Ciento setenta años de salarios reales en Colombia

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C E D E

Centro de Estudios sobre Desarrollo Económico

Documentos CEDE

ISSN

1657-5334

Ciento setenta años de salarios reales en Colombia

ABRIL DE 2010

12

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Serie Documentos Cede, 2010-12 ISSN 1657-5334

Abril de 2010

© 2010, Universidad de los Andes–Facultad de Economía–Cede Calle 19A No. 1 – 37, Bloque W.

Bogotá, D. C., Colombia

Teléfonos: 3394949- 3394999, extensiones 2400, 2049, 3233 infocede@uniandes.edu.co

http://economia.uniandes.edu.co

Ediciones Uniandes

Carrera 1ª Este No. 19 – 27, edificio Aulas 6, A. A. 4976 Bogotá, D. C., Colombia

Teléfonos: 3394949- 3394999, extensión 2133, Fax: extensión 2158 infeduni@uniandes.edu.co

Edición, diseño de cubierta, preprensa y prensa digital: Proceditor ltda.

Calle 1ª C No. 27 A – 01 Bogotá, D. C., Colombia

Teléfonos: 2204275, 220 4276, Fax: extensión 102 proceditor@etb.net.co

Impreso en Colombia – Printed in Colombia

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(12)

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(13)

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(14)

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(15)

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Año

Calificación baja y PIB por trabajador

PIB por trabajador

Calificación Media 1 1. 5 2 2. 5 3 Log - Sa lar io Rea l y P IB por t rabaj a dor

1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996

Año

Calificación media y PIB por trabajador

Calificación Alta

PIB por trabajador

1. 5 2 2. 5 3 3. 5 4 S a lar io r eal y P IB por t rabaj a dor

1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996

Año

Calificados y PIB por trabajador

Promedio no ponderado PIB por trabajador

1 1. 5 2 2. 5 3 Lo S a lar io r e a

l y PI

B p o r tr a b a jador

1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996

Año

Promedio Manufactura y PIB por trabajador

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(16)

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(17)

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(18)

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(19)

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(20)

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(21)

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(23)

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(24)

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(26)

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(27)

9@ )" DCF HF565>58CF D9FC BC 9B G5@5F=CG 9AD9CF5 @5 8=GHF=6I7=]B 9BHF9 9@ 75D=H5@ M 9@ HF565>C M @5 8=GHF=6I7=]B 89 =B;F9GCG 9B ;9B9F5@ GHC DFC656@9A9BH9 :I9 @C EI9 C7IFF=] 9B 9@ G=;@C 1"1 M @5 DF=A9F5 D5FH9 89@ G=;@C 11 9GDIZG 89 @5 8=GD9FG=]B 9BHF9 @CG =B;F9GCG @56CF5@9G G9 JI9@J9 IB 89H9FA=B5BH9 =ADCFH5BH9 89 @CG 75A6=CG 9B 9@ =B= M 9B @5G ^@H=A5G 8Z7585G 9@ =B7F9A9BHC 9B @5 F9BH56=@=858 89 @5 98I757=]B GID9F=CF <5 =AD@=758C IB G9G;C <57=5 9@ 89H9F=CFC 89 @CG =B;F9GCG @56CF5@9G D5F5 5EI9@@CG HF565>58CF9G EI9 BC 577989B 5 98I757=]B 89 75@=858 9GHC G9 8969 GIA5F IB A9>CF5A=9BHC D5F5 @CG 5G5@5F=58CG 8IF5BH9 9@ ^@H=AC D9F=C8C @ 65>C 7F97=A=9BHC 89 @CG G5@5F=CG F95@9G 9GHY 89H9FA=B58C DCF IB5 DFC8I7H=J=858 @56CF5@ 9GH5B7585 %5 ;FYO75 AI9GHF5 @5 9JC@I7=]B 89 9GH5G 8CG A98=85G IB5 89 @5G 7I5@9G )"C7ID58CG DI989 G9FJ=F 7CAC IB5 5DFCL=A57=]B 5 @5 DFC8I7H=J=858 @56CF5@ GH5G ;FYO75G AI9GHF5B IB5 5@H5 7CFF9@57=]B 9BHF9 G5@5F=CG M DFC8I7H=J=858 @56CF5@ 5G[ 7CAC H5A6=ZB IB5 65>5 H9B89B7=5 5@ 7F97=A=9BHC 9B 9@ @5F;C D@5NC 9B @5 DFC8I7H=J=858 89 G97HCF9G 7CAC @5 7CBGHFI77=]B 9@ 7CA9F7=C M 9@ HF5BGDCFH9

