PSYCHOANALYSIS ON STUDENT ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION

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Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica 2020, Vol. XXIX, N°2, 1174-1182

DOI: 10.24205/03276716.2020.359 1174

P

SYCHOANALYSIS ON

S

TUDENT

A

SSESSMENT OF

T

EACHING

Q

UALITY

IN

H

IGHER

E

DUCATION

Xuewen Wang

1

, Xiaoyan Yan

2

*, Yun Zhao

3

, Shengchao Zhao

3

Abstract

In higher education, the student assessment is an important means of teaching quality management. However, the assessment results are often biased by the subjective psychologies of students. To solve the problem, this paper carries out a questionnaire survey on student assessment of teaching quality in colleges and identifies the factors that negatively affects the assessment through statistical analysis. Next, the authors discussed the exact impacts of these factors on the assessor, and the assessment objects, and investigated how to regulate these negative factors in the assessment process. Next, an assessment index system was set up based on the psychological effect mechanism. The implementation method of the system was also detailed. The research results provide reference for the design of teaching quality assessment in higher education.

Key words: Teaching Quality Assessment, Higher Education, Psychological Factors, Subjective Psychological Deviation, Assessment System Design.

Received: 13-04-19 | Accepted: 15-10-19

INTRODUCTION

All colleges and universities are actively exploring and seeking various effective methods and measures to strengthen teaching management and teaching quality monitoring, and improve teaching quality, in which teaching quality assessment is an important measure for schools to improve teaching quality (Momeni, Fahim, Vahidi et al., 2016). Through the assessment of teaching quality, it is possible to understand whether the school has implemented the relevant vocational education policy of the state, so as to adjust the school-running ideas and talent training programs, improve the quality of running schools, and train qualified high-level talents; teachers can get

1School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056000, China. 2Teaching Affairs Department, Handan Polytechnic College, Handan 056001, China. 3Department of Management, Handan Polytechnic College, Handan 056001, China.

E-Mail: yanxiaoyan777@sina.com

timely feedback on teaching, find problems in teaching, understand students' learning, consciously adjust teaching ideas, update teaching content, improve teaching methods, optimize teaching process, and continuously improve teaching quality (Chatterton, Chambers, Occhipinti et al., 2016). Classroom teaching is the key link of teaching work, and whether teacher classroom teaching assessment can promote the development of teachers, which has a great relationship with the classroom teaching assessment indicator system. The assessment teachers in colleges and universities is based on assessment criteria; if an assessment system does not have a clear and clear set of standards to stipulate effective teaching or good teaching, then this assessment system is not comprehensive (Oon, Spencer, & Kam, 2017).

The assessment of teacher's teaching quality is a systematic project which is composed of various elements, and the reliability and effectiveness of the assessment work are not only the validity and feasibility of the assessment index system, but also the quality of all participants in the assessment

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subject and object and the ability, mental state, and impact on assessment reliability are particularly significant (Senaratne & Hardie, 2015). In order to ensure the reliability of assessment, it is necessary to analyze and study the psychological phenomena of various participants in the organization and management of teaching quality assessment and the organizational regulation must be integrated in the assessment process (Tran & Nguyen, 2015). Analytic hierarchy process is a hierarchical weight decision analysis method that applies network system theory and multi-objective comprehensive assessment; this method is in-depth on the nature, internal relations and influencing factors of complex decision-making problems. On the basis of analysis, a hierarchical structure model is constructed, and then the decision process is transformed into mathematical form with less quantitative information, so as to solve the complex decision problem of multi-objective, multi-criteria or non-structural characteristics (Bie Fan, 2009).

On the basis of summarizing and analyzing previous research works, this paper elaborated the development background, current status and future challenges of teaching quality assessment in higher education, analyzed the subjective psychological deviations that restrict the effectiveness of college

students’ teaching quality assessment, and

proposed the regulation method of negative psychological factors in the process of teaching quality evaluation. Taking the psychological factors and control methods of teaching quality assessment in higher education into consideration, this paper also constructed an assessment indicator system, design ideas and implementation path of the assessment system module based on psychological effect mechanism. The detailed chapters are arranged as follows: Section 2 introduces the study objects and methods; Section 3 analyzes the psychological factors of teaching quality assessment in higher education; Section 4 proposes the assessment indicator system, design ideas and implementation path of the assessment system module based on psychological effect mechanism; Section 5 is conclusion.

