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A View on the philosophy of music


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Vol. XXXI/). 2012, pp. 15·24 ISSN: 0210-1602

[BIBLlD 0210-[602 (2012) J I :3; pp. 15-24}

A View on the Phil osop hy of M usic

Julifln Manades Millet

Philosophy of music is a second-level reflection on Ihe nature of music and our experience of it. Music is a practice fraught with meaning ilnd value in the lives of many people and occupies an important place in our artistic culnlre. I-Iowever, it raises philosopltical queslions perhaps more difficult than other artistic practices. Many philosophers, from Pythagoreans and P[alo 10 Willgenstcin and Adomo, have been attracted by these issues, and their doctrines arc part of the h;.ffOlY of the philosophy of music.

I f wc limit ourselves 10 the major lopics Ihat have been the focus or dis- cussion in recent decades, we Cfln group such topics into al lCflst six main nreas:

(a) mefllOdologiclI/ issues conceming research on Ihe philosophy of mu- sic (the debate on the delinition of music; the choice of a theoretical framework to deal with the analysis of musicality; the diITerence be- tween noises, sounds and tones; the debate between objectivism and subjectivism about musical phenomena; the opposition between 'pure' and 'impure' music, etc.);

(b) issues relating to the oll/ology of music Ohe clash between nominal- ism and idealism regarding the relationship between a musical 'work' and its tokcns or 'performanccs'; the eontl'Oversy between fictionalism and realism, etc.);

(c) topics conceming the aeslhef;cs of music (the basic properties of music; funcionulisl vs. culturalisl theories; the distinction between 'pure' and 'impure' music);

(d) issues regarding the sell/oll/ics of music (the semiotics of musical meaning; the link between music and text; the distinction bctween stmcnlre and content; the controversy between representutionalislll, expressivism and fonnnlism, etc.);



16 JIlIi(/n MmTades Millel

(e) topics regarding the no/we of lIIusical e).]Je/"icl1ce (psychological.

cognitive and moral aspects of musical experience; musical expres- siveness; skills and behavioural responses involved in musical un- derstanding, etc.);

(f) issues conccllling the I'a/lle ofmllsic (what makes musical experi- ence valuable; what connections can be established between music and mysticism, between music und ineffability, between music and noise; between music and silence, etc.).

This special issue ofteon:lDm consists of un open collection of contributions to be regarded liS a good sample of Ihe kind of questions that ore researched and discussed in the philosophy of music at present.

The papers by V'TOR GUllRREJRO, JOHN W. LANGQ and ANDREA SCHlAVIO belong to IIn llrea or rcscllrch concerning the nature or music (a).

All three articles mise the question whether it is userulto have a precise defi·

nition or music, and introduce dirrerent arguments 10 rellch conclusions that are varied and, in certain respects, incompatible with onc another.

In his article "Thinking Ctearly about Music", Vitor Guerreiro dcuts with the question 'what is music?' from a methodological rather than an on·

tologiclIl standpoint, since his pU1VOSC is not to provide a new definition of music, but to investigate wtmt kind or philosophicallheory would be suilllblc for doing so. Even though Gucrreiro considers the definition of music to be an independent matler from the definition of 111'1, he lLses Dickie's distinction between 11(IIIIra/·killd ,heories of an (according to which art arises from mltu- ral activities) whose creation is the result of the natural behavior, und clIl- lura/·killd theories of (lrl (according to which institutional structures ure the necessary and sufficient conditions for artworks), in order to provide a natu- ral-kind theory of ill1 which is nevcl1heless cnriched with elements from the instiMional theory. The purpose of such a theory, which would include func- tions based both on physical Sh'lJctures and on collective representations, would be to provide a definition of 'sonorous a11' rol' both possible and actual sonorous activities with social, but not necessarily aesthetic functions. One such definition would cover: a) (';ore instances of mu si ea I works arising from the intentional instantiation of basic musical propel1ies such as harmony, rhythm or melody, by means of sounds; b) derived instances of music (i.e., events lacking any of these basic lllusical propC11ies. but having a certain Illusi·

cal status bct:ause of their rappol1 with those propeI1ies); c) non-musical sono·

rous artworks, such as sonorous poetry; d) instances of nOlHu1islie music, such as sonorous activities with social, but not necessarily aesthetic, functions.

