How the strategies implemented contribute to make my students from 7th grade interact orally in the English class?

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(1)SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. How the strategies implemented contribute to make my students from 7th interact orally in the English class?. By Claudina Garcés .Santibañez Research Seminar Teacher: Claudio Jaramillo Tutor: Paula Díaz Santiago, Chile 2016.

(2) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Table of contents Abstract………………………………………………………………………………….P.4 Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………P.6 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………P.8 Contest…………………………………………………………………………………....P.9 The Class………………………..…………………………………………….. .. P.10 Problem…………………………………………………………………………. P.12 Research Question …………………………………………………………………...… P. 13 Rational…………………………………………………………………………………. P.14 Literature Review ………………………………………………………………………. P. 16 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) …………………………………… P. 16 Cooperative Learning ………………………………………………………….. P. 18 Speaking ………………………………………………………………………. .P. 20 Input-Output …………………………………………………………………… P. 22 Strategies ……………………………………………………………………….. P .23 Adolescents …………………………………………………………….………. P. 25 Research Methodology ………………………………………………………………… P. 27 Data Collection Methods ………………………………………………………. P. 28 Questionnaires …………………………………………………………. P. 28 Event Checklist ………………………………………………………… P. 29 2.

(3) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………..P. 34 Before interventions ……………………………………………………………P. 35 During interventions …………………………………………………………. P. 39 After interventions ……………………………………………………………. P. 47 Reflection and analysis of interventions ……………………………………………… P. 54 Before interventions …………………………………………………………... P. 54 During interventions ………………………………………………………….. P. 58 After interventions…………………………………………………………….. P. 70 Conclusion and implication ……………………………………………………………P. 73 References ……………………………………………………………………………. P. 77 Appendixes ………………………………………………………………………….. P. 79 Appendix A …………………………..……………………………………… P. 79 Appendix B …………………………..……………………………………… P. 80 Appendix C …………………………..……………………………………… P. 81. 3.

(4) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Abstract The following research has as a purpose to inquire on strategies that may be beneficial for the development of the oral skill in English. This will be carried out on a 7th grade from Instituto Ágape. The strategies used will be implemented during four classes, assessing its implementation during activities faced at the end of every class. Teacher in charge, will evaluate interaction produce among students, use of English and word taught, among others. At the end of the process, students will to share their view through a questionnaire that will let them see possible progress. The data gathered will be analyzed to understand how strategies implemented produced changes in the oral production of students. Key words: interaction, strategies, oral production, interaction among students.. 4.

(5) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Abstracto El propósito de esta investigación es indagar en estrategias que resulten ser beneficiosas para el desarrollo de la habilidad oral del inglés. Esto será llevado a cabo en el séptico básico del Instituto Ágape. Las estrategias utilizadas serán puestas en práctica durante un periodo de cuatro clases, evaluando su implementación durante las actividades producidas al final de una clase. El profesor a cargo, evaluará interacciones producidas entre estudiantes, uso del inglés y las palabras enseñadas, entre otras. Al final del proceso, los alumnos darán perspectiva a través de un cuestionario. Los datos encontrados serán analizados para entender cómo las estrategias produjeron cambios en la producción oral de los estudiantes. Palabras claves: interacción, estrategias, producción oral, interacción entre estudiantes. 5.

(6) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Acknowledgments The following investigation was a process of building knowledge and experiences. In this path I had the kindness, privilege and joy to walk surrounded by people who collaborate to all work and my personal growth. In first instance I want to thank God by giving me the opportunity to learn from good and bad experiences. He has been the person who brought joy to my heart, passion and purpose for what I do. Everything I want to be is based on the scriptures and daily acts. I praise every strength given when I needed. I appreciate his love because is a daily oil which rewards my heart. I also want to thank my lovely and beautiful family for all support given, al work and financial investment. To my Dad and Mom, who always offered me their arms to rest and be when I needed the most. To my sister Belén and brother Eduardo, who encourage me to carry this path by highlighting my strengths and abilities. Thank you for your unconditional and unique way of love. To my friends that have being next to me during five years: Javiera, Pamela, Anastasia, Joel, Jocelyn, Daniela and Jorge. I am sure that a huge percentage of who I am as a teacher comes from our discussions, conversations, believes, values and love. Thanks for supporting me, remembering me who I am, loving my essence and respect me. Also 6.

(7) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM my friends at the church, especially to Álvaro. With whom I shared my challenges, whom extended their hand, whom listened every problem or situation and remembered me how special I am. Each one of you have teach me to love, to be patient, to learn and to understand that every person contains a unique world to be discovered. I hope to be able to give you the affection that each one of you have gave me. At the same time I want to say thank you to Instituto Ágape. An institution which gave me the tremendous opportunity to work with them. Thanks to María Luisa and Larry, a marriage who supported me, guided me while I carry this process. Thank you the confidence, for teaching me, for encourage me, and for your conversations. I appreciate your qualities and virtues, furthermore your character as leaders and teachers. At the same time, I want to say thank you to all teachers involved in this project, because your prays on everyday have blessed my life. Each one of your personalities and essences were honey to my mind and heart. To my students of every course I shared with, especially to the 7th grade. Each one of you are amazing, worthy of love, valuable, good, a world to be discovered, and especial. I have loved them for who you really are. Thanks for enrich my life and my experience as teacher. I am a teacher because each one of you gave me the possibility to share what I created. Finally, I want to thank my tutor Paula Díaz. Thanks for your advices, respect, for the time provided to solve my questions. Thanks for guiding me and your suggestion. Furthermore, I want to thank to my teachers at UAH, because they taught me from language, values, how to treat others, and how to coexist with students. 7.

(8) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Introduction The human is a gregarious being, which means that our specie lives in community and in society. In this respect, we always have the communication as a need. Understanding that we live in a XXI century is fundamental to develop our communicational skills since we are exposed to be in touch with other people who have different strategies to communicate. In this regard, social context should help us to develop our potential to the fullest in order to aspire to new opportunities that may help us growth. Considering this, learning a foreign language open our options to discover a new world and be part of it. Fortunately, Chilean system gives to students the possibility to learn a foreign language and also to put it into practice. In this area, the role of the teacher is important since he or she is in charge of designing and choosing strategies that may be suitable for the understanding and learning of the students This is why, the purpose of this research is to investigate and apply strategies which can help my 7th grade at Instituto Agape to develop their speaking skills in the classroom.. 8.