STUDY OBJECTS AND METHODS

Study objects

Inclusion criteria: (1) Organizers, assessor and assessed objects who are physically and mentally healthy, involved in the work of teaching quality assessment in higher education, mainly including college teaching administrators, college students

and in-service first-line teachers; (2) Still working or studying at the school for the next 0.5 years after participating in the study; (3) Organized or participated in at least one teaching quality assessment in the past 0.5 years; (4) willing to accept the survey or follow-up (5) informed and agreed to participate in the study, and an informed consent form will be signed.

Exclusion criteria: (1) those who are unable or unwilling to recall and feedback their psychological state in the process of teaching quality assessment; (2) those who are informed and agree to participate in the study but pose an poor attitude to this study.

In this study, a total of 30 teaching administrative staff, 200 college students and 50 in-service first-line teachers were selected as research objects. The teaching administrative staff includes 12 males and 18 females, aged 26-45 years old with an average age of 34.68±2.17 years old; the college students include 100 males and 100 females, 50 college students in each grade of 1 to 4, aged 18-22 years old with the average age is 20.32±1.09 years old, and 80 students in humanities and arts, 100 students in science and engineering, and 20 students in other majors. Table 1 shows the details of the study subjects.

Questionnaire design

Based on the analysis of the influencing factors of the teaching quality of college students' mental health education by using the questionnaire survey method, combined with the modern education management theory, the preliminary selection of the candidate indicators of the college students' mental health education curriculum teaching quality assessment system is set, and the openness is set in the questionnaire. Questions to understand the opinions and suggestions of the participants on the content not mentioned in the questionnaire and each participant's consultation has a detailed filling guide, and the answer to the previous round of the questionnaire is returned to the subject. The importance of the alternative indicators is divided into five levels based on the Likert 5 method: very important (5 points), important (4 points), general (3 points), unimportant (2 points), and very unimportant (1 point); the familiarity with the survey content is also divided into five levels: very familiar (5 points), familiar (4 points), average (3 points), unfamiliar (2 points), and very unfamiliar (1 point). The judgment basis is divided into four categories: theoretical analysis, practical experience, understanding from the peers, and intuitive perception and the degree of influence is divided

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PSYCHOANALYSIS ON STUDENT ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION 1176

into three levels: large, medium and small.

Observation indicators

After the questionnaire is collected, the scores of overriding psychology, sequential position effect, group effect and stereotype effect of the relationship between main assessor and evaluated object, the psychological self-psychological and mental psychological scores of the individual self-psychological behavior, and the compliance and rebellious psychological scores of relationship mental behavior are statistically calculated.

Data Processing

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19.0 statistical software, and the data entered were analyzed. The measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (x ±s). The t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the observed indicators and the statistical results were P<0.05 as the significant standard

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF TEACHING QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Psychological factors and their regulation of assessment organizers

Organizational process psychology refers to the assessment of the psychological phenomenon and behavior of the organizer in the process of organizational assessment; it includes the selection of the main appraisers, the establishment of assessment agencies, the main assessment and the assessment of communication, the internal relations of the main assessment, and other psychological phenomena and behaviors. If the main reviewer is selected, the impression is selected, the acquaintance is selected, and the person who comments is easy to communicate is selected by the assessment team; the avoidance of the suspect often excludes the close-knit person with better quality from the assessment group; when dealing with the relationship between the main assessment and the evaluated, it will produce people who are in the capacity of the organizer, or may not adhere to the principle and the mud, and so on, which will affect the smooth progress of the assessment. The assessment organizer must have better psychological quality and strong management ability; it can adhere to the principle and communicate with the work, and it is bold and meticulous and has both democratic style and decision-making ability. Organizational personnel must be familiar with the assessment theory, enhance the consciousness of

the assessment work, foresee the problems that will arise in the assessment process, and adopt the control measures early. The weight coefficient of different psychological factors of teaching quality assessment is shown in Figure 1.

