UNVERSIDAD LAICA VICENTE ROCAFUERTE DE GUAYAQUIL
FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN
CARRERA DE EDUCACIÓN MENCIÓN INGLÉS RESEARCH PROJECT:
THE USE OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM AS A METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGY FOR VOCABULARY ACQUISITION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT UNIDAD EDUCATIVA PARTICULAR “NUESTRA SEÑORA
DEL QUINCHE” IN 2017-2018.
PREVIO A LA OBTENCIÓN DEL TÍTULO DE:
LICENCIADO EN LENGUA INGLESA MENCIÓN EN ENSEÑANZA Y ADMINISTRACIÓN DE SISTEMAS EDUCATIVOS EN TEFL
ANDREA DANESSA AVILES GUADALUPE TUTOR
MTEFL. XAVIER TORRES
CERTIFICACIÓN DE ACEPTACIÓN DE TUTOR
En mi calidad de Tutor de Proyecto de Investigación, nombrado por el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad de Educación- Carrera de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés
Yo Mg. XAVIER HUMBERTO TORRES FRERES certifico que el Proyecto de investigación sobre el tema “THE USE OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM AS A METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGY FOR VOCABULARY ACQUISITION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT UNIDAD EDUCATIVA PARTICULAR “NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL QUINCHE” IN 2017-2018”, ha sido elaborado por la Srta. Andrea Danessa Aviles Guadalupe bajo mi tutoría y que el mismo reúne los requisitos para ser defendido ante el tribunal examinador, que se designe al efecto.
DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS DE AUTOR DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA
Yo, Andrea Danessa Aviles Guadalupe con número de cédula de ciudadanía No.0919451898, en calidad de autor, declaro bajo juramento que la autoría del presente trabajo me corresponde totalmente y me responsabilizo de los criterios y opiniones que el mismo se declara, como producto de la investigación que se ha realizado.
Que soy la única autora de trabajo de proyecto de investigación: “THE USE OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM AS A METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGY FOR VOCABULARY ACQUISITION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT UNIDAD EDUCATIVA PARTICULAR “NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL QUINCHE” IN 2017-2018”
Que el perfil del proyecto es de mi autoría, y que en su formulación se ha respetado las normas legales y reglamentarias pertinentes, previa a la obtención del título de “Licenciado en Lengua Inglesa Mención en Enseñanza y Administración de Sistemas Educativos en TEFL”, de la facultad de Educación- Carrera de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés de la Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte de Guayaquil.
First of all, I would like to thank God who has given me understanding, strength and capacity to continue against any impediments. Then, to my family who always supported me throughout this career and gave me all the help that I needed. Especially to my mother, who always trusted me and inspired me to be an excellent person.
I dedicate this research project to:
God, who gives me the strength to continue and make everything possible.
My dear mother and father, who always helped me to overcome and succeed in life and helped me to be a better person.
My son, who always believed in me, and inspired me to get my degree and continue forming myself.
V TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE i
CERTIFICACIÓN DE ACEPTACIÓN DE TUTOR ... i
DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS DE AUTOR DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA ... ii
ACKNOWLEDEMENT ... iii
1.3. Systematization of the Problem ... 5
1.4. Broad Objective ... 5
1.5. Specific Objectives ... 5
1.6. Significance or Rationale of the Study ... 6
1.7. Scope and Delimitation of the Study ... 8
1.8. Hypothetical Approach ... 9
1.8.1. Research Questions. ... 9
1.9. Identification of Variables ... 10
1.9.1. Dependent Variable: Flipped Classroom. ... 10
1.9.2. Independent Variable: Vocabulary Acquisition. ... 11
1.10. Operationalization of Variables ... 11
2. RESEARCH THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS ... 13
2.1. Literature Review... 13
2.2.1. Flipped classroom approach. ... 19
2.2.2. Role of the teacher in the flipped classroom. ... 20
2.2.3. Benefits of the flipped classroom. ... 21
2.2.4. Technological foundations. ... 21
2.2.5. Vocabulary acquisition theories. ... 23
2.2.6. Effective vocabulary. ... 24
2.2.7. Vocabulary learning techniques. ... 25
2.3. Legal Framework ... 28
2.4. Conceptual Framework ... 29
2.4.1. Flipped classroom and vocabulary acquisition ... 29
2.4.2. Presentation ... 30
2.4.14. Listening vocabulary ... 34
2.4.15. Writing vocabulary ... 34
2.4.16. Speaking vocabulary ... 34
2.4.17. Vocabulary acquisition ... 35
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 35
3.1. Type of Research Description ... 35
3.1.1. Field research ... 36
3.1.2. Bibliographical research ... 36
3.2. Methods, Techniques and Research Instruments ... 37
3.2.1. Teachers’ Interviews ... 37
3.2.2. Class Observation. ... 38
3.2.3. Surveys. ... 38
3.2.5. Model Class. ... 38
3.3. Research Population and Sample ... 38
3.4. Sources, Resources and Timeline ... 39
3.4.1. Sources. ... 39
3.4.2. Resources. ... 39
3.4.3. Timeline. ... 40
3.5. Processing, Presentation, Analysis and Results ... 41
3.5.1. Interview with the manager ... 50
3.5.2. Interview with the English Teacher: ... 51
3.5.3. Class Observation. ... 52
3.5.4. Pre- test and post-test. ... 53
3.6. Preliminary Conclusions ... 53
4. PROPOSED PROJECT PLAN ... 54
4.1. Title: VOCABULARY MODEL CLASS FOCUSED ON A FLIPPED CLASSROOM APPROACH 54 4.2. Justification ... 54
4.3. Objectives ... 56
4.3.1. Broad Objective. ... 56
4.3.2. Specific Objectives. ... 56
4.4. Content Framework of the Proposed Project Plan ... 57
4.5. The Proposed Project Plan... 57
4.6. Validation of the Proposed Project Plan ... 62
4.7. Impact / Benefits of the proposed project plan ... 65
FINAL CONCLUSION ... 67
RECOMMENDATIONS ... 67
BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES ... 1
VIII LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Dependent Variables………..11
Table 2. Independent Variable………...12
Table 3. Traditional vs. Flipped Classroom ………27
Table 4. Population and Sample………...39
Table 5. Sources ………...39
Table 6. Resources ………...39
Table 7. Timeline ………40
Table 8. I feel very good, when the teacher uses motivating strategies to improve my abilities………...41
Table 9. Teacher uses the technology as a strategy to acquire vocabulary in English …....42
Table 10. My vocabulary acquisition depends on proper strategy that uses the teacher...43
Table 11. I am able to acquire knowledge better when the teacher uses strategies like games, role plays, internet related activities, etc………..44
Table 12. I feel more attracted to the class when the teacher stimulates my thinking skils.45 Table 13. I apply technology to improve my knowledge when the teacher works with the flipped classroom……….46
Table 17. Post – test ………50
X LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Flipped classroom ………20
