Chapter II Step by Step of Research, 2018 ppt

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STATISTICS & RESEARCH

METHODS

How to write the title of the

RESEARCH PROJECT?

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The title should be clear and

precise statement, also should be

as short as possible (10 to 12

words is ideal). The title answers

by itself the following questions:

what?

,

how?

,

where?

, and

when?

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What?

It is regarding to the variables

(Dependent and independents) under study.

How?

It refers to the research design to be

used according to the focus of the

investigation.

Where?

It is regarding to the case of study

When?

This means, when the research will

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The Role of Human

Resources Development in

Efficient Performance of

Private Institutions.

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The Role of Human

Resources Development on

the Performance of Private

Institutions in Rwanda.

Case of Study: Petrocom Ltd. 2013

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EVALUATING OF ELECTRONIC

BANKING FUNCTIONALITY ON

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

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IMPACT OF

ELECTRONIC BANKING

FUNCTIONALITY ON CUSTOMER

SATISFACTION

IN COMMERCIAL

BANKS IN RWANDA

CASE OF STUDY: BK.

Remera Branch

, 2013

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INTERNAL AUDIT PRACTICES AS

A TOOL FOR EFFECTIVE

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF

PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN

RWANDA

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THE ROLE

OF INTERNAL AUDIT

PRACTICES

ON THE

PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC

INSTITUTIONS IN RWANDA

Case of study: GASABO DISTRICT. 2017

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The introduction should be written in

half page, It means, at least 8 lines.

The introduction should be clear

and precise, where anyone can read

explicitly the answers to the

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Why?

Explain briefly, the importance of the topic that

encourage you to consider as a topic to research

What?

Write about the variables and what is your

expectation about the topic to address.

Where?

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The candidate explains the background of the

study that gives the

history and the factors

that

led to the issues being investigated.

It cites

situations or statements of authorities in

support

of

the choice for the study. The student

points out that the study is on/about a

special

problem different from other problems.

The

interplay of identified variables that may cause a

process to take place is discussed. The

background of the study may be viewed as a

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The candidate explains the background of the study

that gives the

history and the factors

that led to the

issues being investigated.

It cites

situations or

statements of authorities in support of

the choice

for the study. The student points out that the study is

on/about a

special problem different from other

problems

.

The interplay of identified variables that

may cause a process to take place is discussed.

The background of the study may be viewed as a

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The candidate explains the background of the study

that gives the

history and the factors

that led to the

issues being investigated.

It cites

situations or

statements of authorities in support of

the choice

for the study. The student points out that the study is

on/about a

special problem different from other

problems

.

The interplay of identified variables that

may cause a process to take place is discussed.

The background of the study may be viewed as a

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Background of the study

This segment consists of statements on what led the investigator to launch the study. A historical background may be given. Situations that may have spurred the researcher to undertake the study are included. The background of the study may have been generated by some empirical observations, the need to explore the problem and some other relevant conditions.

Begin this section with a clear description of the background of the study and the social, institutional context which will frame the project. Be careful to describe as clearly as possible the problem intended to be addressed and refer to the relevant literature in the field.

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Statement of the Problem

Research Manual (2012), the

stated research problem

that the candidate is about to investigate must relate to

his interest, academic background and training

.

It is

expected to yield findings that will provide him information

useful in the area of the research.

In the choice of the

research

topic,

originality,

relevance

and

responsiveness to contemporary problems, and issues

must be considered.

The problem may be about the

relationship among

variables or the differences

among groups which the

study aims to establish. It may also be

about finding out

the extent of such relationship or difference

.

When

stating the problem, the candidate should specify what he

is trying to find out or discover.

Examples:

In this study, the author intends to find evidence that eating habits

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“This study intends to give evidence that the theory explaining

that photosynthesis takes place in the presence of light is true”

“ This investigation seeks to find out the root causes of ethnic

conflicts in the Great Lakes region.”

As the title of this section shows, the statement (and not

statements) of the problem must only be one. Therefore, it must be

clearly, adequately and precisely stated. Also, as stated above,

when necessary, somewhere in this section the choice key words

in the title are explained.