D, <4/9 06 -,59 .;0.47408=9 /0 <,6,;49< >8 108I7089 0@.6><4?9 ,6

.,<9 .9697-4,89

%5 ;FYO75 AI9GHF5 IB [B8=79 89 G5@5F=CG F95@9G D5F5 J5F=CG D5[G9G 89 AZF=75 %5H=B5 VGHCG AI9GHF5B EI9 5@ =;I5@ EI9 C@CA6=5 @CG G5@5F=CG F95@9G 5IA9BH5B DC7C D5F5 9@ D9F=C8C 9L79DHC D5F5 9@ 75GC 7<=@9BC @ D5B9@ 89 @5 ;FYO75 AI9GHF5 IB5 9GH56=@=858 89 @5F;C D@5NC D5F5 &ZL=7C F;9BH=B5 .FI;I5M M )5F5;I5M @ D5B9@ AI9GHF5 IB5 H9B89B7=5 AIM 897F97=9BH9 D5F5 9@ 75GC 89 /9B9NI9@5 5G[ 7CAC H5A6=ZB IB5 @9J9 H9B89B7=5 7F97=9BH9 D5F5 9@ 75GC 89 @5 =B8IGHF=5 9B C@CA6=5 GH5G ;FYO75G 7CBH9LHI5@=N5B 9@ 75GC 7C@CA6=5BC M AI9GHF5B EI9 9@ DC7C 5IA9B HC G5@5F=5@ H5A6=ZB <5 G=8C IB5 75F57H9F[GH=75 9B D5[G9G 89 @5 F9;=]B @CG 7I5@9G 5 9L79D7=]B 89 <=@9 <5B H9B=8C IB 65>C 7F97=A=9BHC 9B GIG G5@5F=CG F95@9G GHC 9G =BH9F9G5BH9 DCF 7I5BHC @CG 85HCG 5FFC>5B G9\5@9G 89 EI9 @5G 75IG5G 89@ 9GH5B75A=9BHC

(28)

9B @5 DFC8I7H=J=858 @56CF5@ <5B H9B=8C H5A6=ZB 9B 9@ 7CADCFH5A=9BHC 89 @5 F9;=]B @5H=BC5A9F=75B5

;FC., ',6,;49 &0,6 A $;9/>.=4?4/,/ 6,-9;,6 :9; ;,7, /0 ,.=4?4/,/ 0.98I74., 2 7 6, 20 3 4 6 7, 62 3 7. 5 8 8. 5 9 9. 5

1990 1995 2000 2005

Industria Manufacturera 4 3 6, 39 7 7 3 1, 85 9 50 55 60 65 70 75

1990 1995 2000 2005

Suministro Servicios Públicos

2 4 7, 39 8 5 2 5, 97 7 9 10 11 12 13 P rod uc ti v ida d L a b o ral ( P IB /t rab aj ado r)

1990 1995 2000 2005

Construcción 2 1 4, 92 6 4 2 3, 92 2 3 3. 5 4 4. 5 5

1990 1995 2000 2005

Comercio 2 5 3, 61 9 5 5 4, 05 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1990 1995 2000 2005

Transp, Almacenam y Comunic

51 1, 043 86 7, 863 S a la ri o s R e al es 7 8 9 10

1990 1995 2000 2005

Establecimientos Financieros

3 6 5, 47 9 6 3 8, 77 1 3 3. 5 4 4. 5

Servicios y Educación

Productividad laboral

Salario Real (líneas con triángulo)

I9BH9 GH58[GH=75G <=GH]F=75G ')

(29)

;FC., E8/4.0 /0 ',6,;49 &0,6 08 7G;4., ,=48, $,806 ;208=48, !G@4.9 );>2>,A $,;,2>,A A 3460

54 64 74 84 94 10 4 11 4 12 4 13 4 Índ ic e de Sal ar io r e al ( a ño b a se: 20 00)

