Conservation and biodiversity

Texto completo

(1)

Conservation and

biodiversity

(2)

Biodiversity

Number of species (plants,

animals and microorganisms) that

live in a specific place

Between 7 and 30 million of

species (the majority are insects)

Mega diverse countries: endemic

(3)

Biodiversity and taxonomy

(4)

Taxonomy

 Branch of biology that establishes the

characteristics to classify organisms

 Determine the similarities that

organisms have so they can be grouped, according to their evolutionary process and give a scientific name

Similarities: morphology, embryology,

fossil registry and chemical composition

(5)

Levels of classification

 Linnaeus

 Hierarchy classification and binary nomenclature

(genus + species)

 Taxonomic level: categories that belong to a

(6)

Levels of classification

1. Domain: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

2. Kingdom: Monera, Protist, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

3. Phylum or division

4. Class

5. Order

6. Family

7. Genus

(7)
(8)

Binary nomenclature

 Depending on the place, the name of species can change

(common name)

 “Universal name” Latin (scientific name)

Name in Latin

 Italics

 2 words: genus (capital letter) + species (lowercase)

(9)

 Tomato, jitomate, tomate…

(10)

HW 1

(11)

Kingdom Type of cell organizationCell Nutrition Cell Wall Locomotion

Monera Prokaryotic Unicellular HeterotrophsAutotrophs / Yes Cillia and flagella

Protist Eukaryotic Unicellular / Multicellular HeterotrophsAutotrophs / Yes / No Cillia, flagella and ameboids

Fungi Eukaryotic Unicellular / Multicellular Heterotrophs Yes No

Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophs Yes No

(12)

Virus

 Acellular organisms

 Borders between living and non – living: active biological particles  Obligated intracellular parasites (Need a cell to replicate)

(13)

Comparison between cells and viruses

Characteristics Cell Virus

Growth, metabolism,

respiration Yes No

Nucleic acids DNA and RNA DNA or RNA

Enzymes Several Maximum 2

Cristalization No Yes

(14)

Morphologic characteristics

 A DNA or RNA molecule

 Nucleo - capsid: made of

proteins

 Capsid: External cover

1 or 2 enzymes

 Bacteria, plants, animals,

(15)

Infection process

Adsorption: union between the virus and the cell surface

Penetration: breaking trough the cell membrane

Injection: nucleic acid gets inside the cell

 Replication: 2 ways lytic cycle or lysogenic cycle

Lytic cycle: DNA uses the metabolic machines of the cell to reproduce the virus Lysogenic cycle: Viral DNA gets attached to cell DNA (New cells will have viral DNA)

 Release of the virus: viral copies that will infect other cells

(16)

Prions

 Smaller than viruses

Infectious proteins without DNAHeat and UV resistant

Mad cow disease

(17)

Monera kingdom

 Prokaryotic organisms

 Single cellular organisms

 Cillia for movement

(18)
(19)

Monera kingdom

Shapes:

 Sperical (cocci): Round

 Rod shaped (Bacilli): Long shapes

(20)

Monera kingdom

Eating habits:

Heterotrophic bacteria:

 Parasites (Host)

 Saprophytic (Decomposers)

Autotrophic bacteria:

(21)

Monera kingdom

Reproduction:

 Binary fission

(22)

Monera kingdom

Classification:

 Gram positive (Streptococcus)

(23)

Protista kingdom

Eukaryote that is not an animal, a plant of a

fungus

3 categories:

Animal – like protist: Heterotrophs but single celled

Plantlike protist: Do photosynthesis but they don’t have plant structures, single celled or multicelular

(24)

Animal like protist

Protozoa

 Main difference: Animals are

multicellular

Movement in different ways

 Protozoa with flagella

 Protozoa with pseudopods

(25)

Plantlike protist

Algae

 Main difference: Plants are multicelular

 Mainly live in water and do

photosynthesis

(26)

Funguslike protist

Decomposers

 Important for the ecosystems: carbon

and nitrogen cycles

 Slime molds: Dead leaves or logs

 Water molds: Present in fresh water,

(27)

Fungi kingdom

Decomposers

They are everywhere

 3 groups:

Single-celled yeast

 Molds

 True fungi

Differences with plants: Heterotrophs and

(28)

Fungi kingdom

Classification:

 Primitive fungi: Live in water and have

spores

 Sac fungi: Form a sac that contains spores

 Bread molds: Simbiotic relationships like

mycorrhizae

 Club fungi: fruiting bodies shaped like

(29)
(30)

Fungi kingdom

Ecology:

 Fungi as decomposers: returns carbon,

nitrogen and minerals back to the soil

 Fungi as pathogens: can cause diseases in

animals – including humans - and plants

 Fungi as mutualists: Simbiosis with orther

(31)

Plantae kingdom

Multicellular eukaryotes, most live in

land and do photosynthesis

 Common characteristics with algae:

 Photosynthesis

Same chlorophyll

 Store starch

(32)

Plantae kingdom

Adaptations for life on land

 Retain moisture: Surface covered with

cuticle (waxlike waterproof layer)

 Transport resources: Vascular system

 Growing upright: Plant has to support its

own weight. Lignin makes stems stiff and Wood hard

(33)
(34)

Plant classification

Nonvascular plants

Mosses: Don’t have true leaves and have rhizoids

Hornworts: Tropical plants, structures that produce spores look like horns

(35)

Plant classification

Seedless vascular plants

 Club mosses (Lycophyta): Oldest

living group of vascular plants

 Ferns (Pterophyta): Mostly tropical

(36)

Plant classification

Plants with seeds

 Gymnosperms: Seeds are not inside a fruit

Cycads

 Ginko

Conifers

 Angiosperms: Seeds are cover in some type of

fruit. Flowers are the reproductive structure and fruits are the mature ovary of a flower

Monocotyledon

(37)

Fuction of seeds

Advantages of having seeds:

Can reproduce without water

 Seeds nourish and protect the embryo

 Seeds allow plants to disperse

(38)

Animalia kingdom

Most physically diverse kingdom

Multicellular heterotrophs

Cells supported by collagen

Diploid and reproduce sexually

(39)

Animal diversity

Vertebrates: internal segmented

backbone

Invertebrates: No backbones

Different criteria for classification:

 Body plan symmetry

 Tissue layers

(40)
(41)

Sponges and cnidarians

 The most primitive animals on Earth

Sponge characteristics:

 No muscle or nerve cells

 Sessile

 Sexual and asexual reproduction

Filter feeders

Cnidarian characteristics:

Simple muscles and nerves  Polyps and medusas

(42)

Flatworms, mollusks and annelids

FLATWORMS

No stomachs or lungs

Flat and thin; no circulatory system

Oxygen through diffusion

Three classes:

(43)

Flatworms, mollusks and annelids

MOLLUSKS

Complete digestive tract

Hemocoel

Three classes:

(44)

Flatworms, mollusks and annelids

ANNELIDS

Segmented bodies

Coelom: fluid-filled space that works as

a type of skeleton

Sexual and asexual reproduction

(45)

Roundworms

Also called nematodes

Cuticle of chitin

Pseudocoelom

(46)

Echinoderms

Radial symmetry

Ossicles – internal skeleton

Vascular system of water

(47)

Arthropods

Exoskeleton of chitin

Invertebrates

Appendage

Segmentation

Trilobites, crustaceans, chelicerates,

(48)

Vertebrates

Chordates with 4 characteristics:

Notochord

Hollow nerve cord

Pharyngeal slits

Tail

Seven classes:

jawless fishes, fishes

with cartilage, fishes with bones,

Figure

Actualización...

Related subjects :