In educational practice, students tend to form an understanding and assessment of teachers' future and even overall teaching based on their initial teaching impressions. When the teacher's initial teaching forms a good first impression among the students, it will make him perform generally poorly in teaching, and the overall assessment of the teacher's teaching will often be based on his initial goodness to the teacher. Figure 2 shows the impact factors of different psychological factors of assessment organizers. Teaching impressions and making a good assessment, and it can be seen from this that the effect of the first cause effect often makes the students lose the objective authenticity of the overall assessment of the teacher. In the practice of education, students often have a deep impression on the teacher's recent one or two teachings, and directly affect their understanding and assessment of teacher teaching (Shirbagi, Naser, & Yahagi, 2011). If a teacher realizes that the school has recently asked the students to comment on the teacher, the teacher will change the normality of teaching sloppiness in the past, focusing on the previous two high-level classes, then when the students evaluate the teacher’s teaching, According

to the teacher's recent impression of the class, the teacher's teaching is highly rated, and this is the deviation of students' assessment of teachers' teaching due to the effect of the near-effects.

Figure 1

.

Weight coefficient of different

psychological factors of teaching quality

assessment

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Figure 2

.

Impact factors of different

psychological

factors

of

assessment

organizers

Whether the appraisers' desires in the assessment process can be satisfied or not is different to the development of their psychological state. If the appraisers' desires are satisfied, their beliefs in assessment will be strengthened, their inclinations will expand, and the spirit will be uplifted, and will create new and higher goals, and from a positive point of view, the teaching work will continue to progress. On the contrary, if the

assessor's desire is not satisfied, the teacher’s belief

in assessment will be lost, psychologically frustrated and disappointed, and the future work and self-confidence will be insufficient, and from the

negative aspect, the teacher’s tendency will be

expanded. The spirit will feel depressed, the emotions will become uneasy, and the overall goal of continuous improvement in teaching will be unfavorable and the object being evaluated has its own motives, intentions and expectations in the transmission of information. In a nutshell, it is to make the assessment subject understand his own viewpoints, practices and achievements, and then get recognition and affirmation. To this end, there is a question of how to select the content of the information and its form of dissemination, so that the members of the assessment team can restore the symbol information encoded by the reviewer as accurately and comprehensively as possible to the meaning they are intended to express.

Psychological factors and their regulation of assessor and assessed objects

The main critics are in a very important position in the assessment process, and they should not only score and identify the judges scientifically and fairly, but also fully reflect the love and trust of the critics, and sincerely help the assessors find problems.

However, the main critics are also individuals in society, and their values, past impressions, emotional likes and dislikes, psychological illusions, extreme thinking patterns, and mood when expressing opinions will all be reflected in the assessment, making the assessment subjective. The impact factors of different psychological factors of assessors and assessed objects are shown in Figure 3. The direct influence of the main reviewer's psychological state and inclination on the assessment of objectivity often affects the assessed object and thus affects all aspects of the assessment activity. The psychological behaviors of the main assessor and the object being evaluated include overriding psychology, sequential positional effects, group effects and stereotypes. The main self-psychological behaviors of the main assessment include psychological set and role psychology; while the psychological behaviors of the internal relations of the main assessment group include compliance and rebellious psychology. It is necessary to carry out the regulation of the main assessment psychology from the aspects of selecting assessors, conducting ideological mobilization, and conducting assessment skills training (Hammonds, Mariano, Ammons et al., 2017).

Figure 3

.

Impact factors of different

psychological factors of assessors and

assessed objects

When students evaluate the teacher's teaching attitude, knowledge and teaching ability, the assessment of the teacher's teaching ability will be influenced by the teacher's intimacy and the teacher's teaching style, and the assessment of the teacher's teaching attitude will be influenced by the teaching ability level. At the same time, even the same teacher, in the face of different levels of students, also differed greatly in the assessment results, and it is speculated that students have the

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PSYCHOANALYSIS ON STUDENT ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION 1178

most direct feelings about the teacher's teaching attitude. This feeling is influenced by the teaching ability at the same time; the stronger the teaching ability, the more serious the students feel the teacher's teaching attitude. Whether the teacher uses a variety of teaching methods to enable students to better understand the knowledge, as a reference problem, in the case of the same teaching conditions, this question does not involve the teaching level of the teacher, while attending class, the same teacher, the same teaching materials and students in different classes have different assessment results. It is difficult to find that students are strictly following the options or evaluating them according to the questions, therefore, the non-professional nature of students in the process of assessment is a problem worthy of attention and the assessment of teachers' teaching needs to be combined with the teaching and assessment of experts and peers.