Figure 2. Theoretical framework of the flipped classroom ……….23
Figure 3. I feel very good, when the teacher uses motivating strategies to improve my abilities ………41
Figure 4. Teacher uses the technology as a strategy to acquire vocabulary in English …..42
Figure 5. My vocabulary acquisition depends on proper strategy that uses the teacher...43
Figure 6. I am able to acquire knowledge better when the teacher uses strategies like games, role plays, internet related activities, etc………..44
Figure 7. I feel more attracted to the class when the teacher stimulates my thinking skils.45 Figure 8. I apply technology to improve my knowledge when the teacher works with the flipped classroom……….46
Figure 9. I like to work with the flipped classroom because it develops my knowledge…47 Figure 10. The flipped classroom takes me little time study but I learn in an effective way………...48
Figure 11. Four questions vocabulary pre-test ………49
Figure 12. Post – test ………...50
Figure 13. Programming a class with the flipped classroom approach ………...59
This project focuses on the low acquisition of vocabulary in students; this is a frequent problem in educational institutions. The objective will be to promote methodological strategies that go hand with technology, the purpose of encouraging students' interest specifically in “the acquisition of vocabulary in a foreign language", resulting in motivated students with a high level of meaningful learning. For the present investigation, a bibliographical and field study was carried out at the Nuestra Señora del Quinche Private Educational Institution. Through interviews and surveys with authorities, teachers and students, the necessary information was collected to find out about the problems existing in the Educational Institutional. The application of the Flipped classroom proposal was successfully concluded, a technique that allows teachers to leave traditional classes and create an interesting form of study for the group of students, achieving that students with low cognitive level improve their academic performance in Foreign Language.
The present research aims at examining the influence of methodological strategies at the cognitive level in students of the basic cycle (Education General Basic, in Ecuador) specifically for vocabulary acquisition, in which a meaningful percentage of students at this level presents difficulties for interpretation, analysis and solution of problems regarding the acquisition of new vocabulary.
In the past years, there have been strong disagreements about the purposes, content and methods of teaching English vocabulary at the various levels, from primary school to university (and some discussions persist today). Currently, there is a wide variety of methods and strategies for students of any level, motivate and interested in their study (Frost, 2005). There is success in the advance of developing new strategies every day that lead to new teaching methods and turn at work.
This project is intended to leave traditional classes in the past, where the students did not feel capable of performing an activity that belongs to the area of English. The main problem focuses on the type of teaching at high school levels that has been given without any methodological strategy.
With the proposed flipped classroom will be achieved that students work dually the subject of English and technology, considering that young people have a great interest in the use of technological instruments. This joint-method will make them express or present an oral exposition properly, leaving aside the shyness and the scenic fear in which his / her recorded exercise from his / her home and such videos is performed in class.
English language is taught in most schools in Guayaquil, at different levels. Here present the case of “Nuestra Señora del Quinche” High School, which is a private institution was created in 1954, within the legal framework established by the Ministry of Education; Established in Guasmo Sur. Cooperative Reina del Quinche II. Manzana 3089 Parroquia Ximena, in its beginnings this institution worked like a Kinder garden Named “Campanitas de Belen”. In the 90's it became a high school institution to provide educational services to the community.
Station is currently located in the streets Guasmo sur coop. Reina del quinche 2 in the city of Guayaquil, which belongs to Ximena Parish, Zone 8, District 1, operating in two shifts: morning and afternoon, housing a population of 700 students And 35 teachers distributed as follows: 360 students and 16 teachers belong to the morning session, 240 students and 7 teachers in the afternoon.
In the surroundings of the establishment there is a dispensary of private health that provides unconditional services of general medicine and dentistry to the institution in case of an emergency or some consultation; it also provides services to the educational community by conducting campaigns and giving pre-emptive health talks and first aid to students.
1.1. Background of the Problem
In an observation in the institution "Nuestra Señora del Quinche School ", students taking Eighth Year classes were assessed to measure their knowledge in English vocabulary, where a low cognitive level was detected. After talking to the students, it was concluded that the problem starts with poor motivation, indicating that they receive disorganized, monotonous classes, which leads to a tense and stressful environment. Because of this, there were many students who felt antipathy towards the subject, since they received traditional classes where their main activity was the dictation, written lessons and the very little use of didactic material by the teachers, resulting in low qualifications in the midterms and poor understanding of basic concepts.
Regarding this point, teachers have indicated that all the daily activities and responsibilities they deal with force them to dedicate very little time to plan innovating activities such as flipped classroom. However, this work will not focus on this point, as it seeks to show how beneficial this technique could be for teaching.
5 1.2. Statement of the problem
What is the effect of the use of the flipped classroom as a methodological strategy to acquire vocabulary in the English language on the students of 8th Year of Basic General Education at Unidad Educativa Particular Nuestra Señora del Quinche District 1, Province Guayas, Guayaquil Canton, Parroquia Ximena, during the academic period 2017-2018?
1.3. Systematization of the Problem
What is the purpose of the methodological strategies to give a class?
What do we call vocabulary acquisition?
What is the flipped classroom as a strategy?
What is a vocabulary model class like with a flipped classroom approach?
How effective can the flipped classroom be as a strategy in the acquisition of vocabulary in students?
1.4. Broad Objective
To analyze the use of the flipped classroom as a methodological strategy in the acquisition of vocabulary in the English language through field research and bibliography, for the design of a vocabulary model class with flipped classroom approach.