In his al1icle "Why can Sounds be Structured as Music?", John W.

Lango considers the nature of music at a basic level, since his intention is not merely to define the nature of music in terms of stnlchLred sounds, but mlher


Presell/aci611IP"esellllltioll 17

10 ask about the basis of the fact that sounds can be stmclurcd as music. The main thesis of the articlc is th,lI in order for sounds to be stmcntred as music, initially by the composer and then by the perfonncrs. they must be intrinsi- cally stmcturcd. Adopting a standpoint both phcllomcnologicaland ontologi- cal, according to which sounds are not mere physical or physiological entities but rather phenomena, not pure events bUI rather time-fmmed processes, Lango defincs sound as a mere bundle of acoustic propel1ies, and musical sound as bundle of propelties such as pitch and timbre. Or, more precisely, a sound is a bundle of tropes of acoustic properties, where a trope is an instan- tiation of certain properties and relntions. Such acoustic tropes arc the I)ri- mary constituents of musical sounds or tones. Lango nrgucs that this notion ofa sound - and a tone - is compatible with both realist and nominalisl onto- logical theories. But the main question addressed by Lango is not what sounds are, but how it is that they can be structured as music. Working under thc assumption that what wc actually hear is not It chaotic multiplicity of so- norous impressions, the answer given by the article is that sounds can be heard as lllusic because they are instantiations of relations between intrinsi- cally structured acoustic properties. This phenomelogical thesis stands op- posed to two different kinds of rcduclionism: onc according to which acoustic relations are reducible 10 acoustic qualities, and another according to which acoustic qualities arc reducible to magnitudes.

Andrea Schiavio's 31ticie "Constituting the Musicul Object it Neuro- phenomenological Perspeclive on Musiclll Research" suggests an alternative to two current researeh strategies to distinguish between the objective and subjective aspects of musicality. Against both the analysis of standard musi- cology, whose field of snldy are the objcctive fcatures of musical mMerials, and certain trends in the psychology of music, interested only in the neural cOlTelales of specific musical skills, Schiavio claims that the relation bctwcen music and audience/perfonner is an insepnrable feature in evely musical ex- perience, and argues that only It genuine colluboration between phcnomenol- ogy and neuroscience can produce adequate knowledge of music as un intentional object. The article applies Husscl"l's analysis of the ability to make sense to the constin.ttion of musical objects, and argucs that this ubility mani- fests itself in the active capacity of the body, re-defined on the basis of neuro- pllysiological evidence in tenus of the human motor system. The al1icle establishes that, within Ihis approach to the intentionality of musiclll experi- ence, no definition of music is needed, regardless of the nature of the defini- tion: either strict and explicit, or implicit and unproblematic.

The following three papers dcal with different topics in the ontology of music (b). A problem for the consideration of music as an art, although not the only one, is the ambiguity inheJ"ent to the notion of 'work', when apl)licd to music. On the one halld, we take a musical work 10 be something the au- thor compose.o; and regiFiter.~ in the score shcet but, on the other hand, it i:i ub-


18 Ju/iim M(IITades Millet

..,jous as well that music is not the notes written down 011 the score sheet, but the sonorous performance of the notes, usually by pcrfonncrs other than Ihe composer himself. Emphasizing the composition aspect of the music .. ! work implies considering music as a lext, while highlighting its pclfonllance in- volves considering music primarily as a practice. This duality bl'jngs up such philosophic:.1 questions as: what is the ontological nature orlhe written and the performed musical work? How clIn the relation between them be categorized?