1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

Año Argentina M é x ico U ruguay Paraguay Chile

Índice de Salario real en América Latina (I)

$,806 9697-4, *080B>06, .>,/9; ;,<46 964?4, A >,=07,6,

50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Índi c e d e S a la ri o r eal ( año b a se: 20 00)

1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2020 2040 2006

Año

V enezelau Colombia E cuador Brasil Gu atemala

Índice de Salario real en A mérica Latina (II)

I9BH9 )%

%CG 85HCG 89 F;9BH=B5 M &9L=7C 7CFF9GDCB89B 5@ G5@5F=C 89@ G97HCF =B8IGHF=5@ %CG 89AYG 7CF

F9GDCB89B 5@ DFCA98=C

%CG 85HCG 89 C@CA6=5 7CFF9GDCB89B 5@ G5@5F=C 9B 9@ G97HCF =B8IGHF=5@ @ F9GHC 7CFF9GDCB89 5@

85HC 89@ DFCA98=C 89 @5G 57H=J=8589G 97CB]A=75G

(30)

98.6><4I8 <9-;0 <,6,;49< ;0,60< 08 69< <4269< ++ A ++ 08 9697-4,

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G AIM GCFDF9B89 EI9 @CG 85HCG 89 G5@5F=CG F95@9G D5F5 9GH9 @5F;C D9F=C8C AI9GHF9B EI9 9B J5F=CG G97HCF9G 89 @5 97CBCA[5 9GHCG 7F97=9FCB DC7C IF5BH9 9@ G=;@C 1"1 C6G9FJ5ACG IB5 H9B89B7=5 897F97=9BH9 9B @CG G5@5F=CG F95@9G EI9 7CBH=BI5 <5GH5 @5 8Z7585 89 GHC GI;=9F9 IB5 7CB79BHF57=]B 89@ =B;F9GC 9G89 M 5BH9 9@ DFC79GC 89 =B8IGHF=5@=N57=]B G9 C6G9FJ5 IB5 H9B89B7=5 7F97=9BH9 M A5F7585 9B @CG G5@5F=CG F95@9G =B8IGHF=5@9G M A5MCF 5@ )" D9F 75D=H5

8=:9F9B7=5 89 @C C7IFF=8C 9BHF9 M 9B 9@ D9F=C8C 7CADF9B8=8C 9BHF9 @CG G5@5F=CG 7F97=9FCB IB DC7C AYG EI9 9@ )" F95@ DCF HF565>58CF %CG 85HCG 89 =B;F9GCG F95@9G DCF HF565>58CF 8=GDCB=6@9G EI9 5DFCL=A5B @5 DFC8I7H=J=858 D5F5 9@ A=GAC D9F=C8C AI9GHF5B IB A9BCF 7F97=A=9BHC EI9 @CG G5@5F=CG F95@9G @C 7I5@ DI989 9GH5F =B8=75B8C IB5 A9>CF5 89 @5F;C D@5NC 9B @5 D5FH=7=D57=]B 89 @CG 5G5@5F=58CG 9B 9@ =B;F9GC B57=CB5@ 8IF5BH9 9G5G ^@H=A5G 8Z7585G 89@ G=;@C 11

)CGHI@5ACG EI9 @5G ZDC75G 9B EI9 @CG G5@5F=CG F95@9G 5IA9BH5B A9BCG EI9 9@ )" 9GD97[O75A9BH9 @CG D9F=C8CG 7CADF9B8=8CG 9BHF9 M 9AD9CF5 @5 8=GHF=6I7=]B 89@ =B;F9GC H56@5

(31)