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Research Questions

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There are two types of research questions:

Descriptive research questions .merely describe or summarize data, without trying to generalize to a larger population of individuals, and are hypothesis-free.

Inferential research questions are either difference research questions

or associational research questions. The difference research questions compare scores (on the dependent variable) of two or more different groups, each of which is composed of individuals with one of the values or levels on the independent variable. This type of question attempts to demonstrate that groups are not the same on the dependent variable. The associational research questions relate two or more variables. This approach involves an attempt to see how two or more variables co-vary (e.g., higher values on one variable correspond to higher, or lower, values on another variable for the same persons) or how one or more variables enables one to predict another variable.

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THE ROLE OF

ELECTRONING BANKING

ON

EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY

IN RWANDAN

COMMERCIAL BANKS.

Case of study: ECOBANK HEAD QUARTER

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THE ROLE OF ELECTRONING BANKING ON EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY IN RWANDAN COMMERCIAL BANKS.

Case of study: ECOBANK HEAD QUARTER

Research Questions

1.What are the perceptions of Ecobank Clients

regarding to the use of

electronic banking

in

Rwanda

?

2.What are the perceptions of Ecobank Clients

on the

effective service delivery

of their bank?

3.Is there relationship between

electronic

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THE ROLE OF ELECTRONING BANKING ON EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY IN RWANDAN COMMERCIAL BANKS.

Case of study: ECOBANK HEAD QUARTER

Objectives of the Research

1. Determine the perceptions of Ecobank Clients

about the use of

electronic banking

in Rwanda.

2. Evaluate the perceptions of the Ecobank Clients

on

effective service delivery

of their bank.

3. Measure the relationship between

electronic

banking

and

effective service delivery

in

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Hypothesis

The “Hypothesis” states the relationship between/among variables or the difference between/among groups and this relationship/difference, stated in null form, must be tested statistically to find answers to the stated research problem. It indicates what data the candidate must gather. The hypothesis is accepted or rejected depending on the results of the statistical tests. All inferential research questions (or

objectives) require null hypotheses to be stated.

The hypothesis in chapter I is the theoretical hypothesis or hypothesis of study. It must be written in positive declarative sentences. Examples:

The use of Electronic Banking plays a significant role on the Effective Service Delivery in Ecobank head quarter in Rwanda

The hypotheses in chapter IV, in this section we will state the statistical hypotheses, they are: Ho (null hypothesis), and Ha (Alternative Hypothesis). The statistical testing is based on Ho, which is stated in negative form. Testing a hypothesis means reject or accept Ho. Example:

Ho: The use of Electronic Banking does not play a significant role on the Effective Service Delivery in Ecobank head quarter in Rwanda

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A good hypothesis has several basic

characteristics

:

It should be reasonable,

It should be consistent with available facts and

theory, i.e, it must be consistent with results

established from previous research;

It should be testable. You should be able to

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THE ROLE OF ELECTRONING BANKING ON

EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY IN RWANDAN

COMMERCIAL BANKS.

Case of study: ECOBANK HEAD QUARTER

Hypothesis

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

A discussion of the significance of a study typically includes an explanation of the work's significance, its potential benefits and its overall impact. The significance of a study attempts to explain to an audience why a researcher's work is worth performing.

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Justification (or Rational) of the Study

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QUALITY OF SERVICE PROVISION AND ITS EFFECT ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. CASE STUDY: BANK OF KIGALI

AND COGEBANQUE HEADQUARTERS, 2013

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Although a conceptual framework may not always be required

in a research proposal, no economic research should start

without developing one.

There is more misunderstanding and confusion about the

conceptual framework than any other part of a research

proposal (or project).

What is it?

What is the purpose?

How is it approached?

It is an integral part of understanding and analyzing the

research problem

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A clear statement of the research problem often does

not occur until the conceptual framework is

developed.

It should be considered “complementary” to the

problem description, statement of objectives, and

literature review, rather than a “fourth step”.

The reasoning in the conceptual framework runs

through the whole proposal.