What is the role of interpretation as nn intemlcdiary between the score and its perfomlancc'! STEPIiEN DAVIES, JONATHAN NEUFELD and ALESSANDRO BERT1- NElTO deal in their m1iclcs with difTercm aspects of musical performance, in- cluding both the kind of interpretation carried oUl by the perfollncr, and the performances called "improvisations", which arc fairly independent of the score.

lonathan Ncufcld, in his article "Critical Performances", begins with a very common distinction in the literature between critical and perfonnative interpretations. According to Wollheirn, who established the distinction, a pelfol'lnative interpretation is an expression of a critical interpretation of the musical work by its perfonner, so there is a correspondence between thcm.

Levinson, in his anicle "Pcrfonnativc ven;us Critical Interpretation in Music"

(1996], conccdes in turn that performers interprct, butargucs that thcir inter- pretations arc csentially different from, and logically independent of, critical interpretutions, and upholds the thesis of the indiscernibility of pelfollnalive interpretations with regard to those performances with indiscernible sonorous structures._A main goal of Neufcld's article is to discuss this thesis, arguing that performances indiscernible from a sonorous point of view may express different performative interpretations. Neufcld appeals to different examplcs of public criticism taken from the modem tradition, to show that to the extcnt to which a musical performance is an intentional act based on reflective choices expressed in sonorous structures, musical performance contains a critical aspect which reveals itself ill the autholity exerted on the audience when the performance cstabljshes a particular direction to listen to the musi- cal work. The conclusion offhe article is that accounting for performative in- terpretation in terms of authority and pm1icipation, pavcs the way for an explanation of critical pcrfonnances that contributes to an understanding not only of individual musical works, but of musical practice as a whole.

The leitmotiv of Stephell Davies' al1icle "Authentic Perfonnances of Musical Works" is the analysis of the notion and value of an authentic per- fonnance of a musical work. Dnvies focuses his analysis on the pcrfonnance of musical works written down on scores, containing the composer's pre- scriptions for potenti:.l perfonllCfs of the piece. In this sensc, the notion of authenticity refers to the relation between performance and prescriptions, not to the attempt to recreate in the performance panicular aesthetic effects sought by the composer. Dnvies dubs "ideally authentic" a pcrfonl1;lIlce that accurately IIccomplishes all the instnlclions specified by the author, and


Presell/{/ciOIIIPI·esellfafiOII 19

maintains that 10 the extent that we are interested in pcrfonnances because of the mllsical works they implement - not only because of their virtuosity or interpretative interest -, the search for authenTicity is 8 requisite, and not an interpretative choice. Davies examines some possible objections to his 'liter- alist' position, particularly Peter Kivy's thesis according to which an authen- tic perfomlance is onc that reneets, not what the composer wrote originally, but what he would wish if his musical work was to be performed lit present.

The article concludes with some brief' remarks on the limited value of inter- pretative authenticity, under the assumption that authenticity is not the only or even a decisive virtue of musical pcrfommncc.

Thc aim of Alessandro Bel1inetlo's anicle "Pllganini does not Repeal.

Musical Improvisation and the Typcffoken Ontology" is to explore the on- lology ofa pm1icular kind of musical performance: improvisations. 11le most simple notion of improvisation highlights the coincidence of the composing and performing processes - in so far as the crention of sounds and silcnces is simultaneously composition Ilnd perfomlance -, as well as its ephemeral and unrepeatable nature. Nonetheless, the first section of the article examines a more complex notion, onc Ihat distinguishes between improvisation as a process and improvisation as a result. As a process, an improvisntion is unique, but the perfonner can use the inventions of an improvisation as a col- lection of prescriptions for subsequent improvisations. In tnis case, tbe result of the process can be mcmorized, transcribed, repeated or cOITCCled. This is why an improvisation can bc defined as a perfonnance led by the decisions of the perfolmer prior!O the event (Kania). The distinction belween process and result may suggest that the ontological type/token duality, widely used in the ontology of music to explain the usual case of musical works composed with multiple performances in view (it is a common thesis that a musical work is a type, whereas performances are tokens) might be a suitable tool to explain the ontology of improvislltion. Thus the improvisation-quu-event would be the type - as it were, the composition ,and subsequent pel'fonnances based