(9) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Context This action research will be conducted in Instituto Ágape. This is a non-traditional private school located in Ñuñoa, Santiago. In this institution, courses go from third grade to twelfth grade. The school has one hundred and three students, and eight courses, having an average of twelve students per class; most of the students come from Ñuñoa neighborhood. The school has no PEI or written rules. Nonetheless, students are educated under three main divisions: a) academic, where students can develop their potential based on lessons taught by the teachers who perform lessons in the school; b) artistic, area that is as important as the academic one. In this subdivision, students can develop their abilities to the fullest by the different courses that the institution offers. Students learn how to juggle, dance, sing or perform, and c) spiritual area, where students are raised under a Christian vision. In this respect, all workers are Christians, as well as most of the members who participate in this school. Furthermore, students have a class that is called “Tiempo con Dios” (Quiet time). Students sing, worship, hear the gospel and pray for each other. The last two mentioned areas (spiritual and artistic area) are two-thirds of the core in this institution. One of the goals that this educational project has is to provide evangelistic experiences at the end of 12th grade. That is to say, students have the chance to travel to another country to preach the gospel. Students can put into practice what they have learnt in. 9.

(10) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM “tiempos con Dios” and the abilities developed in the artistic workshop they attended during their last year. In the academic area, students are tested by taking free exams provided by Ministerio de Educación (MINEDUC) at the end of each year. The only mark that counts is the one received in each exam taken by students at the end of the year. Considering this, teachers guide their lessons by minimum core contents proposed by MINEDUC and their mission is to prepare students to fulfill and pass exams. Free exam contents may change according to the school where students enrolled. In this respect, each school may have equal contents, but some others schools may coincide with minimum core content proposed for each year. Nonetheless, teachers are required to evaluate students as if they were in a traditional system. Even when teachers are required to assess students, and as a product of free exam methodology, students tend to have low marks or not take their evaluations seriously since they know that marks given by teachers are not considered in their final average. It is actually a mechanism to perceive how much students are understanding. 7Th grade For the purpose of this research, I decided to focus on the 7th grade. This particular class has nine students, five girls and four boys. These students have two hours of English classes per week. They have been programmed on Thursday at 9:00. Although, most of the. 10.

(11) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM students arrive twenty or thirty minutes late for classes, some others arrive 20 minutes before the class ends. Besides that, each year students are required to buy an English book that is supposed to fill the majority of contents proposed by MINEDUC. The book chosen for this year was “Everything 1A” proposed by SANTILLANA. Nevertheless, this source does not fill completely all contents students need to know when facing a free exam nor to fulfill minimum core contents proposed by MINEDUC. As this source is expensive, not all students are able to pay for this source. Consequently, lessons are based on photocopies or worksheets intended to potentiate different skills that allow students to develop their knowledge and abilities. The class tends to be teacher- centered, this is mainly because students have two hours of English per week to accomplish the list of contents that they must know to pass their exam. The exam is individual and it is designed to assess required contents. As the exam is individual, the classes have been prepared based on individual dynamics with the aim of evaluate how each student is answering the contents. Additionally, I have an average of one class per week to teach each contents. Sometimes classes are related to the context, but some others are totally isolated. Even when the classes are isolated, the understanding of the contents are produce by visualizing elements, matching ideas, map mapping, and highlighting information.. 11.

(12) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Problem As I am the only teacher in the class, I have noticed that the class have split it into two main groups. One is integrated by the students who make use of English and always pay attention to the class. In this first group, there are two students who are native speakers, other students who are not native but they have a high proficiency level of English; The other group make a constant use of Spanish in order to express themselves when is needed. This group of students does understand instructions and commands since they work in classes and are capable of expressing written ideas, but they do not use English orally. In this context, it is important to mention that one of the methods applied at the beginning of the semester was the use of a “Spanish corner”. The purpose of this strategy was to distribute a physical place where students could go and ask questions using their mother tongue. As a consequence, learners could go to this space when they do not know how to say a word in the target language. After a while, that method stopped working since students were not using it. Considering this, I started to wonder why students were using their mother tongue around the classroom if they had a physical place to ask questions or talk by using their L1. Due to the previous situation, I perceived that students had the need of speaking or communicating ideas since they were constantly using their L1. This is why I came up with the question: If I am teaching a language, how important is to teach it orally?. 12.

(13) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Considering this, I noticed that giving the chance and opportunities to develop speaking is crucial for these students, even more if they have the necessity to speak in L1. Simultaneously, I noticed that I was making use of Spanish in order to convey some important ideas. This was mainly to clarify concepts, or to give commands. According to these attitudes, Brown (2007) expresses that Spanish can be used to negotiate discipline and other management factor, to give explanations about meanings that may confuse students.. Research Question Considering the problem presented and the context where this group of students are situated, I came up with the question: “How the strategies implemented contribute to make my students from 7th interact orally in the English class?” This question aims at finding strategies that can be applied in the classroom in order to make students use the target language while speaking.. 13.

(14) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Rationale This research may bring contributions for all actors involved in this process. On one hand, students from XXI century are exposed to other cultures that they can be in touch with. Therefore, if they learn how to speak a language, possibilities to get in touch with other cultures are bigger. Secondly, they are constantly talking in classes but they are using their mother tongue. In this sense, the understanding of the context where they are situated helped me to realize that the need of communication is a central point to start conveying messages. In this respect, having native speakers in the classroom may help to have a more real experience with language, getting to improve English levels. At the same time, native speakers can help other students to understand and be involved in the process. They can act as monitors, and learning can happen not only from teachers’ perspective, but also by what they can offer to their peers. Finally and according to how students can project themselves with the purposes established at the end of 12th grade (traveling to another country and preach the gospel); students could learn how to speak in English by understanding that in four more years they can be using the language to talk about God in other countries. On the other hand, this process helps me as a researcher to be aware of the decisions taken and what I do in the classes. Regarding this, the class can be transformed from a teacher- centered class to a student- centered lesson by the participation and dynamics within. 14.