1.5. Specific Objectives
To define the influence of methodological strategies through a bibliographic study, surveys of students, interviews with teachers and managers of the educational unit under study.
To quantify the vocabulary acquisition through a bibliographic study, surveys of students, interviews with teachers and managers of the educational unit under study.
To define the benefits of the application of flipped classroom as a methodological strategy through a bibliographic study, student surveys, and interviews with teachers and managers of the educational institution under study.
To design a model class with a flipped classroom approach, based on the data obtained.
1.6. Significance or Rationale of the Study
This research is important because students today have little interest in such basic subjects as English vocabulary because of the inadequate application of methodological strategies. The purpose will be to motivate and awake interest by making English vocabulary an attractive, dynamic and motivating subject to perform works related to it.(Tomas, 2015)
more participatory way, and create a good atmosphere of learning.
This research will be carried out with the aim that the teachers apply in their classes appropriate methodological strategies for the subject "English vocabulary acquisition". Based on the inductive-deductive method, it will facilitate the objective of our proposed flipped classroom approach with the use of technology, resulting in motivated students with an excellent understanding of the subject.
“De acuerdo al Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir, publicado en el año 2013, en la página 160, El conocimiento se fortalece a lo largo de la vida, desde el nacimiento, con la cotidianidad y con la educación formal y no formal. El talento humano también se nutre de los saberes existentes, del vivir diario.” (Constitución, 2009)
Today English vocabulary has been pleasantly stimulated by new ideas both from within English and from other disciplines, including computer science. At present, the enormous possibilities of computer graphics influence many aspects of our lives. In order to use these possibilities an adequate visual education is necessary. That is why we have used interactive videos to facilitate the understanding of the class and thus improve students' comprehension skills.
The flipped classroom strategy can be very effective as a learning method for vocabulary acquisition in student’s development, since it allows them to appropriate their knowledge in an environment without pressures, i.e. their home, without having to keep the same rhythm as His partners. (Garcia, 2014). You have the possibility to see the content as many times as you need, until you feel ready, you can point out the doubts that arise while watching the video and then with the help of the teacher and his companions evacuate them.
vocabulary acquisition that student has contact with the content prior to the moment of applying it to where they worked at their learning pace and at the most crucial moment, which is the moment of Applying that knowledge, is surrounded by those who can support it.
Once the students have watched the videos taught by the teacher from their homes, they will prepare an exposition filmed from an environment in confidence for them, as they will expose them from their homes freeing them of the scenic fear of public speaking and thus avoid bad expositions in class, full of insecurity and poor preparation.
The video will be reproduced in a motivating and interesting class for the students, being different from the traditional ones, where all the members of the course including the exhibitor will observe the video, at the end of the analysis and draw conclusions from the above in order to obtain a participatory class.
In addition, I believe that it was crucial to offer this project because it prevails the direct necessity of improving and developing the vocabulary acquisition to fortify their learning with this project which will allow them to develop activities that will permit them to do it well.
1.7. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research is directed to know the use of the Flipped Classroom as Methodological Strategy for Vocabulary Acquisition of the students at Unidad Educativa "Nuestra Señora del Quinche" provincial del Guayas, cantón Guayaquil, parroquia Ximena1. Distrito 1 2017-2018.
interest and knowledge in vocabulary is manifested by the low academic performance, this manifestation is observable since that the students at Unidad Educativa "Nuestra Señora del Quinche" They have a low level of vocabulary in the Foreign Language.
The study analyzes the inadequate use of methodological strategies at the cognitive level in a short, precise, direct and adequate manner. Using a didactic strategy for the vocabulary acquisition through the flipped classroom approach, a method that will awaken students' interest in a different way to the traditional one, where they will build their knowledge and record a class according to what they have learned, facilitating the process of teaching and learning, achieving a better school performance of the students.
The model class with the flipped classroom approach would make in Foreign Language teachers have an effective and entertaining tool to make their classes more interesting that will draw students' attention in a positive way. In addition, it will benefit the educational community, because they would have a useful tool, easy access and application.
1.8. Hypothetical Approach
The methodological strategies at Nuestra Señora del Quinche School, influence directly in the lack of vocabulary acquisition.
1. What are methodological strategies?
3. What are the methodological strategies that help the learning of vocabulary?
4. How do methodological strategies influence school learning?
5. How do methodological strategies relate to the cognitive level
6. What do we call the vocabulary acquisition?
7. What are the causes of low vocabulary acquisition in students?
10. What do we do when a case of low vocabulary acquisition is detected?
11. What is a vocabulary model class with flipped classroom approach?
12. What is the objective of developing a vocabulary model class with a flipped classroom approach?
13. How should we apply a vocabulary class with a flipped classroom approach in the learning process?
14. What is the strategy of the flipped classroom?
15. How effective can the flipped classroom strategy be in the acquisition of vocabulary in students?
1.9. Identification of Variables
1.9.1.Dependent Variable: Flipped Classroom.
1.9.2.Independent Variable: Vocabulary Acquisition.
This term refers to introduce new words in a new language in order to increase students’ vocabulary.
1.10. Operationalization of Variables
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: VOCABULARY ACQUISITION
RESEARCH THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
2.1. Literature Review
Many authors have explored the use of the flipped classroom as a tool for developing different aspects of English language, especially listening comprehension, writing, and grammar (Al-Harbi & Alshumaimeri, 2016; Ahmad, 2016). However, bibliographical search have shown only few publications that mention how the use of flipped classrooms can contribute to the acquisition of vocabulary in English learners (Al-Harbi & Alshumaimeri, 2016). Thus, teachers in Saudi suggest the flipped classroom strategy positively affects students’ performance and proficiency levels in various areas of the English language.
Furthermore, the flipped classroom makes students feel comfortable in the language acquisition, and increase the motivation in students to gain English skills in a good atmosphere. In words of Hung (2015), he found that “implementing the flipped classroom model in English classes develops students’ academic performance in general”. In addition, the flipped classroom is an interesting approach that helps teachers to leave the traditional classes, and facilitate students to use the technology in order to acquire English skills such as grammar, listening, reading, and speaking. In Saudi, teachers apply this method in order to enhance comprehension and acquisition in grammar skills and the results were excellent.