(,-6, *,;4,.4I8 08 ',6,;49 ;0,60< :9; =;,-,5,/9; A 484

$0;49/9 484

,=;@C 1"1

DF=B7=D=CG RG

"B=7=C A=H58 RG A=H58 G9G9BH5G

5 RG

5

5

%CG G=;BCG 89 =AD@=75B IB 5IA9BHC 9B @5 J5F=56@9 89 =BH9FZG A=9BHF5G EI9 @CG =AD@=75B

IB5 F98I77=]B 9B @5 A=GA5

.FFIH=5

9FFM M .FFIH=5

9FFM M .FFIH=5

.FFIH=5

#I5B %I=G %CB8C\C @9 85 IB 9AD9CF5A=9BHC 9B @5 8=GHF=6I7=]B 9BHF9 @CG 5\CG RG M

DCFEI9 D5F5 IH=@=N5 @CG 85HCG 89 =B;F9GC DCF HF565>58CF 89@ 79BGC 89 7IM5 =B:CFA57=]B 89 =B;F9GCG BC 9G O56@9

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(32)

&010;08.4,<

34 F5B;C % F=5G @]F9N % SFCBC@C;[5 89 @CG 7=7@CG 89 7F97

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34 F5B;C % ]A9N & )CG585 %5 89A5B85 89 HF565>C :CFA5@ 9B

C@CA6=5 89H9FA=B5BH9G 9 =AD@=757=CB9G 89 DC@[H=75 CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 'C 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

34 F5B;C % !9FF9F5 ) )CG585 @ G5@5F=C A[B=AC 5GD97HCG ;9B

9F5@9G GC6F9 75GCG 89 C@CA6=5 M CHFCG D5[G9G CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 'C 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

34 F5B;C % )CG585 .F=69 # S5A6=CG 9B @5 9GHFI7HIF5 89 @CG

G5@5F=CG IF65BCG 9B C@CA6=5 T CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 'C 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

34 F5B;C % )CG585 XB9AD@CMA9BH F5H9 5B8 H<9 F95@ K5;9 69<5J =CF 5 B9C7@5GG=75@ <=BH :CF H<9 C@CA6=5B @56CF A5F?9H 58>IGHA9BH CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 'C 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

34 YF89B5G & "BHFC8I77=]B 5 @5 97CBCA[5 7C@CA6=5B5 C;CHY @:5

(A9;5

34 C5HGKCFH< # S"B9EI5@=HM "BGH=HIH=CBG 5B8 7CBCA=7 FCKH< =B %5H=B

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34 CFF95 % ,5@5F=CG )^6@=7CG 9B BH=CEI=5 89 5 M GI 7CBJ9F ;9B7=5 7CB IB8=B5A5F75 5 OB5@9G 89@ G=;@C C;CHY -9G=G 89 ;F58C 89 &5;=GH9F 57I@H58 89 7CBCA[5 .B=J9FG=858 89 @CG B89G

34 ' B7I9GH5G 89 !C;5F9G B7I9GH5 '57=CB5@ 89 !C;5F9G '! M B7I9GH5

CBH=BI5 89 !C;5F9G !

34 9D5FH5A9BHC '5=7CB5@ 89 )@5B957=]B ') GH58[GH=75G !=GH]F=75G

)Y;=B5 K96

34 )CGGC S9G=;I5@858 G5@5F=5@ 9B C@CA6=5 75A6=CG 9B @5

7CADCG=7=]B 89@ A9F758C @56CF5@ M F9HCFBCG 5 @5 98I757=]B DCGHG97IB85F=5T CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 BC 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

34 $5@A5BCJ=HN , M %CD9N S@ "B;F9GC C@CA6=5BC 9B 9@ ,=;@C 1"1T

C;CHY .B=J9FG=858 #CF;9 -589C %CN5BC

34 %CD9N .F=69 & 89@ ) =:9F9B7=57=]B G5@5F=5@ M 7CB8=7=CB9G 89 J=85 9B C;CHY -9G=G 89 &59GHF[5 .B=J9FG=858 89 @CG B89G

34 &9>[5 +5A=F9N &- -5A5MC # -<9 9AC;F5D<=7 HF5BG=H=CB =B

C@CA6=5 -<9CFM 5B8 J=89B79 CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 'C 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

(33)