(15) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM groups. It also can help me to explore the techniques that exert a positive influence on students at this age Finally, this project will help me to become aware, but also to understand that each problem can be guided by a solution in order to have a better result, for students and teachers. Following by this, I can also comprehend that this process can be made by the appropriate research found to the context and the problem itself. Due to this research, I can found on me a researcher who is willing to find solutions for the problem existed in this specific context, but also for the future problems that may arise in the future schools where I will be working.. 15.

(16) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Literature Review For the purpose of this research, I decided to look upon literature that will interpret the concepts that aim at resolving my action research question, which is: What strategies can I implement to make my student interact orally in the English class? In this regard, the authors will lead readers to understand the importance of communicating with others by making use of a foreign language. To do so, adolescents will have the chance of cooperate with others throughout the use of speaking and the strategies applied in the activities presented. At the same time, literature will contribute to find out possible solutions to be implemented in my action plan and methodology use.. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Communicative language teaching “is best described as a broadly based approach”. (Brown, 2014. p31). CLT is an approach which plays an important factor when speaking. It is focused on creating instances where students can develop linguistic oral skills spontaneously through situations (Brown, 2014). This type of approach will let students to experiment a different methodology while learning since students were merely learning contents aiming at succeed on the exams provided by MINEDUC. Therefore, communicative activities were difficult to carry in the class. Nonetheless, this approach can turn classes on an experience where students can experiment and make use of the language taught to communicate ideas to others. 16.

(17) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Another perspective describes that communicative language teaching “is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes learning a language first and foremost for the purpose of communicating with others” (Celce-murcia et al, 1979). In consequence, learning a language can be giving through situations shared with people where language is used according to the context. Larsen- Freeman (2000) explains that language is made to communicate ideas. Hence “language is seen as a social tool which speakers use to make meaning; speakers communicate about something to someone for some purpose” (Berns cited in Sreehari, 2012, p.1).. According to Alam (2013, p. 1), “the basic pedagogical. principle of CLT is that successful acquisition of the target language on the part of learners depends on the amount of interaction and negotiation of meaning that they participate in” This is why, communicative language teaching proposes to take advantage of the interaction produced by members involved with the purpose of maximize the opportunities. Considering what authors stated, communicative language teaching is an approach will lead students to interact, orally in this case, through situations given. The role of the teacher is to “answer students’ questions, and monitoring their performance” (LarsenFreeman, 2000, p.128). Therefore, monitoring the interaction and situations that learners experiment should provide instances where students can develop their speaking skills. The interest or motivation that speakers can have turn to be another key element to develop speaking skills. According to Ur (2007) “learners are eager to speak because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it”. Therefore, the information administrated, and the previous knowledge students have are key factors that drive people 17.

(18) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM using the target language. At the same time, the selection of a topic can also provide stimulus on how participants contribute to an oral interaction. (Ur, 2007). Cooperative Learning As in previous paragraphs, readers have had the opportunity to understand the concepts of speaking and adolescents in context. Nonetheless, in this section it is fundamental to understand that one of the strategies that will exert influence on this research is Cooperative Learning. Regarding to all research shown, it is fundamental to investigate what type of cooperative work can be promoted in this context with the aim of generating an atmosphere where students can develop their oral skills through communicative language activities performed in conjunction with others. As the focus is to develop oral skills by using cooperative strategies, the activities implemented must include group work and interaction. Consequently, intervention will be aim to have interactive purposes, where “language compels to create opportunities for genuine interaction in the classroom” (Brown, 2014, p.55). In this respect, the spaces provided for students must be linked to real and natural situations for them where they can feel comfortable to speak and implement the language within the classroom. From a similar point of view, “cooperative learning refers to a systematic instructional method in which students work together in small groups to accomplish shared learning 18.

(19) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM goals”. (Zhang, 2010, p.1) In this respect, we can state that smalls groups contribute to potentiate work. Johnson & Johnson (1991) refer to “Cooperative learning” to the moment in which “Students work together to accomplish shared goals, students seek outcomes that are beneficial to all. Students discuss material with each other, help one another, understand it and encourage each other to work hard”. The benefits of cooperative learning are multiples. Among those “It emphasizes individual accountability. It places responsibility for action and progress on each of the members of the groups somewhat equally” (Zhang, 2010, p.1). Correspondingly, cooperative learning is a method that can bring contribution on students’ learning process. Douglas Browns refers to this type of dynamic as “group work”, describing that “is a generic term for a variety of techniques in which two or more students are assigned task that involves collaboration and self- initiated language” (Brown, 2014, p. 271). In this regard, he highlights the positive aspect of implementing group work, which is giving more opportunities to interact with others. This idea is followed by the distinction between group work and pair work, pointing to the latter as a technique that “to engage students in interactive (or quasi- interactive) communication for a short period of time” (Brown, 2014, p. 275) As the authors state, cooperative learning is a good alternative to increases the opportunity to develop oral interaction and each other’s’ abilities. In small groups learning can happen naturally and be clarify (Harmer, 2007).. 19.

(20) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. For the reasons mentioned, cooperative learning can lead students to produce oral interaction with others towards topics that can generate spaces in which learners involved can exchange information.. Speaking As I mentioned in the context, I have noticed that students have the necessity of communicate with each other. This is mainly because in each class they are constantly talking and making use of their mother tongue. And more than that, they do not even attempt to use English. An important factor in this research is that I was using Spanish to convey ideas while speaking. Harmer explains that “another cause of mother tongue use can be teachers themselves. If they frequently use the students’ language (whether or not they themselves are native or speakers of the language), then the student will feel comfortable doing it too” (Harmer, 2007, p. 131). In this regard, it is be possible to have students using their mother tongue since I was allowing it by using it. Speaking is one of the two productive skills, and it is linked to receptive skills. Under the light of Harmer (2007), speaking “involves interaction with one or more participants. This means that effective speaking also involves a good deal of listening, and understanding of how other participants are feeling” (Harmer, 2007. p,171) In this regard, we can notice 20.