Saud University. This method improved grammar knowledge and increased self-confidence and motivation. These are the results of the study of Saudi Arabia”.
The aim of this study is to apply the flipped classroom in the vocabulary acquisition, as well as Harbi; Alshumaimeri and Yousif did in their studies in grammar acquisition (2012). It is interesting to question how researchers have explored the problem, so methodologies are to be analyzed in the following lines. The researchers started the study with two groups of female students at Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. There were 20 students in the experimental group and 23 students in the control group. Both groups were taught by the same teacher and used the same syllabus and textbook, but the first one was taught through flipped classroom. The results in this study were acceptable, in terms that this technique improved students’ attitude towards English grammar. However, it did not reach the level of statistical significance.
Another research experience was performed by Ahmad (2016). In this study, he performed the use of the flipped classroom on Egyptian EFL students’ listening comprehension. He applied this study in one group of 34 students at the Faculty of Education, Suez University, using Paired-samples t-test, to show the difference between the means of scores of the participants on the pretest and the posttest of listening comprehension. This difference was statistically significant; the flipped classroom got excellent results, therefore it worked well. So, the researcher recommends using this method in EFL student’s listening comprehension. Relate this to vocabulary is useful to use the flipped classroom as a methodology.
collaboration, interactions and discussions in English. This explanation goes along with Jones’s (2006) “assertion that collaborative activities have long been shown to enhance learners’ comprehensible input which, in turn, leads to greater understanding of aural texts”.
This study of vocabulary acquisition was applied in Iran with 120 students at high school level. The researcher apply the reading method in order to students acquire vocabulary easily. For involving students with more reading activities in EFL classroom teaching and likening the results to the vocabulary exercises, the researcher directed a research for about five weeks in an EFL class. Half of them (RP group) read chosen passages after which they did different vocabulary activities and exercises. The other half (RO group) received the reading only (RO) treatment, i.e., they only read several reading texts that they want. The significance of the present study lies in the fact that it was able to compare the effectiveness of reading only and reading plus vocabulary enhancement activities on types of immediate and delayed lexical word recall in a single study.
The researcher employed the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale to measure students' knowledge of 60 vocabulary items. The results showed that RP group gained better results than RO group on both acquisition and retention tests. This indicates that "Reading plus" method is more effective in increasing knowledge of vocabulary and long term retention in male and female EFL learners in Iran. (Sharafi-Nejad 2014).
acquisition in the foreign languages department of a university in the northern part of China. He divided the class into two groups in what consist that group A were though with flipped classroom and group B were though with traditional classroom.
He made a research of vocabulary teaching and through the research he found some good benefits of vocabulary teaching in flipped classroom. Flipped classroom changed the teaching method. Through the test and interview we have found that flipped classroom has some benefits in vocabulary teaching. Firstly, it improved classroom efficiency. For a long time, the explanation of vocabulary has been the focus on college English teaching, which often needs much in-class time. Teachers emphasized the importance of vocabulary output too much, ignoring students’ ability of speaking, writing, and other language output. In addition, teachers can only teach a few words in limited time and the efficiency is low.
Through flipped classroom, students can learn more words by themselves and they can put more time on language output. Secondly, the flipped classroom model can increase the students’ interest in vocabulary learning. Flipped classroom enriches the content and method of vocabulary learning, improving learning interest of students. Flipped classroom give us a new way of transmitting knowledge before class, and internalizing knowledge in class, which is more than effective. (Zhang; Li; Jiao; Ma; Guan; 2016)
The following information is about a case study using flipped classroom that was carried out in 2012-2013 academic year in an English language teaching. The researcher presented the technique in a department of a prominent state university in Istanbul, Turkey with 47 students divided in two teams 30 female and 17 male. The application of this method was to ask students to answer open-ended questions in 5 days. The participants had to enter to platform and answer it, but there were some participants who did not perform the activities. For this reason, from the total of 47 participants, only 35 were answered the open- ended questions. Flipped classroom model was performed in spring semesters in their advanced Reading and Writing I-II. According to (Basal, 2015). This learning environment is open and accessible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Another underlying idea of the flipped classroom is to provide a non-stop connection between teachers, students, and materials, which can only be achieved through an LMS.
2.2. Theoretical Framework
The first authors that used flipped classroom were Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams, science teachers at Woodland Park High School, Woodland Park, in Colorado. They applied this method in a group of students in 2007-2008, they started to record their lessons and students had to watch the video and take notes as a homework. They posted their lessons online, so their students could access them. They assessed students as the same way they did the previous year, and students learned more using the flipped classroom approach (Bergmann and Sams 2014).
Development (UNID), at Tuxtepec Headquarters, Oaxaca, Mexico, with students of the Master's in Education, who in turn, work as teachers in the area (García Rangel & Quijada-Monroy, 2015).
Also in Mexico the flipped classroom experience was developed in the Physics class at the Monterrey Technological Campus "Eugenio Garza Lagüera" (Ponce, 2014). This method has also been applied in the Psychology program of the Simón Bolívar University, Barranquilla (Rodríguez, 2014) and a Teaching Guide for Teachers Module II AEH has been proposed: 8th Degree by the Ministry of Education of Honduras, Student Services.
In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens.
All of these presentation techniques either singly or in combination are useful ways of introducing new words. What must be remembered the building basic vocabulary presentation, too, is that pronunciation is just as important here as it is for structural material situated word meanings, contextual understanding and long term retention; according to (Rasti 2015) he indicated “we should not introduce words without making sure that students know how they are pronounced”
watch a video and associate the correct pronunciation of the word.
2.2.1.Flipped classroom approach.
The flipped classroom involves reversing the processes that take place in traditional teaching, where the teacher imparts the subject and then leaves homework (usually exercises to solve at home) that the student faces alone, without being able to exchange or clarify doubts Arise during the process. Bergmann and Sams (2012).
In the case of the flipped classroom, the preparation in the subject is oriented so that the student does it in his house ,with means provided by the teacher (videos, self-guided presentations in Power Point, platform works or other support) and what would be the duties in the Traditional method, are the activities that are carried out in class, with the support of the teacher and other classmates through a constant and productive exchange that allow the student to appropriate the knowledge better.