34 )CG585 CBNY@9N @A9F758C @56CF5@ IF65BC 9AD@9C 89G9AD@9C

M G5@5F=C F95@ 9B C@CA6=5 9BHF9 M CFF58CF9G 89 7CBCA[5 'C 5B7C 89 @5 +9D^6@=75

34 ,YB7<9N +I=N & :CFH<7CA=B; S%56CF A5F?9H F9;I@5H=CBG CIH7CA9G

5B8 =B7CA9 8=GHF=6IH=CB =B C@CA6=5T "+ KCF?=B; D5D9F

34 ,YB7<9N IEI9 / +I=N & CGHCG @56CF5@9G M BC @56CF5@9G M GI

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34 ,9@CKG?M & @9:97HC 89@ 89G9AD@9C M 9@ 7F97=A=9BHC GC6F9 @5 F9BH56=@=858

89 @5 =BJ9FG=]B 98I757=CB5@ +9J=GH5 89 )@5B957=]B M 9G5FFC@@C BC #I@=C

34 .FFIH=5 & -<9 9J9@CDA9BH C: H<9 C@CA6=5B %56CF &CJ9A9BH 25@9 .B=J9FG=HM )F9GG

34 .FFIH=5 & 0=BB9FG 5B8 @CG9FG =B C@CA6=5RG 97CBCA=7 ;FCKH< C: H<9

RG 05G<=B;HCB (L:CF8 .B=J9FG=HM )F9GG

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34 0=@@=5AGCB # +95@ K5;9G 5B8 F9@5H=J9 :57HCF DF=79G =B H<9 H<=F8 KCF@8

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(34)

80@9 >08=0< A 70=9/9692H, :,;, 06 ,8F64<4< /06 :0;49/9

)5F5 C6H9B9F @CG 85HCG 89 @CG G5@5F=CG M DF9GH57=CB9G G9 7CBGI@H5FCB HF9G :I9BH9G G9;^B 9@ 5\C 89@ 7I5@ G9 F9EI=F=] @5 =B:CFA57=]B )5F5 @5 =B:CFA57=]B G9 C6HIJC 89@ )F=A9F 9BGC "B8IGHF=5@ D5F5 B= 9@ C@9H[B &9BGI5@ 89 GH58[GH=75G 89@ ' B= 9@ BI5F=C 9B9F5@ 89 GH58[GH=75 89@ ' F9DCFH5FCB 85HCG )5F5 @CG 85HCG G9 HCA5FCB 89@ C@9H[B &9BGI5@ 89 GH58[GH=75G 'C C6GH5BH9 @CG 85HCG D5F5 9GHCG 5\CG 589AYG 89 BC 9GH5F 8=GDCB=6@9G D5F5 BC F9GI@H5FCB 7CAD5F56@9G 7CB @CG 85HCG DF9G9BH58CG D5F5 5\CG DCGH9F=CF9G )CF @C H5BHC ZGHCG HF9G 5\CG G9 9L7@IM9FCB 89 @5G 9GH=A57=CB9G

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B @5G :I9BH9G DF9J=5A9BH9 A9B7=CB585G G9 F9DCFH5 9@ QJ5@CF HCH5@ 89 GI9@8CG G5@5F=CG M DF9GH57=CB9GR 7CAC H5A6=ZB 9@ HCH5@ 89 HF565>58CF9G F9AIB9F58CG 9 9GH5 A5B9F5 5@ <579F 9@ 7C7=9BH9 9BHF9 ZGHCG G9 7CBGHFIM] 9@ J5@CF 89 @CG GI9@8CG G5@5F=CG M DF9GH57=CB9G DCF HF565>58CF F9AIB9F58C

)5F5 7CBGHFI=F @5 G9F=9 9B HZFA=BCG F95@9G G9 C6HIJC 9@ [B8=79 89 DF97=CG 5@ 7CB GIA=8CF 7CBGHFI=85 DCF 9@ ' 9BHF9 M @@[ G9 F9DCFH5 @5 G9F=9 G9;^B 9GHF5HC 65>C A98=C 5@HC

(35)

80@9 ,=9< /0 <,6,;49< ;0,60< :9; ,.=4?4/,/ 0.98I74.,

,9FJ=7=CG -F5BGD GH56@97 ,9FJ=7=CG

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(36)

80@9 $;9/>.=4?4/,/ 6,-9;,6 0<=47,/, $ ;0,6 9.>:,/9< :9; ,.=4?4/,/

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Figure

Actualización...

Referencias