(21) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM that an interaction includes an input and an output. Celce- Murcia et al. (1979) agreed on Harmer’s vision by mentioning that speaking involves interaction with a speaker and understanding others. In this regard, speaking is a skill which involves receiving and producing ideas understood by and with a person. Usually, foreign speakers use their L1 to express ideas that seems to not be very easy to express. Even more if learners have not been continuously exposed to a foreign language. As I have described in the context, these students have only two hours of English per week, that is to say, a ninety minutes class. Some other students have less than ninety minutes since they arrive late to classes. Learners do not have enough hours of English per week to make use of the language. In this context it is possible to have students who are using their mother tongue. Additionally, I am not denying that students may know about the topics, in fact “if we ask beginners to have a free and fluent discussion about global warming, for example, we are asking them to do something they are linguistically incapable of (…) if they really want to say anything about the topic, is to use their own language” (Harmer, 2007,p.131). Taking into consideration my observations and quoting my journal, I must say “As the class was about Fridah Khalo and Hitler, students could recognized the name of the characters, but they were not able to name personal information about the characters (country, profession, what they did, so on) using English. They only used Spanish to mention ideas.” (September 1st, 2016) As it was evidenced, students were not capable to sustain a. 21.

(22) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM conversation or give opinions regarding the topic but they were indeed competent when recognizing characters. Input- Output As speaking involves interaction with others and exchanging ideas, input and output must come in and out from interaction produced. In this respect, input and output are two concepts that play an important role while learning a language. “Input is simple the process of comprehending language (listening and reading) and output is production (speaking or writing). As well as in our mother tongue, input plays an important role since it defines many components of a language. “Adult input seems to shape the child’s acquisition, and the interaction patterns between child and parent change according to the increasing language skill of the child” (Brown, 2007, p. 48). This idea is applied to the acquisition of a first language or the mother tongue. However, as the focus of this research is the learning of a foreign language, the input is replaced by teachers’ input. In this sense, “input is as important to the second language learner as it is to the first language learners” (Brown, 2007, p.78). Notwithstanding, input is not enough to produce a language since it will depends on the intake that a person has. The intake is “what you take with you over a period of time. 22.

(23) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM and can remember” (Brown, 2007, p.297). As a consequence of this, input must be comprehensive and meaningful to make use of it while speaking or writing.. Strategies Understanding strategies on speaking skills is something important on this research. This is because strategies will lead a path for students understanding and development on oral performance. In this respect, it is important to consider what a strategy is. Under the light of Chamot & O’ Malley (1990), cited in Kremers (2000), strategies are ideas that help people to comprehend new information. In this same line Oxford (1992) cited in Díaz (2011, p.88) claims that “strategies are specific actions, behaviors, steps or techniques that students (often intentionally) use to improve their progress in develop L2 skills”. According to both perspectives, strategies are tools that help students to develop and acquire learning. Another author who represents deeply my personal conception about strategies is Tudor (1996), cited in Méndez (2011, p.3), who says that strategies are defined as “the process by which learners are helped to deepen their understanding of the nature of language learning, and to acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to pursue their learning goals in an informed and self- directive manner” Nonetheless, it is necessary to narrow down into the context researched. This is why, we need to look forward on speaking strategies. Méndez (2011, p.3) describes that speaking strategies “are essential, since they provide foreign language learners with valuable tools to 23.

(24) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM communicate in the target language in diverse situations”. At the same time, these set of strategies “help language learners in negotiating meaning where either linguistic structures or sociolinguistic rules” (Méndez, 2011. P, 3). In this context, speaking strategies will grant opportunities in which students can develop the understanding of language by using it in context. Gathering all research about strategies, it is important to state that under the light of Oxford (2003, p.14) asking questions, talking around, guessing from the context, summarizing and grouping are strategies to develop speaking skills in order to process information received and produce it. As speaking is an act which involves the participation of two or more people, it is necessary to consider social and communicative strategies on learning too. In this same line, Oxford (2003) expresses that asking questions “help the learning work with others and understand the target culture as well as the language”. This is produced by the communication with actors involved. Besides this, Harmer (2007) proposes strategies through a series of activities in order to teach speaking. Among those we can find: a) questionnaires; which is something that can guide students’ performance but also “ensure that both questioner and respondent have something to say to each other” (Harmer, 2007) ; In this respect, any person who is applying a questionnaire has a responsibility and commitment with the people involved while receiving or giving information. Ur (2007) mentions different instances where students can make use of chunks in small groups. Among them we can find: a) Describing pictures, b) Picture differences; and c) solving a problem. This last one is described as “particular and 24.

(25) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM suitable for people who are themselves adolescents, or involved with adolescent education and is intended for fairly advanced learners” (Ur, 2007) This is the reason of why it is important to research and propose activities that may suitable for the context in which I am involved. Furthermore, strategies must be planned when it comes to teach the age group tackled.. Adolescents First of all, it is important to understand the actors involved in this research. As this research is carry out on a 7th graders class, students vary their ages from twelve to fourteen years old. Teachers tend to feel complicated while teaching teens since there is no formula because teens are in constant changes. They “are ultra-sensitive to how others perceive their changing (…) along their mental capabilities” (Brown, 2007. p.120). In this sense, students feel insecure when speaking due to their level of self-esteem (Scrivenner, 2011). As teenagers feel unsure of themselves, embarrassment can take place when facing performances. Besides, students can be judged by peers or teachers involved. This is why it is reasonably to have students that do not attempt to speak in English. To diminish these patterns, teachers must “keep self- esteem high by affirming each learner’s talent and strengths” (Brown, 2014, p.121). Rivlin (1961) says that students have the necessity to prove they are doing well in their performances. As a consequence, learners are constantly validating themselves by what they do or achieve. 25.