011 the evcnt - i.e., the result - could be considered as tokens. BCl'tineHo ex- amines this account in the central sections of his article, and argues thut the type/token distinction cannot be applied to improvisations because of their singularity. In so f'ar as an improvisation is created while perfonncd, it is an Ullrcpeteable process and its spatia-temporal coordinates are pal1 of ils iden·

tity. In othcr words, in an improvisation the process is the product: it is not only the music produced thm interest us, but also the decisions llnd IIctions 01' the pelfonners as they play thc music. However, Beninetto does not alto- gether reject the Iype/token distinction in the ontology of improvisation.

Thus, on the basis of the type/token distinction, the last sections of the 1II1icle trace interesting connections between improvis~ltion and ccrtain musical pmc- tices (cover songs, recordings, plllybacks, and so on.).


20 Jlllicill M(I/'/'{/des Miller

The articles presented so far deal with different topics, but they all fo- cus on aspects inherent 10 music, considered as an object wilh a specific iden- tity, regardless of the effects music 1105 on the uudiencc. This cOImection between pcnorming and listening can be found, olle way or another, in the remaining articles, covering a variety of themes from various perspectives,

JERROLD LEVINSON'S 311icle "Musical Beauty" is a good example of philosophicalllnalysis in the aesthetics of music (c). I-lis aim is to examine an ,aesthetic property of music, musical beauty, in order to oITer a specific or sh'icl characlclizalion. To that effect, he uses a multi-faceted strategy includ- ing: a) a distinction, allowing for vague boundaries, betwcen the concept of musical bcauty and other concepts with which it may have some kind of logi- calor semantic connection (inclusion, exclusion, opposition, similarity, and so on); b) the use of examples to illustrate thc conccpt of ;beautiful music', in opposition to examples of music lacking this quality; and c) a comparison be- tween examples of beautiful music and examples of bcautiful paintings. In this way, Levllson expects to achievc the following two goals: first, to dis- tinguish betwccn beautiful musical works (in his strict sensc) and those with othcr qualities di !ferent from bcauty, either qualitics with somc son of excel-

lence (sublimc music, powerful music, disturbing music, und so on) or with- oUl it (nice music, enjoyable music, pleusant music, and so on); second, to characterize the hallmark of beautiful music as its capacity to move us, pro- viding us with the gratifying pleasure of feeling, in some way, disamlcd, to which the cltistence of celtain stnlctured features and somc degree of unex- pected novelty contribute. Levison turns to Thomas Mann's Doklor Pal/sIllS to introduce, within the category of beautiful music, u distinction between in- tellectual and sensual beauty. Whereas un imcllectually beautiful work, such as Bach's Goldberg VlIrialiolls, munagcs 10 captivate us by means of its me- lodic and hamlOnic shape alone. a sensually beautiful work sueh as Dc- bussy's Prelude (i I'apres-midi d'lIlI fillme, uscs tonal and emotional colour, The urticle concludes whh some thoughts emphasizing the special value of beautiful music as compensation and momentllry eomfOlt for the imperfec- tion and contingency of the world.

SARA Er..L..EN ECKERSON'S and EUSA NEGRElTO'S essays deal with ques- tions in musical semantics (d), irlcntifying some of the elements thnt contribute to give a musical work the meaning it has for ils audience while perfonned.