This method of teaching classes combines techniques used in socializing strategies and individualizing strategies, adding the advantages that are obtained, which generates that the student arrives to have a significant learning, because their times of acquisition and assimilation of knowledge and respect are respected. Promotes the exchange of ideas and mutual help between peers, which promotes socialization and interpersonal relationships.
Figure1. Flipped classroom
2.2.2.Role of the teacher in the flipped classroom.
student learning enough to help them build understanding without restricting student initiative and creativity, a difficult balance to achieve.
2.2.3.Benefits of the flipped classroom.
There are a number of aspects with this method of teaching that teachers can find beneficial for students, which included the opportunity to learn from taped videos of instruction that allowed them unlimited opportunities to watch the videos as often as needed (Hamdan, 2013).
This method allowed students to learn lessons outside classroom. There is flexibility for students to not only choose how often they want to view their video assignment but also where and when they want to see it (Hamdan, 2013; Tyson, 2010). The benefit of the flipped classroom, it is to allowed students to break down segments of an instructional video and to find the objective of the lecture is the ability to prime students to remember key facts prior to a deeper level of engagement in class.
The last decade has been extraordinarily fruitful in advances in technology applicable to education, so that it can offer better education and experiences for students (Martínez-Salanova). However, few teachers use new technologies as complementary tools in the performance of their work (Barragán Sánchez).
by some teachers, whose reasons are that the student does not strive to do things (Barragán Sánchez).
According to UNESCO
Information and communication technologies (ICT) can contribute to universal access to education, equality in instruction, the exercise of quality teaching and learning and the professional development of teachers, as well as management and more efficient administration of the education system. (UNESCO, 2015)
Among the functions of video as teaching material is when it is used as a transmitter of information. In this case it is used by the teacher for the presentation of curricular contents. They can also be used as a motivating tool, where the teacher motivates the students towards the contents and activities that will be developed in class, or that they must face autonomously. (Video: functions in teaching). In addition, the promoters of the use of new technologies in science learning argue that, developed and used appropriately, they are capable of:
• Increase the visibility of initiatives and resources produced by teachers. • Motivate and involve students in their own learning.
• Illustrate concepts and abstract models.
• Develop critical thinking and superior cognitive processes.
• Increase the applicability of the information acquired in the solution of specific problems. • Facilitate communication between teachers and students (Waldegg Casanova, 2002).
23 2.2.5.Vocabulary acquisition theories.
The vital role of vocabulary in comprehending and producing language is evident. Yet, for current English vocabulary teaching model is still far more traditional than modern because of the inadequacy of education revolution (Zhang, 2016). The flipped classroom teaching model brings us the opportunities to practice activities like this, as to remember vocabulary through games, interesting events. It is necessary to involve interesting materials; it is the opportunity that students have in order to improve their recreational and artistic activities, according to Gravier (2002), who said “after students have seen and heard a new lexical ítem for the first time, they will need opportunities to become more familiar with it- to practice by recognizing and manipulating, and using it”.
In the following diagram (figure 1) Strayer (2007) suggests a conceptual framework of a flipped classroom.
Figure 2 theoretical framework of the flipped classroom
teaching in each period has its own characteristics. Grammar translation is a quick and easy way to present the meaning of words, where translation can quickly solve a list of words and figure out their meanings, how to translate all the topic; but it is not a good idea to translate words from one language to another; additionally, the teacher should bear in mind a consistent policy and discipline towards the use of the mother tongue. It is acceptable to use the dictionary but it is recommended to read and underline the words that students do not know in context and can summarize everything. The direct method was the best known of several “natural” methods introduced towards the end of the 19th century. Its name came from the priority of relating meaning directly with the target language without the step of translation. The principal characteristics about vocabulary teaching of this method include exclusive use of the target language in classroom, teaching of everyday vocabulary through demonstration and abstract vocabulary association of ideas, and the stress of pronunciation (Lemetyinen, 2012).
In a particular context is necessary to recognize group of words that will help to the reader to get the correct meaning of a word to understand any context, functional or lexical words. It is also important to involve the grammar because it is strategy to implicate different grammatical structures.
must be discerned by the learners in the contextual learning of a second language.
The students of new age need more motivation to learn and communicate fresh topics every moment in their classes. The teachers is the person who has to show and focus the different subjects with adequate warms up, strategies and skills depending the student’ level.
2.2.7.Vocabulary learning techniques.
When we apply vocabulary practice like this how to remember vocabulary, vocabulary games, interesting events, it is necessary to involve interesting materials, it is the chance that the students can improve their recreational and artistic activities. For that reason it is important to use resources like a platform to practice exercises that engage students to practice and acquire vocabulary in an easier way.
Discussions, communicative activities (platform) and role-play requiring use of the words;
Examples, familiar, or common words, updating words
Finding out the meaning of the words;
Making use of the vocabulary in written comprehension tasks;
Matching pictures to words or words to pictures;
Matching parts of the words to others parts, beginnings and endings;
Matching words to others words to words, sentences, opposites, sets of related words, posters, pictures, definitions, explanations, etc.;
Classifying items into list;
Using given words to complete a specific tasks;
Filling in gaps in sentences-,
Making link up words;
Also is important to know that with the flipped classroom approach, students can practices those techniques using technology as a resource. In order to facilitate students vocabulary acquisition. Inside the importance of acquiring a second language vocabulary in this passage, find that it is very interesting and suitable for teaching to apply effective English techniques in order to get a significant learning by understanding words, transferring information, and comparing their ideas.
O’Connor (2011) said:
“Words are tools for thought. The more words you are able to understand and use appropriately, the more expressive you can be. You will also be more likely to make yourself understood. A strong vocabulary is not the mark of an elite- it is the mark of a flexible communicator”.
Teachers must encourage their students in order to engage the learning in the classroom, principally when teaching a second language in words of Brophy (2004), who stated “students’ motivation is rooted is student’s subjective experiences, especially those connected to their willingness to engage in lessons and learning activities and their reasons for doing so”.
the acquired knowledge, he has the support of his peers and the teacher, which helps this low cognitive student to develop at a similar rate to those who do not have these difficulties (Fortanet van Assendelft de Coningh, González Díaz, Mira, & López, 2013).