(26) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM As a guide for teaching young teenagers, Brown possess that people involve in teaching should “encourage small-group work where risks can be taken more easily” (Brow, 2014, p.121). He also adds that this strategy have to be accompanied by emphasizing cooperative team work.. 26.

(27) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Research Methodology This investigation requires using a variety of sources directed to collect data that will help teachers to validate their practices. All sources have been selected with a purpose since each one of them aims at helping to find out the best way of improving teacher practices and students’ learning process. This is why, teachers as researchers, want to improve their practices. This is why they become self-conscious about possible problems while teaching. Harmer (2007) explains that teachers conduct action research “either because they wish to improve aspects of their teaching, or because they wish to evaluate the success and/or approach of certain activities and procedures”. In this regard, teachers get worried about their teaching process and the possible improvements for all actors involved. Edges (1999) describes that AR is something similar and teachers desires comes from feeling unhappy about their own performance. Both visions are similar since its focus is progress. To generate improvement, teachers must take informed decisions by knowing the consequences of implementing them. Participants This class is a 7th grade which has nine students. There are five girls and four boys. In each group there is native speaker. One that comes from United States and the other one who comes from Canada.. 27.

(28) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Data collection methods As the problem is speaking, I intended to create and find instruments that may reveal what students think and also what is the common situation in the class. Two methods will be used. The first one is a questionnaire and the second one is a behavioral checklist. Questionnaire The first one is a factual questionnaire (Ann Burns, 2010) which is intended to have answers based on their own experiences. This is a mixed questionnaire because it has closed and open questions. The questions used in this instrument will help me to demonstrate: a) how much time they spend using English in the class, b) the reason why they are not speaking in English. This aspect will help me to narrow down my strategies and some possible solutions to help my students use English orally. c) How many of them have instances to speak English out of the classroom, and where those instances are given; this last question will give me the prospect to understand the instances where students can develop their skills or the exposure they have with the language. (see Appendix A) This method will be applied at the beginning of the process with the aim of making students be aware of what they are doing in classes and their weaknesses with the language; but also to have a notion about their own necessities compared to what I see they need. Notwithstanding, it is important to apply the method at the end of the process with the purpose of comparing if there were changes on students’ perception. The second time 28.

(29) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM applied, the questionnaire will have an extra section which will help me to see which aspects of the class contributed on students’ performance (See appendix C). In the last question, students have the possibility to mark more than once choice since there are many factors that may contribute speaking skills. At the same time, and into the same category, there is an option written “others” in which students can write other factors that contributed to speaking. I also remarked that if they did not have noticed any progress in their speaking skill, they can leave all categories without any mark, or write in the “others’ spaces” that they did not noticed any chance in their performance.. Event Checklist Anne Burns explains that this instrument can be applied in a specific period of the class, and it help to “identify how well they relate to a particular of desired, teaching approach” (Burns, 2010, p.65). As I am the only teacher in the class, and I have nine students on it; the checklist will be applied at the end of each class with the aim seeing how my strategies worked during post activities, part of the class in which students have the make use of the language. According to Mckay (2006), observation checklists allow teachers to check whether students are achieving objectives planned. (See appendix B) Regarding to this instrument, observable parameters will be presented according to the indicators created. For the purpose of this research, there are three main categories that were considered. The first three questions deals with the attendance with the purpose of 29.

(30) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM understanding the exposure that students have to the language. . I decided that including this category was fundamental because students should start having classes at 9 o’clock. Nonetheless, some of them tend to arrive late to classes or not attend. In this regard, attendance deals with the idea of being expose to the language, and how much input does a student receive in order to use it in context or to communicate with others. The following three questions deal with the use of the target language in the classroom. I considered fundamental this category since strategies chosen are meant to put the language into practice in conjunction to others with the purpose of developing the factors which exert influence at the moment of speaking. The last three questions deal with the idea of cooperative learning and the interaction made among students during activities. In this respect, it is important to consider the dynamic produced with others since speaking involves the participation and exchange of ideas while being with other. Regarding the instrument, it is important to mention that it includes the name of each student. This is mainly because it is important to me differentiate the answers of those students who have opportunities to express themselves orally out of the school, their perspectives and their own perceptions. The progress of students will be measured every week. Ur (2007) declares that oral performance can be tested by using surveys and responses applied to students.. 30.

(31) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Action Plan Timeline Regarding my interventions, it is necessary to say that they will be made during English lessons. Specifically on the while and post section of the lesson. I have decided to use these two steps of my planning since students need to be exposed to the language during the “WHILE”. In this step, students received input or sources they can use during the last part of the lesson. At the same time, as I want to see some changes during oral performances, I need to focus on the post activities. This last stage is where students produce the language by putting it into practice. At the same time, it is important to mention that this process will take four weeks approximately, and process will be applied on each class by using two weekly observation checklist. The first one will be an event checklist. “This type of checklist gives you an objective picture of the patterns of activities occurring in a classroom and to identify how well they relate to a particular, or desired, teaching approach” (Burns, 2010) and it will be taken at the end of each class. (See appendix B) The second checklist, will vary according to the objective, tasks and activities planned for each class. This instrument is called an “observation checklist”, in which “the observer uses a particular period of time to note the behaviors and tally them” (Burns, 2010). It will be applied while students are working in the different tasks with the aim of seen how they are facing the different situations and dynamics prepared for the classes. As the focus 31.

(32) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM of my research is to provide instances where 7th graders can develop oral interaction in communicative context, I will also include cooperative work, this is because previous lessons students were focused on working by themselves. Individual work was promoted since students have to face free exams. However, as I want to promote interaction among different actors in the classroom, I have to create instances where students can put the language into practice. Therefore, different types of group work must be including in my lesson plans. That is to say: per-per, and small group’s activities. Apart from the instruments I will use to collect data, I want to clarify that my first intervention will be personal. It will be making efforts to use English language in the classroom as much as I can. This with the aim of exposing students to the language and not giving them the chance or freedom to use their mother tongue (Harmer, 2007). Followed by this decision, I will apply the first questionnaire to confirm whether problem seen is perceived by students. Followed by that, classes will include strategies aimed at developing speaking skills. That is to say: visualizing, describing, naming, recalling, information, pair work, among others. After having four sessions where all strategies where implemented, during the fifth class students will receive a questionnaire similar to the first presented with the aim of comparing if strategies generated positive impact on oral production.. 32.

