k n o w n a b o u t h i s p a s t .

She wouldn't have married him ifsne had known about hia past.

1 T h e t e a m could h a v e won t h e c u p if t h e y (practise) a b i t h a r d e r .

2 If h e h a d g o n e to u n i v e r s i t y , h e (.apply) for t h i s position.

3 T h e m o s q u e m i g h t h a v e b e e n d e s t r o y e d if t h e fire b r i g a d e (not arrive) in t i m e .

4 If S h a k e s p e a r e h a d been b o r n in F r a n c e , {he write) Romeo a n d J u l i e t in F r e n c h ?

5 If y o u (buy) some cheese, I could h a v e m a d e t h a t recipe for d i n n e r .

E x e r c i s e C

Do E x e r c i s e 11 on t h e c a s s e t t e .

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Verbs: models ot past prooaouiry

You

must hove been

a beautiful baby.

When we know t h a t something happened in the past, we use a normal past tense. (He did it, I saw them, etc.) If we are not completely sure, we use a modal {must, may, might, could + have). The choice of modal depends on the degree of certainty, as in t h e following table.

P R O B A B I L I T Y V E R B E X A M P L E

100% almost certain quite likely 50% (possible) possible but unlikely highly unlikely 0%

past simple must have

may have I + past

could have > participie

might have

can't/couldn't have * past simple negative

She knew.

We must have arrived. He may have missed the train. She could have forgotten. Wc might have made a mistake. You can't have lost it.

He didn't know.

E x e r c i s e A

The following sentences are about an escapee criminal. Rewrite t h e m using a modal from the above table, as in the example.

Example: It is almost certain t h a t he left before breakfast. He must have left before breakfast.

1 It is highly unlikely t h a t he carried the gold by himself.

2 I t seems quite likely t h a t he had a n accomplice.

3 He h a s almost certainly been spotted by t h e police by now.

4 It is possible b u t unlikely t h a t h e headed towards London.

5 It's quite possible t h a t he gave himself u p .

6 I t is almost certain t h a t he realised how t.eiious it was.

7 It is highly unlikely t h a t he thought things through clearly.

8 Possibly he escaped by boat. . ,

9 I f s quite likely t h a t he m a d e contact with his triends.

10 It is possible but unlikely t h a t he committed suicide.

tt E x e r c i s e B

Do Exercise 16 on the cassette.

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SH3ASNV Andy and Audrey Jackaon: Intermediate Grammar Worluhcati Photocoyy Masters C International Book Distributor» Ltd 1994. All rifhU

reserved-Capilla Alfonsina U.A.N.L.

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