PAST SIMPLE (yo abrí, tú fuiste )

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PAST SIMPLE VS. PRESENT PERFECT 1

PAST SIMPLE (yo abrí, tú fuiste…)

1. VERBO BE: SER O ESTAR

No tiene ninguna explicación; hay que aprendérselo porque sí

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I was (yo era/estaba) I wasn’t Was I ??

You were (tú eras/estabas) you weren’t Were you ??

He was he wasn’t Was he ??

She was she wasn’t Was she ??

It was it wasn’t Was it ??

We were we weren’t Were we ??

You were you weren’t Were you ??

They were they weren’t Were they ??

Ejemplo:

My friends ………. (be) very polite to the man on the street My friends WERE very polite to the man on the street

My friends ………. (not/be) very polite to the man on the street My friends WEREN’T very polite to the man on the street

………. (my friends/be) very polite to the man on the street ??

WERE MY FRIENDS very polite to the man on the street ??

2. El PASADO SIMPLE del resto de los verbos se forma de dos maneras distintas, depende de si el verbo es regular o irregular.

Hay una lista de verbos irregulares; si el verbo que queremos conjugar no está en esa lista, ¡¡¡ES REGULAR!!!

2.1 VERBOS REGULARES

o En afirmativo, se añade –ED o –D al verbo Todas las formas son iguales

o En negativo, se pone DIDN’T + el verbo en infinitivo Todas las formas son iguales

o En interrogativo, se pone DID + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo Todas las formas son iguales

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PAST SIMPLE VS. PRESENT PERFECT 2

Affirmative Negative Interrogative I openED I DIDN’T openED DID I openED ??

You openED you DIDN’T openED DID you openED ??

He openED he DIDN’T openED DID he openED ??

She openED she DIDN’T openED DID she openED ??

It openED it DIDN’T openED DID it openED ??

We openED we DIDN’T openED DID we openED ??

You openED you DIDN’T openED DID you openED ??

They openED they DIDN’T openED DID they openED ??

REGLAS ORTOGRÁFICAS

 Si el verbo termina en:

o –Y: Tengo que fijarme en la letra que lleva delante de la –Y:

Si la letra de delante de la –Y es una vocal, la –Y se deja y se añade –ED

Play > playED

Si la letra de delante de la –Y es una consonante, la –Y pasa a –I y se añade –ED

Study > studIED

2.2 VERBOS IRREGULARES

En la lista de verbos irregulares aparecen 3 columnas más otra de la traducción:

Infinitive Past Simple Participle

GO WENT GONE

DRINK DRANK DRUNK

La primera columna es el infinitivo (me servirá para hacer el presente, el Futuro y el Condicional)

La segunda columna es el Pasado Simple

La tercera columna es el Participio (me servirá para hacer los tiempos perfectos)

¿Cómo se conjugan los verbos irregulares?

o En afirmativo, pongo la segunda columna GO WENT GONE, etc, etc He ….. (go) to Edinburgh last year

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PAST SIMPLE VS. PRESENT PERFECT 3

He DIDN’T GO to Edinburgh last year

o En negativo, se pone DIDN’T + el verbo en infinitivo (1ª columna) He ….. (not/go) to Edinburgh last year

He DIDN’T GO to Edinburgh last year

o En interrogativo, se pone DID + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo (1ª columna)

... (he/go) to Edinburgh last year ??

DID HE GO to Edinburgh last year ???

Todas las formas son iguales

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I went I DIDN’T GO WENT DID I GO WENT ??

You went you DIDN’T GO WENT DID you GO WENT ??

He went he DIDN’T GO WENT DID he GO WENT ??

She went she DIDN’T GO WENT DID she GO WENT ??

It went it DIDN’T GO WENT DID it GO WENT ??

We went we DIDN’T GO WENT DID we GO WENT ??

You went you DIDN’T GO WENT DID you GO WENT ??

They went they DIDN’T GO WENT DID they GO WENT ??

USOS DEL PASADO SIMPLE:

Acciones pasadas: la acción empezó y terminó.

Ejemplo:

He went home after school

Did you live in Manchester last year?

Suelen llevar adverbios o frases adverbiales que indican cuándo se ha hecho la acción:

Last (year) In (2010) (Ten days) ago When (I was young)

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PAST SIMPLE VS. PRESENT PERFECT 4

PRESENT PERFECT (yo he visto)

o En afirmativo se forma poniendo el sujeto + HAVE/HAS + Participio*

They ….. (play) football in the garden

They HAVE PLAYED football in the garden

o En negativo se forma poniendo el sujeto + HAVEN’T/HASN’T + Participio*

They ….. (not/play) football in the garden They HAVEN’T PLAYED football in the garden

o En interrogativo se forma poniendo el HAVE/HAS + sujeto + Participio* ¿?

….. (they/play) football in the garden ??

HAVE THEY PLAYED football in the garden ??

* ¿Cómo se forma el participio?

Si el verbo es regular, se añade -ED al verbo Work > workED

Si el verbo es irregular, se pone la tercera columna see saw SEEN

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I HAVE been I HAVEN’T been HAVE I been ??

You HAVE seen you HAVEN’T seen HAVE you seen ??

He HAS worked he HASN’T worked HAS he worked ??

She HAS lived she HASN’T lived HAS she lived ??

It HAS driven it HASN’T driven HAS it driven ??

We HAVE bought we HAVEN’T bought HAVE we bought ??

You HAVE asked you HAVEN’T asked HAVE you asked ??

They HAVE stayed they HAVEN’T stayed HAVE they stayed ??

USOS DEL PRESENT PERFECT

1. La acción empezó en el pasado y todavía continúa I ….. (live) in Spain for 10 years

I HAVE LIVED in Spain for 10 years (Llegué en 2010 y sigo viviendo en Madrid)

2. Hablar o preguntar por experiencias pasadas sin decir cuándo ocurrieron

Scientists HAVE DISCOVERED a cure for flu (No decimos cuándo lo han descubierto)

HAVE you BEEN to Italy?

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PAST SIMPLE VS. PRESENT PERFECT 5

(No pregunto cuándo has estado)

3. Hablar de acciones recién acabadas, en este caso llevan JUST y se traduce por “ACABAR DE”

She ….. (just/buy) the T-shirt

She HAS JUST BOUGHT the T-shirt (Acaba de comprar la camiseta)

Pueden llevar los siguientes adverbios:

Always: siempre Never: nunca Already (afir) : ya Yet (neg, int): ya For: durante

Since: desde (que) Recently: recientemente Ever: alguna vez

Still: todavía Today: hoy

This morning/year : Esta mañana/año

4. NO podemos utilizar este tiempo si decimos CUÁNDO se ha hecho la acción !!!!

Tony HAS GONE to school ten minutes ago (Dice cuándo ha ido al colegio)

(Si quiero decir que ha ido al colegio hace 10 minutos, debo decir

“Tony WENT to school 10 minutes ago”) When …(you/meet) Tom?

When DID YOU MEET Tom?

(Pregunto cuándo se ha hecho esa acción, así que PAST SIMPLE) I … (work) in this bank

I WORKED in this bank

I HAVE WORKED in this bank

(Pueden ser los dos tiempos porque no digo CUÁNDO ha sido)

Figure

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Referencias

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