(33) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Action Plan Timeline Month Dates. August 11. 18. September 25. 1. 8. 15. 22. October 29. 6. Observati on Finding literature Planning interventi on Interventi ons Data Collection Analysis of data Analysis of errors and adjustmen ts Reflection. Conclusio n 33. 13. 20. November 27. 3. 10. 17. December 24. 1. 6.

(34) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Data Analysis To begin with, it is important to understand that analysis made will be presented based on quantitative and qualitative perspectives of analysis. As the methods used are checklist and written interviews, both with categories, I will have the possibility to quantify all answers collected. In the same path, the data collected will be interpreted and related to the information gathered due to qualitative research and perspectives obtained while applying the methods. To understand the process of investigation, it is important to remember that during the entire year, students were having classes to accomplish the contents that they must know to face free exams. Some of the contents were coherent with contents proposed by MINEDUC, but some others did not match with it and were isolated. Fortunately, students faced the free exams during the third week of October. After that, teachers were indicated to guide our lessons based on minimum core contents with the purpose of teaching and reinforce what has been already taught. This gave me this possibility to plan lessons around a specific topic, and thereby I could connect lessons instead of having them separated as I planned before free exams. As readers understand the context where all this intervention was made, I could explain how I will proceed with my data analysis. Firstly, I will describe, detail and explain instruments applied before the intervention with its proper results. Later, I will continue showing, and explaining the second instrument used (see appendix 2) and its results. Finally, 34.

(35) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM I will explain the third instrument and its modifications in order to make it comprehensible; followed by its results and interpretation. Before the intervention The first instrument used was an interview completed by students (see appendix 1). This method was written in Spanish in order to make it comprehensible for students and it was applied at the end of a class. The instrument has three main parts. The first question was oriented to know how much time does the students spent using the target language orally into the classroom. The following chart presents the answer gathered by the nine students in the 7th grade 9 8. Plot 1: Amount of time spent using the target language in class. 7. Students. 6. 5 4. 3 2. 1 0 A [1- 18). B [ 18-36). C [37-54). Time (minutes). Figure 1 35. D [ 55-72). E [72-90].

(36) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM As we can see in figure Figure 1, eight students affirmed that they make use of the target language during one to eighteen minutes during classes. This time corresponds to the first category (A). This type of information allows readers to have a notion about how was the class and the time students use to interact. In the Figure 1, there is an answer which may call readers attention. On one hand we have eight students who affirmed speak during one to eighteen minutes. On the contrary, we have one student who affirms to make use of the language during the entire lesson. This is the case of one of our native speakers, who is constantly using his mother tongue (English) to communicate ideas. The second question asked in the same questionnaire was presented with the purpose of dig in the factors that exerted influence on students’ performance with the language. At the same time, it was presented to know the reasons of why learners were not taking advantage of time giving to put the language into practice. This question, allowed me to narrow down my intervention into the strategies that I needed to be focused on in order to provide a class with elements that may help students with their oral performance. In this question, students had the possibility to mark more than one option since there are many factors that may influence their willing to speak.. 36.

(37) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Plot 2: Factors that prevent the use of target language 5 in the clasroom Students. 6. 4. A= Lack of vocabulary. 3. B= Topics are not interesting. 2. C= Afraid of making mistakes. 1 D= I do not like the teacher. 0. E= It is not important for the future F= The sources are boring G= It is difficult H= My classmates are too talkative I= I do not understand the classes. Factors. Others. Figure 2 The Figure 2 exposes that factors which stand out clearly. Among them we can see that five students out of nine, considered that the factor which occurs most frequently while speaking is the lack of vocabulary; followed by the fear of making mistakes. Considering the second factor that influences student’s performances, being afraid is something normal at this age. Furthermore, there is a third factor which a high level of predominance. Four students voted for this category, which is linked to the idea of not understanding classes. Red bar indicates that students are not understanding.. 37.

(38) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM On the other hand, none students marked categories D, E or F; which deals with sources used, the dislike of the English teacher and the importance for the future The third question in this interview was aimed at finding if students were exposed to English in other instances. The following diagram shows students’ answer.. PLOT 3: DO YOU HAVE ORAL INSTANCES TO USE ENGLISH OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM?. 33% Yes No 67%. Figure 3 Inferring Figure 3, we could state that two thirds of the class, does not have any moment to develop speaking skills outside the classroom. According to the Figure 3, there is one third of the class who have chances to develop their speaking skills. Into the 33%, the two native speakers are considered and one student who develops its speaking occasionally in other instances out of the classroom. On the other hand, there are 66% of. 38.

(39) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM the population interviewed that does not have chances to make use of the language out of the classroom. In this regard, the first written interview helped me to: a) understand the amount of time distributed to speak, b) reasons of why students were not using the target language during oral activities and c) the exposure to practice the language with others in or out of the classroom. All of them oriented me to understand that activities, the topic selected and strategies implemented in my interventions are crucial to make my students speak in the class.. While interventions My interventions lasted four classes. As free exams were taken, I had the opportunity to work around a unit in which I could implement different strategies to know how students were dealing with them during the activities. The unit was “green issues” and we covered ideas from: global warming to recycle methods. Consequently, all vocabulary taught was aimed to a topic and a context; aspect that was not considered before my interventions since students were learning a set of contents to pass their free exams. In the interventions made, I incorporated aspects extracted from answers gathered through question number two (see appendix 1). Answers collected helped to incorporate vocabulary that students said they need. In this regard, ideas and vocabulary was worked. 39.

(40) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM towards a unit, alongside to strategies in which students may feel comfortable to participate and work with others without feeling afraid of speaking. For each class, I used a checklist. This instrument used is an event checklist (Burns, 2011) since it is applied on a specific time of the class. For the purpose of this research, I decided to apply the checklist at the end of every class with the aim of remembering how the interaction was promoted in the class and how students were dealing with the language. This instrument (see appendix 2) was integrated by nine statements. The statements were organized into three main sections. The first section was center on attendance, having the following descriptors: Student arrive on time, student arrive late, and student is absent. The following chart expresses the attendance that 7th grade had during the period of time in which I applied my interventions.. 40.