Comparison of Class Time in Traditional versus Flipped Classroom (modified from Eckmekci, 2017)
Guided and independent practice and/or lab activity 75 min
Warm-up activity 5 min activity 5 min
Table 3. Traditional vs. Flipped classroom
28 2.3. Legal Framework
The legal basis of this research project is based on the (Constitución de la República del Ecuador, 2008). It required to provide a quality and warmth Education, therefore it is necessary to impart to children and teenagers with appropriate educational materials for teaching and learning according to their own cultural specialties of different institutions that are part of the national Education System of Education.
However, teachers are obligated to design and implement resources and strategies according to the students’ needs in order to facilitate the learning and comprehension of a second language as a future assurance satisfactory to general public. According to the Ley Orgánica Intercultural de Educación Art. 11, literal b
"Los profesores tienen la obligación de ser actores fundamentales en una educación relevante de calidad y calidez con los estudiantes a su cargo. Literal i: Proporcionar apoyo y seguimiento pedagógico a los estudiantes para superar el atraso y las dificultades en el aprendizaje y en el desarrollo de habilidades. , habilidades, habilidades y habilidades. "(LOEI, 2010).
New trends in education are relevant to achieve these national objectives, since they promote in the human being all that is desired for a good citizen. Taking into account the active participation in a diverse society, being responsible, supportive and proactive. According to Curriculum Nacional said:
"En áreas donde la tecnología y el acceso no están disponibles, es fundamental que los docentes consideren formas de brindar a los alumnos" oportunidades comparables, si no equitativas, para participar digitalmente y desarrollar sus alfabetizaciones "(Hicks y Hawley Turner, 2013)".
productive ways that stimulate the study, to reach the "metacognition". Another important issue in the curriculum is the use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies), in the education process (videos, computers, television, virtual classrooms, simulators, Internet and other media that help learning and teaching in processes such as:
• Quick information search
• Visualization of facts and processes to make the content more objective • Simulation of real situations or processes
• Development of educational games that help improve learning; •Learning Assessment.
It is suggested about the times and conditions in which ICTs will be used, but teachers will apply them when they consider necessary and pertinent and provided they have the materials, time and other indispensable conditions to do so.
2.4. Conceptual Framework
2.4.1.Flipped classroom and vocabulary acquisition
The teacher has to prepare the students on how to integrate the skills and varying techniques to apply individually or in groups. We have said that vocabulary teaching is important as teaching structures. There is a range of activities which are designed to teach practice words and their various use (Mothe P. 2006) some techniques to vocabulary acquisition are:
There are some suggestions to use in classroom like vocabulary presentation, using an object a cutout image, performance actions, drawing or diagram on the board, pictures from the books. Using the flipped classroom students can watch some videos or practice some exercises in a platform in order to familiarize with the new words. The students can replay and review each video as many time as needed.
2.4.3.Realia and visuals
31 2.4.4.Word building
Use parts of word to help learners build or guess the meanings. Use digital game, practice some platform game in order to acquire the new words.
Draw the words to represent the meanings, visualize drawings symbols and graphic organizers.
Learners use dictionaries to check meanings and to create vocabulary notebooks. In contrast using flipped classroom approach students find the meaning of the words through videos, song, slides and games instead of use dictionary.
Pictures can be board drawings, wall pictures and charts, flashcards, magazine pictures and any other non-technical visual representation. Pictures can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items: Teachers can bring draw things on the board, bring in pictures. On the other hand using technology resources, blogs or educational slides students can acquire vocabulary easily and look for specific pictures of photos that student’s wanted as many times they needed.
2.4.8.Mime, action and gestures
realia or in pictures. Actions, in particular, are probably better explained by mime. In other hand, the teacher sometimes has to use physical movement to teach vocabulary.
In other hand, students can demonstrate their abilities and to get communication each other through video conference and establish a good confidence with the teacher and partners in general. They appreciate the moments when they have to participate or watch their videos or feel the feelings in each process that could be in groups including the teacher.
We can presented the meaning of the words contrasting with pictures or mime, and by drawing attention to the contrasts in meaning we ensure our students’ understanding. Therefore using flipped classroom gives students a chance to think about the connection between the terms being learned in class and reinforce at home using tutorial videos and vocabulary games.
ــ It helps students organize their thoughts and visualize the relations between the -Key concepts in a meaningful way.
ــ It gives students an opportunity to reflect on their understanding vocabulary is widely related to flipped classroom?
33 2.4.11. Translation
Translation is a quick and easy way to present the meaning of words, where translation can quickly solve a list of words, how to translate all the topics but it is not good idea; additionally, the teacher should bear in mind a consistent policy and discipline towards the use of the mother tongue. It is acceptable to use the dictionary but it is recommend to read and underline the words that do not know in the context and can summarize everything. On the other hand, learning vocabulary with wordlists and look for definitions and examples on the internet an platforms to practice new words, seems to be the most suitable form of instruction when applying the flipped classroom.
All of these presentation techniques either singly or in a combination are useful ways of introduce new words. What must be remembered the building base vocabulary presentation, too, is that pronunciation is just as important here as it is for structural material situated words meanings, contextual understanding and on term retention, according to Ortiz, E (2004) said “we should not introduce words without making sure that students know how they are said” .
2.4.12. Types of vocabulary
According to the skills vocabulary can be classified into: reading, be aware of words, listening, speaking and writing vocabulary.
34 2.4.13. Be aware of words
When the reader has the necessity to comprehended short texts it is recommendable to associate the words with the topic: in such a way that exists the comprehension between ideas and meaning of the idioms or grammatical phrases.
When we read a novel, for instance there are many unknown usually skip theme, it is essential to use aware of words to understand and obtain a comprehensible representation of the new words. (O’Connor 2011).
2.4.14. Listening vocabulary
When a learner can recognize the words to listening and speech at the same time in order that also can consider the context and tone of voice. Listening comprehension is another way how contribute of oral communication, all this depends upon lexical knowledge, vocabulary words and their meanings, making sentences and vocalization.