The aim of the anicle "Contrarianism in the Philosophy of Music Ilnd the Role of the Idea in Musical Hcnnencutics and Performance Interprcta- tion" is to examine thc role of the interpretation of a musical work in deter- mining its meaning. Sara E. Eckerson stal1s from the distinction between two different types of interpretation: critical imerprctation of a musical work within u specific hemleneutic tradition, and interpretation as a musical per- formance. A crucial point of the lu1icle is to argue that, regardless of the radi- cal diffcrences between Thcm, these two types of interprctation arc not


PI'eSCI1racioIIfP"eSC"lalioll 21

necessarily irreconcilable, and bOlh arc offered to the audience to counteract the influence of uneducated or ill-infOl1l1ed opinions and UHitudes conceming the understanding of musical works. Eckerson's argument rests mainly on the analysis of two specific examples. The first refers to the way in which Wug- ner suggests Becthoven's 9th symphony should be listened to. This proposal appeared both in the programme of a concel1 Wagner conducted in Dresden in 1846. and in the actuul performance he conducted. In the text of Ihe pro- gramme. Wagner gives an intcrpretation of the movements of the symphony in tenl1S of images and moods inspired in some of Goethe's texts. Eckerson points out that this kind of connection bctween music and poetry shows the influenec on Wagner of Hegel's thesis ubout thc vaguencs .. ~ nf/he meaning of instrumcntal music, and consequently the uscfulness of a text ill order to ex- plain to thc audience the idea or poetic contcnt Ihnt the musical work en- closes. Nevertheless, the importance of the text, according to Wagner, is to lead the audience to capture the idea or poetic content of the musical work during its performance. In other words, a critical interpretation is aimed at the musical interpretation as perfonmmce and subordinated to it. iJI the second pal1 of her al1iclc, Eckerson contrasts Wagner's critical interpretation with K..icrkcgaard's analysis of Mozart's operas. Her intention is to show that, de- spite thc different conceptions Wagner and Kicrkegaard have of the nature of thc content or idea cxpressed by a musical work, they coincide on the Ihesis that an explanation through hermeneutical analysis is not sufficient, and high- light the essential importancc of the musical performnnce in order to hea,.,

unfolded in the music, Ihe idea exprcssed with words inthc text.

In her article "Expectation and Anticipation as Key Elements for the Constitution of Meaning in Music", Elisa Negrcllo wonders what elemcnts of thc perceptive cxperience of music become morc relevant from the listener's point of view in order 10 assign mcaning to it. Thc articlc examines the de- termination of meaning from a standpoint Ihal combincs phenomenology with the cognitivc psychology of music, through an analysis of the concepts of "expeclation" and "anticipation". Both concepts refer to mental processes with diITercnt dcgrees of certainty: expectation refers to the cognitive ability of "prc-prcscnting" a future evellt which is not well defined, whercas antici- pation refcrs to a "quasi-perception" of an cvent for which there is a high ex- pectation. The authoress applies these concepts 10 the experience of musical perception and argues that both proce.~ses, which aim at future evcnts in order to prepare the organism udequlltely to respond or aet before the cvents lake place, contributc to thc creation or structural and meaning relations amongst the sounds. Likewise, she maintains that thc differences bctween both proc- esses huve consequences in Ihe way an audicnce perceives music it is not fo- milin!" with. [n this sense, the article concludes that expectation contributes to the constitution of subjective meaningful experiences and to the understand- ing of the intentional movement Ihat helps thc audience to be conscious of a


22 Jlllilm Mal'mdes Miller

sequence of sounds as full of musical meaning; whcrcns anticipation - which can be considered as a particular moment in the process of expectation - is the ability 10 have a menIal representation of a future event that innucnccs how an audience understands music, and ultimately defines the difference be- twccn understanding and fuiling to understand unfU1l1iliar music.

The essays by DANIEL QUESADA and MAR1A Jos~ ALCAItAZ deal with questions concerning the nature of musical experience (e). In his m'ticle "Mu- sical Experience", Daniel Quesada raises the question whether there exists a specific type of experience that can be called musical experience. Stll11ing with the assumption that there are many types of musical experiences de·

pcnding on Illultiple elcments, Qucsada focuses his analysis on an idealizcd notion or a 'pl/I'dy musical experience', all expericnce that only music can provide. Quesada enlightcns this notion with several examples taken rrom modem tonal music, and then examines the conditions ror musical experience in 'pure' or 'absolute' musical works, on the one hand, and in works with representational content or programme music, on the other. With regard to the romler, he challenges the position or cCl1ain critics who describe the con·

tent of a musical work in temlS or archetypes (e.g., work X entails suITering, work Y involves ilmer struggle, and so on), and argues that thc emotional propel1ies or the cvents involved in music arc non·specific and undetermined.