(41) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Plot 4: Attendance during intervention 7 6. Students. 5 4 late. 3. absent 2 1 0 October 13th. October 20th. October 27th. November 3rd. Dates and criteria. Figure 4 Attendance of students from 7th grade during interventions Analyzing the Figure 4 Attendance of students from 7th grade during , we can state that the green bar, which represents absents of students to classes, increased while I was applying my intervention. As it can be seen in the blue bar, we can see that there are always people arriving late to classes. During first intervention, five out of eight students arrived late. In the second intervention, six members of a total of seven arrived late to classes. In the third instance, four out of six attended late to classes. In the final intervention, two out of five students arrived late to classes.. 41.

(42) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Finally, if we consider the red bar, which reflects how many students arrive on time, we can observe that there are few students who are in classes at 9 o’clock. However, during the three lasts intervention, the red bar increases. During the first intervention, there were three students who arrived on time. In the second intervention, there was solely one student who arrived on time. The next class, there were two students out of six who arrived time. And for the final intervention, there were three students out of a total of five who arrived on time. The second section of the event checklist (See appendix 2) is composed by questions that are related to the use of the target language while speaking activities. The section is integrated by three criteria, and the questions vary from greetings, to implementing the vocabulary taught in classes during oral performances. The following chart shows criteria and the results observed to the use of English during speaking activities.. 42.

(43) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Plot 5: Use of target language while speaking in classes 6. Students. 5 4 3 2 1 0 October 13th. October 20th. October 27th. November 3rd. Dates - Use of target language Greetings. Questions using the target language. Using vocabulary taught in classes. Figure 5 According to the Figure 5, the first column, with blue color, represents the amount of students who were able to say greetings while coming in or out of the classroom. Seeing the graphics, we can state that in the first class there were five out of nine students who were able to make use of the language to say greetings. Nonetheless, this is not the entire class If we concentrate on the orange bar, we will see that it corresponds to questions made for students by using the target language. Seeing these bars we can see that the numbers vary through interventions. In the first interventions, three out of eight students asked questions. During the second intervention, three out of eight students asked questions using the target language. In the following class, four out of a total of six people who attended to the class, were capable of make use of the target language to ask questions. During the last intervention, two out of five students were making questions during post activities. 43.

(44) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM The third aspect observed in after four intervention was linked to the use of vocabulary taught in classes. In this respect, students have to make use of the chunks and words taught. Seeing Figure 5, and if we pay attention to gray bars, we will notice that there is an increment of numbers. In the first class, one single students out of eight who were present in the class, were making use of the chunks and vocabulary taught. During the second intervention, five out of seven students who attended to the class were able to make use of the chunks and vocabulary taught during the post activities. In the third intervention, five out of a total of six students who were present in the class were making us of the vocabulary and chunks taught while performing post activities. For the final and last intervention, four out of five students put the chunks and vocabulary taught in practice while performing the language orally during the post activities. And if we take into consideration the attendance presented during the interventions (see Figure 4 Attendance of students from 7th grade during interventions), we will notice that in the first intervention, one student out of the nine who attended to the class was capable of using language taught during post activities. During the second intervention, five out of seven students who attended to the class were capable of using chunks and vocabulary taught in the class. In the third intervention, five out of six students who arrived to the class were capable of use vocabulary taught during the post activities. For the final intervention, four out of five students who were present in the class could put into practice the vocabulary taught during post activities. 44.

(45) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM A third area important to bear in mind while speaking the language, is the interaction promoted in groups. As well as Brown (2014) says, pair work and group are opportunities to communicate with others. In this sense, Brown interprets my conception about speaking and the need of producing language with others. Taking that into consideration this, I think it is fundamental to consider the interaction promoted in groups while applying the strategies. The following chart describes the interaction produce while working in groups (blue bar), the interaction and use of the target language while working in groups (red bar) and the dynamic produce while working towards a task (blue light bar).. Plot 6: Interaction promoted while group working 6. Students. 5. 4 3 2 1 0 October 13th. October 20th. October 27th. November 3rd. Dates- Interaction Work in groups. Using target language while working in groups. Figure 6. 45. Works towards a task.

(46) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Interpreting the Figure 6 and taking into consideration Figure 4 Attendance of students from 7th grade during interventions, we will see that the blue bar has changed while intervening. In the first session, four out of eight students are capable or working in groups. During the second intervention, on October 20th, three out of seven students who were present in the class could work in groups. In the third intervention, five out of six students were capable of working in group. In this respect, most of the class was capable of working in groups. The student who did not work in group is the same student who refused to work because she declared to know anything. For this occasion, one of the native speakers helped her with the task in order to lead her learning. In the last intervention, four out of five students who attended to the class were working in group. One of them did not want to work in group during post activity. Regarding to the red bar, which corresponds to the use of target language during activities, it is important to notice that increments while applying interventions. During the first intervention, there were two members out of a group or eight who were making use of the target language while facing post activities. In the second intervention, two learners out of seven were making use of the target language while facing post activities. For the third intervention, five out of six students who attended to the class, were using the target language while facing post activities. During the last intervention, the entire class was making use of the target language while performing activities during post session. A third category that was considered while performing activities during post part of the class was if students were working towards a task cooperatively. During the first day of 46.

(47) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM intervention, five out of eight students were capable of working with someone else during post part of the class. For the second intervention, four out of a total of seven students who attended to the class were capable of working with another classmate. In the third intervention, five out of six students were capable of working with another person. During last intervention, the entire class was working with someone else to accomplish the task.. After my interventions After having four classes where all strategies were applied; students were able to speak using the target language; I decided to apply the same questionnaire used before intervening with the purpose of comparing the vision students perceived at the beginning of the intervention versus what they did after interventions. The questionnaire was written in Spanish and applied at the end of the class. However, for this particular time, I added an extra category (see appendix 3) to know which aspects helped students to improve their speaking skills in the case they perceived any change in their own performance and in the class. Consequently, the fourth category (the one I added) exposes different answers to be ticked, such as: the activities, the environment, the vocabulary, teachers’ support, timing, I was not embarrassed anymore, and others. The category “others” was an open answer with the aim of receiving other aspects that may contribute to students’ performance. At the same time, it was a space where students. 47.