Due to the non-motivated attribution bias of students, it lacks the objective and impartiality of teacher assessment. The so-called non-motivated attribution bias refers to the deviation caused by the processing information and cognitive reasons when the students evaluate the teacher's teaching behavior (Goos & Salomons, 2017). The more common performance is that students tend to overestimate the importance of teachers' own factors in teaching in the attribution of teachers' teaching, and often devalue or neglect the role of other related factors in teaching, so that the success or failure of teaching and the reason is entirely attributable to the teachers themselves. Although pedagogy reveals the principle that teachers play a leading role in teaching, the teacher's leading role in teaching does not mean that the teacher's teaching behavior is not subject to any conditions, but has complete freedom of will. In fact, the teacher's teaching process is also affected by many factors such as the content of the teaching materials, teaching equipment, venue, time, classroom atmosphere, students' learning attitude, knowledge base, and psychological state at that time.

DESIGN OF TEACHING QUALITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM BASED ON PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT MECHANISM

Construction of assessment indicator system based on psychological effect mechanism

Due to the interference of various external factors and the influence of personal emotional factors, a considerable number of students will have

deviations in the assessment of teaching, resulting in the results of assessment is not objective, therefore it is necessary to conduct correct guidance in the process of student assessment. Psychology researchers have proposed the psychological effects of human behavior, that is, the psychological effects of external behaviors imposed on individuals and social groups, causing psychological reactions and effects, suggesting that people are in the same situation. Some of the same stimuli produce the same or similar psychological responses. The accuracy of assessment indicator calculation and psychological factor regulation of assessment indicator systems are shown in Figure 4. Psychological effects can be utilized. In the process of students' assessment of teaching, external factors such as language and assessment environment directly or indirectly affect students' assessment of psychological activities, follow the relevant psychological reactions, and make their assessment psychology change better, and then guide students objectively evaluate teaching. In the process of student assessment, the assessment of other courses taught by the evaluated teachers, or the partial assessment of the current course has been completed, or the individual assessment of the teacher's history is presented to the students in a time-sharing manner. For students who cannot be correctly guided, the abnormal assessment data will be appropriately modified to make the results basically normal and comprehensive assessment of multi-source assessment data is finally carried out through analytic hierarchy process and data fusion technology.

Figure 4

.

Accuracy of assessment indicator

calculation

and

psychological

factor

regulation of assessment indicator system

(1) and (2)

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In the whole teaching quality assessment system, the establishment of the assessment index system and the analysis of the assessment results are two crucial links, which determine the scientific, fairness and practicability of the entire assessment system. The basic idea of the analytic hierarchy process is to establish an internal independent hierarchical structure that describes the function or characteristics of the system according to the requirements of the problem. Through the relative importance of the two factors, construct the judgment matrix of the upper element and the lower related elements. In order to get a sequence of relative importance of related elements to the upper elements, this method absorbs the characteristics of behavioral science and quantifies the judgment of decision makers. In the case of complex target structure and lack of necessary data, this method is more practical and is a systematic analysis method commonly used in system science, thus becoming one of the mathematical tools for system analysis. Each indicator must represent and reflect certain information of the assessment object and it should fully reflect the teaching characteristics of the teachers in vocational colleges, and set different assessment indicators according to different types and different professions, different nature courses and different teaching objects (Fouskakis, Petrakos, & Vavouras, 2016).