This is why, properly speaking, musical experiences canllot be described with IOllguage, but rather only alluded to. In this sense, he maintains that pos·

session of inronnation about Cl composer or a musical work, or lack of it, is not decisive so as to dctennine the basic charactcr or a musical experience.

This argument ean also be Ilpplied to the cxperience or musical works with representationlll content. So, what can knowledge of the implicit content of a musical work contribule to musical experience? Quesada's response is that, when we listen to a musical work, that knowledge can callse in LIS an auditive or imaginative experience as ifwe were hearing or imagining somcthing de·

terminate, although music callnot provide us with enough elements to deter·

mine it. The ovel"lll1 conclusion or the Ilrtic1e is that pI/rely musical experiences cun be of different types, but the decisive point is tbat they all alike introduce characteristic types of indeterminacy.

If Ihe aim of Quesada's article was to determine the conditions of a purely musical experience, Maria Jose Alcaraz's essay "Music's Moral Char- acter" raises un issue relating to the content of musical experience: is it pos·

sible 10 chartlclerizc musical works - pm1icuJarly, J"lUl"e or absolute music - in moral terms? TIle aim of the al1ic1e is to al·gue that there are grounds in musi·

cal expelienee that not only allow, but also require, that churuclerization, und then 10 show that the understanding of this kind of content inrorms musical experience and strongly detennines the aesthetic judgement or a musical work. Alcaraz analyzes possible objections 10 the latter claim, based on the lack of representacional content of pure music, and suggests that the moral


Presellf(lciolllPresellWf i011 23

judgement of absolute music rests on the quality of its eltpressive content, specifically in the possibility to express something similar to a psychological a(tinlde or a character. An arguTllcnt in favour of this is that, just like some- one can express herself through gestures, movements and behaviour without an intentional object, and these features can provide inrormation about her psychological profile, so Ihis kind of non-intentional expression can selVe as Cl model to take certain features that we perceive in a pieee of absolute music as expressions of a charar.;lt:r, lint! hence to judge or appreciate the expression as adequnte or inade(luate, not only in a psychological, but also in a moral sense (e.g., in lenns of sincerity, distortion, alTogance, and so on). [n the last part of heT article, Alenraz argues for the claim thal it is constitutive of moral judgement nbout a particular musical work 10 recognize some kind of emo- tionnl response demanded by the expressive character of the musicnl work, and stntes that moral descriptions of musical works have an impact on thcir aes'thetic valuc.

Despite the variety of questions the last two articles of the volume deal with, they coincide in demanding wide perspectives in the philosophy of mu- sic in order to tackle musical events that arc beyond the borders of modem musical tradition.

In his article "Los oidos prestados y el apeiroll sonoro. NOlflS para una Filosofia de la Mlisica", CESAR MORENO stands for the necessity of a phi- losophy of music able to take care, ill a conceptual way, of what he calls 'the sonorous adventure of the 20th century", marked by a number of creations Ilnd proposals thal challenge the inherited cultural framework, which llsed to establish how !IIusic should be undcrstood. The al1iclc analizcs difTerent ex- amples in that adventure, from the futurist vindication of noise - "the limited circle of pure sounds must be broken and the infinite variety of the 'noise- sound' conquered" (Russolo) -to John Cage's proposal in his 4'33 work for listening to silence as a plethora of possible sounds - listening with our thoughts, beyond Ollr cars -, nnd including Sehaeffer/l-Ienry's concrete music as well as a variety of proposals where the old walls sr.;parating tonality from atonality, sounds and noises, m1ificial and natural sounds are tore down (Stockhausen, Berio, Messiaen). Ccsar Moreno suggests that the sonorous adventure of the 20th century pnvcs the way for the "jump to Big Music", a non-institutionalized kind of music that emerges from what is unlimited (l/peiI'OIl), unpredictable and undetermined. Through the article, and espe- cially at the cnd of it, the author explores the adequacy of certain philosophi- cal concepts taken fj'Om Heideggcr and Derrida -and from Husserl's phenomenology, too - in order to conceptualize that 'sonorous apeiron'.