(48) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM could write if there was not any aspect that contributed to the development of this particular skill. When I applied this interview, only six students attended to the class and answered the questionnaire, and three students were not present in the class. Therefore, the answers are based on the responses of some students, and not the entire classroom The following chart shows the results obtained in first part of the last questionnaire applied.. Plot 7: Amount of time spent using the target language in the classroom. No answers 33%. A [1- 18) 22%. A [1- 18) B [ 18-36) C [37-54) D [ 55-72). D [ 55-72) 0% E [72-90] 0% C [37-54) 0%. E [72-90] B [ 18-36) 45%. No answers. Figure 7 The Figure 7 demonstrate that there are 22% of the students who confirm to make use of the target language during 1 to 18 minutes while speaking in the class. At the same time, there are 45% of the population interviewed who state that uses the target language during 48.

(49) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM 18 to 36 minutes in the class while speaking. Furthermore, this interview was not completed by all learners because there are 33% of the 7th grade who did not answer the interview. The second question applied for the second time was lead to dig in the factors that prevented the use of oral language while being in the classroom. In this respect, the questionnaire gave the possibility to receive more than one answer since students may perceive that there are different factors that exert influence while trying to speak with others. The following figure presents the answers of the students and the factors that have an influence while trying to make use of the language during oral activities.. Students. Plot 8: Factors that prevent the use of the target language in the class 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0. A= Lack of vocabulary B= Topics are not interesting C= Afraid of making mistakes D= I do not like the teacher E= It is not important for the future F= The sources are boring G= IT is too difficult H= My classmates are too talkatives. I= I do not understand the classes Other reasons. Factors. Figure 8. 49.

(50) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Understanding that this questionnaire was answered by six out of nine students who integrate the 7th grade at Instituto Agape; it can be said that in the Figure 8, the yellow bar corresponds to the idea of “lack of vocabulary”. In this respect, two out of six students who attended to the class answered that one of the reasons of why they are not speaking is because they lack of vocabulary. At the same time, three out of six students who answered the questionnaire stated that they are afraid of making mistakes while using the target language. Also, one out of six students considered that make use of the target language through oral performances is difficult. Additionally, one student out of six who responded this final questionnaire mentioned that students at 7th grade are too talkative.. The third question which was integrated to the questionnaire was related to know if students have instances where they can make use of the language while being out of the classroom. In this part, students have the option to answer yes or no. The following chart show the answer of the six students who were present while applying the questionnaire.. 50.

(51) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Plot 9: Do you have instances to make use of the target language out of the classroom?. 50%. 50%. Sí. No. Figure 9 The Figure 9 shows that half of the class is having instances to make use of the English out of the classroom. In this respect, the other half is not having opportunities to put the language into practice while being outside of the classroom. In this figure, it is important to remember that the total amount of students interviewed were six. Therefore three of them are making use of the English while being out of the classroom.. The final question is one I added to the questionnaire in order to receive the perspective of students about which factors helped them to make use of the target language. This question was integrated with the purpose of knowing if students noticed that they were making advances while speaking. Also to know which aspect contributed to develop their performance. 51.

(52) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM In this question, students had the possibility to mark more than one option since there are many factors that students may considered as important when it comes to notice their progress on speaking performance. At the same time, if students considered that there were other important factors when developing speaking skill during the interventions made; they had the possibility to add another factor by writing it on the space “Others” (See question 4, appendix 3). The following chart demonstrate the answer of the six students who attended the class that the questionnaire was applied.. Students. Plot 10: Factors that contributed to develop speaking skill 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1.- Las 2.- El actividades vocabulario. 3.- El 4.- El 5.- El apoyo 6.- Ya no tiempo ambiente de la tenía entregado profesora vergüenza de hablar. 7.- Otras. Factors Figure 10. To understand the Figure 10, it is important to bear in mind that this last questionnaire was answered by six students and not the entire class. If we observe the figure, we will perceive that there are different factors that contributed to develop the oral performance of 52.

(53) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM students. In first instance, we can notice that the entire class agreed that activities presented contributed to develop oral performance. The previous result is followed by the yellow and grey bar, which are referred to the vocabulary presented and the support given by the teacher. In this last result, four students out of six marked that both factors exerted influence when developing oral performance. The fourth factor with higher result corresponds to the blue bar. This factors belongs to the time provided to speak. Correspondingly, in this result three out of six students confirmed that this was a factor which influenced the development of speaking skill. Regarding the red bar, two out of six students affirmed that the environment was a factor that helped to improve oral skills. Finally, in relation to the purple bar, only one student out of six who completed the questionnaire voted that he/she did not feel embarrassed when making use of the target language during oral performances.. 53.

(54) SPEAKING STRATEGIES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM. Reflection and Analysis of intervention In the current section, the reader will have the chance to understand and go deeper on understanding and analysis of data exposed. It also could have the opportunity to relate concepts mentioned in the literature review in order to understand the question that guided this research. To do so, it is important to dig in the figures exposed, but also to consider the sequence of steps in with the intervention were made. This is why this part of the research, will be developed according to the decisions made, and based on the order in which this investigation was carried out.. Before interventions Firstly, it is crucial to recall that the first instrument used (see appendix 1) was a questionnaire answered by the students. This was applied with the aim of seeing if students perceived the problem I noticed. To do so, I distributed the instrument into three sections. The first one linked to ask the amount of time that students considered they spent to make use of the target language when attempted to speak in English. The second one, focused on knowing the factors that prevented students to make use of the oral target language during lessons. And the third aspect was included in order to know if 7th graders had opportunities to make use of the target language while being outside of the classroom. 54.

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