Conservation and biodiversity

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Conservation and




Number of species (plants,

animals and microorganisms) that

live in a specific place

Between 7 and 30 million of

species (the majority are insects)

Mega diverse countries: endemic


Biodiversity and taxonomy



 Branch of biology that establishes the

characteristics to classify organisms

 Determine the similarities that

organisms have so they can be grouped, according to their evolutionary process and give a scientific name

Similarities: morphology, embryology,

fossil registry and chemical composition


Levels of classification

 Linnaeus

 Hierarchy classification and binary nomenclature

(genus + species)

 Taxonomic level: categories that belong to a


Levels of classification

1. Domain: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

2. Kingdom: Monera, Protist, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

3. Phylum or division

4. Class

5. Order

6. Family

7. Genus


Binary nomenclature

 Depending on the place, the name of species can change

(common name)

 “Universal name” Latin (scientific name)

Name in Latin

 Italics

 2 words: genus (capital letter) + species (lowercase)


 Tomato, jitomate, tomate…


HW 1


Kingdom Type of cell organizationCell Nutrition Cell Wall Locomotion

Monera Prokaryotic Unicellular HeterotrophsAutotrophs / Yes Cillia and flagella

Protist Eukaryotic Unicellular / Multicellular HeterotrophsAutotrophs / Yes / No Cillia, flagella and ameboids

Fungi Eukaryotic Unicellular / Multicellular Heterotrophs Yes No

Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophs Yes No



 Acellular organisms

 Borders between living and non – living: active biological particles  Obligated intracellular parasites (Need a cell to replicate)


Comparison between cells and viruses

Characteristics Cell Virus

Growth, metabolism,

respiration Yes No

Nucleic acids DNA and RNA DNA or RNA

Enzymes Several Maximum 2

Cristalization No Yes


Morphologic characteristics

 A DNA or RNA molecule

 Nucleo - capsid: made of


 Capsid: External cover

1 or 2 enzymes

 Bacteria, plants, animals,


Infection process

Adsorption: union between the virus and the cell surface

Penetration: breaking trough the cell membrane

Injection: nucleic acid gets inside the cell

 Replication: 2 ways lytic cycle or lysogenic cycle

Lytic cycle: DNA uses the metabolic machines of the cell to reproduce the virus Lysogenic cycle: Viral DNA gets attached to cell DNA (New cells will have viral DNA)

 Release of the virus: viral copies that will infect other cells



 Smaller than viruses

Infectious proteins without DNAHeat and UV resistant

Mad cow disease


Monera kingdom

 Prokaryotic organisms

 Single cellular organisms

 Cillia for movement


Monera kingdom


 Sperical (cocci): Round

 Rod shaped (Bacilli): Long shapes


Monera kingdom

Eating habits:

Heterotrophic bacteria:

 Parasites (Host)

 Saprophytic (Decomposers)

Autotrophic bacteria:


Monera kingdom


 Binary fission


Monera kingdom


 Gram positive (Streptococcus)


Protista kingdom

Eukaryote that is not an animal, a plant of a


3 categories:

Animal – like protist: Heterotrophs but single celled

Plantlike protist: Do photosynthesis but they don’t have plant structures, single celled or multicelular


Animal like protist


 Main difference: Animals are


Movement in different ways

 Protozoa with flagella

 Protozoa with pseudopods


Plantlike protist


 Main difference: Plants are multicelular

 Mainly live in water and do



Funguslike protist


 Important for the ecosystems: carbon

and nitrogen cycles

 Slime molds: Dead leaves or logs

 Water molds: Present in fresh water,


Fungi kingdom


They are everywhere

 3 groups:

Single-celled yeast

 Molds

 True fungi

Differences with plants: Heterotrophs and


Fungi kingdom


 Primitive fungi: Live in water and have


 Sac fungi: Form a sac that contains spores

 Bread molds: Simbiotic relationships like


 Club fungi: fruiting bodies shaped like


Fungi kingdom


 Fungi as decomposers: returns carbon,

nitrogen and minerals back to the soil

 Fungi as pathogens: can cause diseases in

animals – including humans - and plants

 Fungi as mutualists: Simbiosis with orther


Plantae kingdom

Multicellular eukaryotes, most live in

land and do photosynthesis

 Common characteristics with algae:

 Photosynthesis

Same chlorophyll

 Store starch


Plantae kingdom

Adaptations for life on land

 Retain moisture: Surface covered with

cuticle (waxlike waterproof layer)

 Transport resources: Vascular system

 Growing upright: Plant has to support its

own weight. Lignin makes stems stiff and Wood hard


Plant classification

Nonvascular plants

Mosses: Don’t have true leaves and have rhizoids

Hornworts: Tropical plants, structures that produce spores look like horns


Plant classification

Seedless vascular plants

 Club mosses (Lycophyta): Oldest

living group of vascular plants

 Ferns (Pterophyta): Mostly tropical


Plant classification

Plants with seeds

 Gymnosperms: Seeds are not inside a fruit


 Ginko


 Angiosperms: Seeds are cover in some type of

fruit. Flowers are the reproductive structure and fruits are the mature ovary of a flower



Fuction of seeds

Advantages of having seeds:

Can reproduce without water

 Seeds nourish and protect the embryo

 Seeds allow plants to disperse


Animalia kingdom

Most physically diverse kingdom

Multicellular heterotrophs

Cells supported by collagen

Diploid and reproduce sexually


Animal diversity

Vertebrates: internal segmented


Invertebrates: No backbones

Different criteria for classification:

 Body plan symmetry

 Tissue layers


Sponges and cnidarians

 The most primitive animals on Earth

Sponge characteristics:

 No muscle or nerve cells

 Sessile

 Sexual and asexual reproduction

Filter feeders

Cnidarian characteristics:

Simple muscles and nerves  Polyps and medusas


Flatworms, mollusks and annelids


No stomachs or lungs

Flat and thin; no circulatory system

Oxygen through diffusion

Three classes:


Flatworms, mollusks and annelids


Complete digestive tract


Three classes:


Flatworms, mollusks and annelids


Segmented bodies

Coelom: fluid-filled space that works as

a type of skeleton

Sexual and asexual reproduction



Also called nematodes

Cuticle of chitin




Radial symmetry

Ossicles – internal skeleton

Vascular system of water



Exoskeleton of chitin




Trilobites, crustaceans, chelicerates,



Chordates with 4 characteristics:


Hollow nerve cord

Pharyngeal slits


Seven classes:

jawless fishes, fishes

with cartilage, fishes with bones,



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