/\ common feature of all the articles presellled so far is that they illus- trate their respective analysis with examples taken JJ'ol1lthe musical tradition of the West. The last essay included in this special issue ofteOl'ellla enriches it with n look outside thal tradition - namely, the philosophy of music of


24 JUliit11 Mo/'/'(/des Millet

classical Confucianism. The overall aim of JAMES GARRISON'S article "The Sociltl Vuluc of Ritual and Music in Classical Chinese Thoughl" is 10 show Ihe dose C(J!mcClion Ihat the philosophy of classical Confucianism estab- lishes between the sod,,] and ritual nature of music, with its rhythms and repetitions. This connection reinforces the celllrai role arthe body in Chinese music and proves that its social value does not rest simply in its being a so- cial product, but in that it socializes those people that take part in il. A re- markable aspect of the article is its attempt to draw similarities between Confucianism and cCliain Wcstcm perspectives on the philosophy of music (especially Adotno's and DeNora's), who have tried 10 articulate 11 morc comprehensive vision of thc social nature of music, including the possibility ofbody-oricnted self-cultivation through music and rite,

Deporlamelll de Me(ajisica i Teori{l del COllei:.emelll Facl/ltat de Filosofia; Ciel/C;el' de l'Edllcoci6 UI/;versital de Va/el/cifl

Al'ellida Blasco l/xiiiez 30,46010 Valel/cia E-mail: jlllial1llwl1·ades@glllail.colII



Revista internacional de filosofia

VOL. xxx]/3 . 2012




Rcvista internacional de filosofia

OmKjo rtiilori,,1

R. Bf.l<IF.YTO (ValrncU.); IJ.L BLA$(;O (V;.knci~); R. BOOM (PiU):



(M:odrid): M. BUNGF. (Montreal): M. CACCIARI (Vwccia); 1-CORIII (Valencia): N. CHOMSKY (Mal!~chuSim):

tD. DAVIDSON (California. Herkder): j. ECHEVE.JUlIA (Madrid): tJ. FF.RItAHR /I-\OR,4. (~nlilnnia): D.

F1NKEUTf.IN (Chicago): J. ':OOOR (Nun-a York·New Jersey): tJ.D. CARe; ... BACC,4. (Caf;K.;\S): M. G,uC!...- CARI'INTfJlO (BaKdoll.1): A. Gu.clA SV'\REZ (Ovk<h); C. GARCIA-TRF.V]JANO (Madrid): M. GARRJIlO (Madrid): H.-). ClOCK (Zurich): P. GaCHET (Ueja); C. G6Mf.Z (t.'(adrid): A. GO~IIL'" (111(1 Balms): S. /-lUCK (Miami): ts. HAAlPSHII\I\ (Oxrord). J. HIERRO (M:t<Irid): CH. HOOKWAY (Sheffield): F. JARAUTA (MuKia):

M. JI.LtN!Z Rwm<mo (Valencia); J. OF. LORENZO (Valbdolid); j. McDoww. (Pi,uburgh); tF. MOWT£RO (V~lcncia); J. MOSTl.J.iN (Madrid); c.u. MOULINU (Munich); C. Mo\'~. (VoJcncia); c.P. OTItRO (California, LA.); D.F. PEARS (Oxford): J.1.. I'RAOU (Cirona): D. ~.I!SAIl~ (Bucclona); tW.v.o. Ql!.INE {Huyard};

M.A. ~1t'i"T~N'LL~ (Slbm~nca): V. RANTALA (Tampere): I. RItGU£R~ (Ckern): M. SAa~Tts (K:lnAS); fM.