2.4.15. Writing vocabulary
Once written words they can recognize the words and obtain the exact comprehension of the context. At the moment they have read, they start to acquire aspects of the meaning from the context.
2.4.16. Speaking vocabulary
vocabulary and reading comprehension like that listen to the text, check the words, understanding the meanings, use of speech the learners can become a person’s speaking vocabulary and may be compensated expressions, tone of voice or hand gestures.
2.4.17. Vocabulary acquisition
“A technique is a precise strategy, concrete trick or a tested and trusted tip that’s designed to help you reach your goals. It could be in form of an exercise or just any activity that you have to do to complete your mission.” (Egbetade, 2016)
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Type of Research Description
This project was based on pedagogical research, which refers to a variety of methods; this means, different aspects are relevant because individuals assess different aspects of the educational process. (Bernal, 2006). There are diverse disciplines that present to some degree in educational research – so, it may be called an interdisciplinary relation. These include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. The overlap in disciplines creates a broad range from which methodology is drawn. The findings of educational research also need an interpretation based on the context in which they appeared; as they may not be applicable in every time or places, (generalization is not always possible).
36 3.1.1.Field research
Nowadays, there are different types of investigation. An important approach is field studies which allow us to gather data directly from the place, and turn it into information. For example, field research involves a range of well-defined, although variable, methods: informal interviews, direct observation, participation in the life of the group, collective discussions, analyses of personal documents produced within the group, self- analysis, results from activities undertaken off- or on-line, and life-histories. This project requires a field research stage because we collect the information and we especially work with at the "Nuestra Señora del Quinche School ".
Feasible research is an evaluation and analysis of the potential of the proposed project, based on extensive investigation and research to support the process of decision-making. This project is feasible because it holds an intensive research support on vocabulary comprehension in students and, in this way, it is possible to detect problems at the time of acquiring vocabulary in a foreign language.
Furthermore, investigation about the lack of motivation in the English classes considers the necessity of some groups of students from my community. This is another reason whereby my project is feasible and I will apply this at a school level. Permission of the High school’s authorities allowed me to work this project. Further details about the precise questions stated in the surveys and interviews are explained in the following sections.
strict sense has nothing to do with the historical or literary considerations of their subject matter or content. In addition, papers and thesis documents are included as a reference to analyze and interpret our data.
This project compares and contrasts findings from other authors to explore the results obtained from the analysis of the data we collect in the field stage, about vocabulary acquisition issues from different sources. After collecting the information and data, we proceed to deepen on the results obtained for drawing conclusions and further explanation.
3.2. Methods, Techniques and Research Instruments
Information to be collected includes surveys given to students, interviews to teachers, 12
The process of obtaining the information was followed by the parameters of the English department, the principal’s purpose of this process was to realize the point of view of the teachers, and to consider the possible reasons why the students present difficulties to learn vocabulary.
38 3.2.2.Class Observation.
This main aim of this process was to determine what could be the possible problem in the methodology applied with the students, and why the students do not enjoy to learn new words during the units.
The surveys were applied for a group of students after we observed their class participation during an English class. The objective of the application of the surveys was to realize how the students feel when they are studying English at school, and what could be the possible advantages if we apply flipped classroom in their classes.
3.2.4.Pre-test and post-test.
The students were tested with basic vocabulary from the previous units they have studied in their first week of classes. The Objective of this process was to improve students’ vocabulary acquisition during the research project.
3.2.5. Model Class.
The independent variable was applied. It was helpful and relevant during the learning process.
3.3. Research Population and Sample
The research population consists of 1 coordinator and 1 teacher of eighth grade, who were given
a structured interview; we worked with 35 students with whom a survey was used as a means
of obtaining information. It will work with the entire population so the sample is equal to the
Table 3. Population and sample
3.4. Sources, Resources and Timeline
Internet Services To look for specific information about the project. Laptops To organize used in this research project
Printer To print the surveys, the pre-test, the post-test. Projector and
To show the students videos, class, exposition, of the research project.
Bibliography resources Research books
Human resources 1 researcher
Technological resource Photocopier
Pen drive 2
September October November December
3.5. Processing, Presentation, Analysis and Results
Question 1. I feel very good, when the teacher uses motivating strategies to improve my abilities.
Table No. 8 Satisfaction with new methodological strategies.
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 24 68.6
Table 8. I feel very good, when the teacher uses motivating strategies to improve my abilities.
Figure No. 3
Satisfaction with new methodological strategies
Figure 3. I feel very good, when the teacher uses motivating strategies to improve my abilities.
Analysis: After we analyzed the results obtained that the majority of students surveyed, 24
(68%) of them agreed, 5 (14%) agreed, they felt good when the teacher used methodological
strategies to improve their skills, only 1 is indifferent (3%); 3 of them, that is, 9% disagreed
and 2 (6%) totally disagreed. It is mean that students feel good satisfaction when teacher uses
new methodology strategy.
Question 2: The teacher uses the technology as a strategy to acquire vocabulary in English.
Table 9 –Use of methodological strategies
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 3 8.6
2 Agree 2 5.7
3 Indifferent 5 14.3
4 In disagreement 10 28.6
5 Totally disagree 15 42.9
Table 9. The teacher uses the technology as a strategy to acquire vocabulary in English.
Figure No. 4
Use of methodological strategies
Figure 4. I feel very good, when the teacher uses motivating strategies to improve my abilities.
Analysis: The graph show students capability of relating the use of the flipped classroom as a
methodology strategies in order to improve their vocabulary acquisition; It is mean that they
like to use this type of strategies in their English class.
Question 3: My vocabulary acquisition depends on proper strategy that the teachers use.
Table 10 – vocabulary acquisition depends on appropriate strategies
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 22 62.9
Table10. My vocabulary acquisition depends on proper strategy that uses the teacher.
Figure No. 5
Vocabulary acquisition depends on appropriate strategies
Figure 5 My vocabulary acquisition depends on proper strategy that uses the teacher..
Analysis: Analysis: The graph above show that most students consider that their vocabulary acquisition depends on the appropriate strategy used by the teacher, According to the survey students are mostly aware of their previous knowledge is low that show that when they performing an activity the result is not the adequate.