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The conceptual framework is often neglected,

or done hastily and inadequately

Reasons for this might be that it requires

complex reasoning and abilities

Abstract reasoning

Recognition and synthesis of central points

Knowledge of existing relevant theory

Understanding the details of a problem and the

surrounding issues

It is hard work and often frustrating

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Another reason the conceptual framework is

overlooked is that researchers often want to

get on with “real research” instead of

“theorizing” (especially in subject-matter and

problem-solving research)

However, failure to conceptualize while

planning

, may actually slow down the research,

or can lead to fatal errors in design, procedures

or interpretation.

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Definition of Conceptual framework

• A conceptual framework represents the researcher’s synthesis of

literature on how to explain a phenomenon. It maps out the

actions required in the course of the study given his previous

knowledge of other researchers’ point of view and his

observations on the subject of research.

• In other words, the conceptual framework is the researcher’s

understanding of how the particular variables in his study connect

with each other. Thus, it identifies the variables required in the

research investigation. It is the researcher’s “map” in pursuing the

investigation.

• As McGaghie

et al

. (2001) put it: The conceptual framework “sets

the stage” for the presentation of the particular research question

that drives the investigation being reported based on the problem

statement. The problem statement of a thesis presents the context

and the issues that caused the researcher to conduct the study.

The conceptual framework lies within a much broader framework

called theoretical framework. The latter draws support from

time-tested theories that embody the findings of many researchers on

why and how a particular phenomenon occurs.

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An example of Theoretical / Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual frame work elaborated in figure 1 explains the

underlying process, which is applied to guide this study. The

researchers used the five dimensions to measure both quality

service and customer satisfaction because they assume both are

related (Parasuraman et al., 2004) and customer satisfaction is an

antecedent of quality service (Negi, 2009). The SERVQUAL

approach integrates the two constructs and suggests that perceived

service quality is an antecedent to satisfaction (Negi, 2009).

Based on the revision made by Parasuraman, (2004) on the

SERVQUAL model, the researchers have adopted the

SERVQUAL model to identify the most important dimensions that

matter most to customers and that bring them satisfaction.

QUALITY OF SERVICE PROVISION AND ITS EFFECT ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. CASE STUDY: BANK OF KIGALI AND COGEBANQUE

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Dependent Variable: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Dependent Variable: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

1. Customer loyalty 2. Customer retention 3. Customer turnover 4. Customer trust

5. Customer commitment

1. Customer loyalty 2. Customer retention 3. Customer turnover 4. Customer trust

5. Customer commitment 1.Tangibility 2.Reliability 3.Responsive ness 4.Assurance 5.Empathy 1.Tangibility 2.Reliability 3.Responsive ness 4.Assurance 5.Empathy

Independent Variable:

QUALITY SERVICE DELIVERY

Independent Variable:

QUALITY SERVICE DELIVERY

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Delimitations

• The delimitations are those characteristics that limit the scope and define the boundaries of your study. The delimitations are in your control. Delimiting factors include the choice of objectives, the research questions, variables of interest, and the population you choose to investigate. Your first delimitation was the choice of problem itself; implying there are other related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected or screened off from view.

• Specifically, the delimitation should be written in the following sections:

Temporal delimitation. Specify the period you will use to address the

thesis, from the acquiring of the idea to the writing of the draft.

Geographical delimitation. Specify the place where the research will

be conducted. Investigations may be delimited to a neighborhood, to a sector, to an institution, to a district, etc.

Social delimitation. Your will explain the criteria of participants to enroll

in your study. For example if the research is “The Role of Electroning Banking on Effective Service Delivery in Rwandan Commercial Banks”. Case of study: Ecobank head quarter.

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Definition of therms

Terms used in the section “Statement of the Problem”

must be defined according to how they are used in

the study. These terms must be defined

contextually

or

operationally.

This means that the definition is

based on how the term is used within the context of

the study. Terms may also be defined according to

authorities on the subject of investigation.

Dictionary

definitions taken from dictionaries of specialized

Figure

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Referencias