~A.NCIIE2·M~z~s (San !:>ebmi:ln); J. SAN~IAI\'rIN (Valencia); J.I(.. SEARLE (C:ahromll. 6akdey); J. SEO~)<fE

(Valencia); E. SOB£R (Wisooll!in); G. SOI.ANA (Madrid): E. SOSA (Rhode Jsbnd·~ jcrsq); fP.F. Sruwsot'i"

(Oxford); G. STIlAWSON (Reading); B. STROUD (Bcrkclcy); C. TllltIIAUT (Madrid); CH. TIIIEL (Erhngt'n); R.

TUO~IELA (Hcbinki); A. VALC.bcEL (Madrid): fG.H. VON WR1GHT (Hckinl<i).

Qm~jo d~ ,w{"rri6l,

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(l ... "urid). Girl/da (oglliliVtI: F. C~LVO (Murda). FiI-JI1f k la IHtlllr. J. Z~L~BARDO (Londrcs). Filosojlll tit!

Imglliljr. JJ. ACERO (Gran.l<la). Tttnill tit! l/HlOlimitllfo:j. CoMES~SA (AriwM). MalljlsK"; D. L6p~7. DE S~

(Barcelona). His/mill tit 1"jillHojl,,; M. G~lI.dA·BAB.6 (M:tdrid)

Dim/oil 1../.,.1. VAWts (Oliedo): $art/,Trio: A. Cu.clA RoIlKicu£z (Mun:iII).

leorem;1 RniJI.. iUlmIlrima/ tkP-fo Q: wu.publbci6ncua·

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Director invitado/Guest Editor: JUUAN MARRADES MILLET

J. MARRADES MILLET, Una perspecliva sobJ'e lafilosojia

de /cl J/lIlsica/ A View oil/he Philosophy of Music 5 V. GUERRE1RO, Thinking Cleol'lyAboul Music 25 J. W. LANGO, Why Can SOl/lids Be Sfl'llCfu/'ed (IS Mmic? 49

A. SCHJAV10, COIlSI;fllfil1g the Musical Object: A Neurophello-

menological Pel~1)ec'ive 011 Musical Research 63 S. DAVIES, Authen/ic Pe/iol'lI/onces of Musical Works 81 J. NEUFELD. Critical Pe/forma/Ices 89

A. BERTlNETIO, PagclI1ini Does Not Repeal, Musical

Improvisation olld rhe Typeffokell Ontology 105

J. LEV1NSON. Musical Beauty 127

S. E. ECKERSON, Con/rarianisl1I ill 'he Philosophy oJ Music and the Role althe Idea ill Musical Hel'l/Ieneulics (Ind

Pel!ol'mance fllIe/pl'etation J 37

E, NEGRETI'O, Expectation and AnlicipafiolJ As Key Elements for fhe COl1stilution oJ Meaning in Music 149

D, QUESADA, Musical Experience 165


M. J. ALCARAZ, Music's Moral Ciwracler

C. MORENO, Los oidos preswdos yet apciron sal/ora.

No/as para lIllafitosoJia de fa IIl1isica

J. GARRISON, The Social Value of Rilllal al/d Music ill Classical Chinese Thoughl


J. ACERO Y N. VILLANUEVA, Arle, mlisica y ell/ocio"




(JERROLD LEVINSON, Music. Arl alld Melapi1ysics) 223

R. GUIJARRO LASI-IERAS, Ell bllSca del cOl/ceplo mllsical:

{res criterias clave y ulla cues/ioll de mis{erio


Companion 10 Philosophy and Mllsic) 237

Esm rcvista ha recibido una ayud~ dc I~ Ditecd6n Gencral del Ubro, A«:hivos y Bihlio-

tcc~s del Millistcrio de Educnci6n, Cuhum y Depone p~ra $U difusi6n ell biblimccas, centros eulturales I' universid~dc5 de Espalia, pal1l l~ totalidad de !os lIumcros del ailo.


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