Whether teachers can consciously cultivate students' ability in these aspects in combination with relevant teaching content in teaching is one of the important indicators to measure whether the ability goal is achieved. Teaching content corresponding to emotional goals, such as the content of certain mathematical subjects, can cultivate students' rigorous attitude towards academic or life; some humanities can teach students to objectively view the history and culture of each country and learn to treat different cultures inclusively; the content of certain social subjects can guide students to think diversified on ethical, social and political issues and form reasonable value judgments. Whether or not these contents are included in the teaching content is an important indicator for measuring whether the emotional goals can be achieved. Scientific refers to whether to pass the most basic and core content of the subject to students, whether to present students with different factions or different ways to solve problems in teaching, whether there is strong theoretical and ideological; frontier refers to Whether it is helpful to guide students to understand the frontiers of the discipline and new

achievements, new trends, new information and the impact of these new trends on future social development; relevance refers to whether factual knowledge and conceptual knowledge are related to each other, whether it can confirm and explain the main points; balance refers to whether it is properly balanced in the breadth and depth of knowledge.

Design ideas of teaching assessment system based on psychological effect mechanism

Combined with the modern education assessment theory, the preliminary indicators of the assessment system of the psychological quality education curriculum for college students are initially constructed, and the open questions are set in the expert questionnaire to understand the opinions and suggestions of the experts on the contents not mentioned in the questionnaire. In the process of constructing the indicator system, it is continuously tested whether it meets the requirements of modern education assessment theory, and all colleges and universities generally use the same indicator system to evaluate the teaching quality of all professional curriculum teachers, without distinguishing the particularities of different courses. The psychological health education course of college students is the main way to prevent the mental health problems of college students, therefore it is necessary to explore and analyze the influencing factors of the teaching quality of college students' mental health education, and form a reasonable assessment index system. In order to improve the quality of teaching in corresponding courses and ensure the healthy and balanced development of college students, the teaching quality assessment index system will make a more objective, fair and comprehensive assessment of the teacher's teaching effect according to the characteristics of the college students' mental health education curriculum.

The process factor is also very important in the assessment of students. Compared with the objective factors such as the importance and difficulty of the course, the students' interest in the course is almost a decisive factor; if students have a strong interest in the course they are studying, they will often transfer their interest in the subject to the teacher, so that the teacher of the course will be highly evaluated. Conversely, if the student is not interested in the course, even if the quality of the teacher is no matter how good the students are, the assessment will not be very high. The students' interest comes from many factors such as the teacher's lecture and the course itself; if the

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PSYCHOANALYSIS ON STUDENT ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION 1180

teacher's teaching style and level are positively related to the students' interest in the course, the student's assessment can objectively and truthfully reflect the teacher's teaching level; otherwise, if the

teacher teaches’ style, level and the student's

interest are negatively correlated, the student's assessment of the teacher's teaching quality with his own interest bias will inevitably make a bias judgment.

Figure 5

.

Weight coefficients of different

assessment indicators of higher education

teaching

Figure 5 shows the weight coefficients of different assessment indicators of higher education teaching. Student assessment is a systematic work, including assessment of organizational design, assessment of indicator system design, assessment of data collection, processing and analysis, assessment of information feedback, any of which is not well designed or out the problem will affect the fairness of the review, and if the problematic link is not improved or corrected in time, the unfair state of the review will continue (Weng, Weng, & Tsai, 2014). Therefore, data analysis can be used as a functional module in the whole student assessment system and its function is to identify the impartiality of the assessment from the perspective of data, and to provide timely feedback of the identification results, so as to provide a basis for adjusting or improving the assessment work system. Since the data of assessment is from students, and the quality of students' assessment is largely dependent on the understanding of the indicator system, the indicators should be determined from the perspective of students, focusing on the applicability, conciseness and operability of the indicators. The content of each indicator should be specific and

specific, and the degree of discrimination should be high, which is convenient for students to grasp and ensure that students do not have much deviation when they evaluate.

Implementation approach of teaching

assessment system based on psychological effect mechanism

The study of educational psychology aims to explore the adaptability of learning and teaching, therefore an important factor that must be considered in the standard education and teaching of learning and teaching is the teaching goal. Because of the different teaching objectives, the teaching behavior and teaching strategies should be different for the same students and the same learning content. What the teaching pursues is the maximum realization of the teaching objectives; if the teaching objectives are completed due to the reasonable matching of learning and teaching, then it can be said that learning and teaching are adapted. The assessment of the teacher's classroom teaching must first determine what the teaching objectives of the course are, and then evaluate whether the teacher's teaching takes into account the specific situation of the student's learning and adopt appropriate teaching strategies and teaching behaviors to complete the teaching objectives. This is the design idea of the goal-oriented classroom teaching assessment system, and whether the learning and teaching is adapted to consider whether the achievement of the teaching goal is optimized.