Question 4: I am able to acquire knowledge better when the teacher uses strategies like games, role plays, internet related activities, etc.
Table 11 – Acquisition of knowledge dependence on strategies
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 16 45.7
2 Agree 14 40.0
3 Indifferent 4 11.4
4 In disagreement 1 2.9
5 Totally disagree 0 0.0
Table 11. I am able to acquire knowledge better when the teacher uses strategies like games, role plays, internet related activities, etc.
Figure No. 6
Acquisition of knowledge dependence on strategies
Figure 6. I am able to acquire knowledge better when the teacher uses strategies like games, role plays, internet related activities, etc.
Analysis: The graph above show students’ capability of relating the use of games, role plays, internet in the process of the vocabulary acquisition. According to the surveys, are mostly aware of the use of interactive activities in the English class. This type of strategies might have been applied for a long time.
Question 5: I feel more attracted to the class when the teacher stimulates my thinking skills.
Table 12 – Class attraction when there´s a stimulation
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 30 85.7
2 Agree 5 14.3
3 Indifferent 0 0.0
4 In disagreement 0 0.0
5 Totally disagree 0 0.0
Table 12. I feel more attracted to the class when the teacher stimulates my thinking skills.
Class attraction when there´s a stimulation
Figure 7. I feel more attracted to the class when the teacher stimulates my thinking skills.
Analysis: The graph above show students’ capability of relating the use of attracted class when the teacher stimulates their thinking skills. According to the survey they learned more when they practices activities using the critical thinking.
86% 14% 0%0%0%
Question 6: I apply technology to improve my knowledge when the teacher works with flipped classroom.
Table 13 – Teachers help with homework at home
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 21 60.0
2 Agree 12 34.3
3 Indifferent 0 0.0
4 In disagreement 2 5.7
5 Totally disagree 0 0.0
Table 13. I apply technology to improve my knowledge when the teacher works with flipped classroom.
Figure No. 8
Teachers help with homework at home
Figure 8. I apply technology to improve my knowledge when the teacher works with flipped classroom.
Analysis: The graph above show students capability of relating the use of technology to improve their knowledge when the teacher works with flipped. According to the surveys students are mostly aware of the use of technology as a resource in their vocabulary acquisition.
Question 7: I like to work with the flipped classroom because it develops my knowledge.
Table 14- Acceptance of the flipped classroom and knowledge development
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 21 60.0
2 Agree 10 28.6
3 Indifferent 0 0.0
4 In disagreement 4 11.4
5 Totally disagree 0 0.0
Table 14. I like to work with the flipped classroom because it develops my knowledge.
Figure No. 9
Acceptance of the flipped classroom and knowledge development
Figure 9. I like to work with the flipped classroom because it develops my knowledge.
Analysis: The graph above show students’ capability of relating the use of technology as a strategies when the teacher works with flipped classroom. According to the surveys students feel comfortable with the use of technology in their English process. It is mean that teachers should implement this method in their English class.
Question 8: The flipped classroom takes me little time study but I learn in an effective way.
Table 15- Flipped classroom and effective learning
ITEM ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENT
1 Totally agree 16 45.7
Table 15. The flipped classroom takes me little time study but I learn in an effective way.
Figure No. 10
Flipped classroom and effective learning
Figure 10. The flipped classroom takes me little time study but I learn in an effective way.
Analysis: The graph above show student’s capability of relating the use of the flipped classroom takes little time to study. According to the surveys students develop their knowledge practicing exercises and doing homework using the flipped classroom strategies.
Instruction 1: Four questions vocabulary pre-test
Table 16 – Pre-Test Vocabulary. Instruction 1
Alternatives Frequency Percentage
Approved 10 29%
Failed 25 71%
Table 16. Four questions vocabulary pre-test
Figure 11 – Pre-Test Vocabulary.
The seventy-one percent of the students failed in the pre-test. However, the twenty nine percent of the students did well in the test. The questions for the pre-test were taken from their student’s book that the students. The students were told to check the vocabulary in their books before the test.
In the post test the seventy- nine percent of the students that is thirty students got good results. The post-test was made from the units of the book that were studied while the research project was applied. The twenty- one percent of the students that is five students did the test regularly, they did not get good grades. However, they did not got very good results as the rest of the class. Those five students presents educational problems. Three students have vulnerability, and the other two students always misses classes because of their family situation. This research project has proved that the applying flipped classroom approach is very helpful for students to learn and improve their vocabulary acquisition.
3.5.1. Interview with the manager
In the interview with the manager she said that policy approves and promotes that teachers receive training that allows their professional growth, however they do not have any
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Failed Approved Tabla17. Post Test
structured training plan. Moreover, teachers are free to apply the techniques and strategies they deem appropriate in their classes. Teachers have the freedom to change what they believe does not work and needs to be changed. Also it is interest of this institution to reach the highest educational standards possible, allowing our students to develop their skills and abilities as much as possible and this can only be achieved by keeping us updated on new pedagogical trends. Overall vocabulary acquisition in our students is average-low. So far, we have identified familiar factors such as low income or domestic problems that interfere with the development of children. In other cases students get bored in class or fail to move at the speed teachers expect and are unmotivated. Teachers who have applied new methodological strategies in their classes have detected advances in the cognitive level of their students, especially in strategies that use role play activity. One of the characteristics of teachers depends to a large extent on the success of teaching activity, overly authoritarian and rigid teachers have students who are among the most backward teachers. In this institution this new approach has been applied only once, however it expect students to be more motivated to attend and participate in classes and to acquire knowledge more quickly.
3.5.2. Interview with the English Teacher:
Once analyzed and interpreted the results of the interview applied to the teacher of eight year,
he explained that he did not have received any training in this regard. So far the director support
provided it. It approved by the collective of teachers. In general the teacher had the opportunity
to meet once a week in methodological meetings but they keep consulting much more
frequently. However they have interest and advantages to apply them. Generally they consider
that students’ vocabulary acquisition is average and in some cases, less than average, however
they detected great potentialities in them. In general, classes are quite traditional, although on