Figure 6

.

Teaching quality assessment

system in higher education based on

psychological effect mechanism

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Figure 6 shows the teaching quality assessment system in higher education based on psychological effect mechanism. The assessment of the teaching process in the teaching quality assessment system should be carried out in accordance with the standard procedures of assessment, feedback and improvement. In most teaching quality assessments, this aspect of improvement is often overlooked. After the feedback, whether the teaching process is rectified according to the opinions and suggestions of the assessment feedback, the organization manager who needs the assessment of the teaching quality continues to evaluate the comments and suggestions given in the follow-up assessment process, and completes the procedure of evaluating and rectifying the rectification, otherwise the assessment is halfway. The operation mode of teaching quality assessment system should emphasize randomness, uncertainty and consistency, and ensure that the teaching process of assessment is the true state and the integrity of assessment. There are many students, courses and teachers to be evaluated in the teaching process of higher vocational education and each subject involves a longer time for teaching, and the teaching quality assessment organization is limited and the assessment object and process cannot be completed in a certain period of time when covering, random sampling is used to determine the object of assessment and the time of assessment. With the randomness of this assessment object and the uncertainty of assessment time, it is ensured that all members and the whole process can receive teaching quality assessment in the most real state teaching process at any time (Oon, Spencer, & Kam, 2017).

The goal of college students' psychological quality education can be divided into developmental goals and preventive goals. The developmental goal of psychological quality education focuses on the development problems that most normal people must face in their growth, and explores how to achieve excellent quality and skills from the perspective of positive psychology. The preventive goal of psychological quality education focuses on the psychological problems that a very small number of susceptible people may have, and how to prevent mental illness from the perspective of psychopathology and the two goals of psychological quality education complement each other and are indispensable. From the perspective of the development of psychology, psychology has penetrated into all fields of social production and life; the development and research of psychology can be

divided into two categories of theory and application and the development of the theoretical part of psychology focuses on basic experimental and theoretical research. Based on a large number of experimental studies, it proposes the general laws and general principles of psychology and the application of psychology focuses on practical application in solid psychology. On the basis of theory, facing the reality of life, the psychological principles acquired from the laboratory are applied to practice.

CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of summarizing and analyzing previous research works, this paper elaborated the development background, current status and future challenges of teaching quality assessment in higher education, analyzed the subjective psychological deviations that restrict the effectiveness of college

students’ teaching quality assessment, and

proposed the regulation method of negative psychological factors in the process of teaching quality evaluation. Taking the psychological factors and control methods of teaching quality assessment in higher education into consideration, this paper also constructed an assessment indicator system, design ideas and implementation path of the assessment system module based on psychological effect mechanism. The psychological behaviors of main assessors and assessed objects being evaluated include overriding psychology, sequential positional effects, group effects and stereotypes. The main self-psychological behaviors of the main assessment include psychological set and role psychology; while the psychological behaviors of the internal relations of the main assessment group include compliance and rebellious psychology. It is necessary to carry out the regulation of the main assessment psychology from the aspects of selecting assessors, conducting ideological mobilization, and conducting assessment skills training. Due to the interference of various external factors and the influence of personal emotional factors, a considerable number of students will have deviations in the assessment of teaching, resulting in the results of assessment is not objective. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct correct guidance in the process of student assessment and psychological effects can be utilized. In the process of students' assessment of teaching, external factors such as language and assessment environment directly or indirectly affect students' assessment of psychological activities, follow the relevant

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psychological reactions, and make their assessment psychology change better, and then guide Students objectively evaluate teaching. In the process of student assessment, the assessment of other courses taught by the evaluated teachers, or the partial assessment of the current course has been completed, or the individual assessment of the teacher's history is presented to the students in a time-sharing manner.

Acknowledgements

Hebei Federation of Social Science Circles; "Research on Teaching Quality Evaluation System of Hebei University Based on BP Neural Network"; Project No.: 2019031201012.

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