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Localización de la aromatasa en arteria uterina humana

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P 1 *I G52:6C5/,9/:652/ 2/,G52:6</81,1 E *I $ K /, .81 5,6/8?501 589:1>/3.31: -./ >19135?1 31 589/:>68=/:,5;8 /89:/ /3 /,9:12563 H 31 /,9:681+ /,9B 10@3510/89/ 25,9:54.521, /8 9/A526, G.0186,+ 913/,

>606 6=1:56+ 9/A526 125@6,6+ @31>/891+ 0.>6,1 =1<5813+ /8260/9:56+ 0101+

/:59:6>596, / G7<126O /8 /3 J9/:6 31 *I $ >19135?1 31 >68=/:,5;8 2/ /,9:12563 1 /,9:681 E .?.N5 H >63,+ K .,1826 EH /8 0/86: <:126 $K >606

>6D1>96:+ 9:1H/826 >606 >68,/>./8>51 31 @F:2521 2/ 31 /,950.31>5;8 /,9:6<F85>1 /8 /3 J9/:6 E)G. H >63,+ K

1 >68A.<1>5;8 0/914;35>1 2/3 /,9:12563 H /,9:681 >68 <3.>.:;8526, H ,.3D196, /8 /3 G7<126 25,058.H/ ,. 1>95=5212 G6:06813 H D1>53591 ,. /C>:/>5;8 8 0.A/:/, @6,90/86@B.,5>1, 31, >68>/89:1>568/, @31,0B95>1, 2/ /,9:12563 ,68 0.H 41A1,+ @/:6 ,. >68>/89:1>5;8 /8 /8260/9:56 H >F3.31, >18>/:6,1, 2/

0101 @./2/8 ,/: 1 =/>/, 0B, 1391, -./ 31 >68>/89:1>5;8 2/ /,9:;</86, /8 31 >5:>.31>5;8

6, /,9:;</86, ,.3D68126, >1,5 86 95/8/8 1D585212 @6: 36, :/>/@96:/, /,9:6<F85>6, H ,. 1>95=5212 /,9:6<F85>1 :/,.391 2/ K 31 :/1>>5;8 2/

2/,>68A.<1>5;8 /8?50B95>1 /8 /3 G7<126+ K 2126 -./ 31 /,9:681 " ,.3D196 /, 9:18,@6:9121 1 31, >F3.31, 2/ >B8>/: 2/ 0101+ H 1 -./ F,91, >6895/8/8 1396,

>68>/89:1>568/, 2/ /,9:;</86 ,.3D191,1+ @./2/8 ,/: D./89/ 2/ /,9:;</86, /8 /3

>B8>/: 2/ 0101O @6: /,96 ,/ >:// -./ /,91, :.91, >689:54.H/8 1 36, 85=/3/, 1396, 2/ /,9:12563 /8 9/A526 >18>/:6,6+ /8 :/31>5;8 1 36, 2/ 31 >5:>.31>5;8 ,5,9F05>1

! " P 1 0/9531>5;8 2/ 36, >19/>63 /,9:;</86, /, >19135?126 @6:

31 + /8?501 -./ /,91 @:/,/89/ /8 G7<126+ :5S;8+ >F3.31, ,18<.78/1,+

/8260/9:56 .9/:586 H <3B82.31 0101:51+ /8 2682/ ,/ /8>./89:1 /8 /3 >596,63 H 0/04:181 >/3.31: 6, 0/91463596, /,9:6<F85>6, 06860/953126, 95/8/8 0.H 41A1 1D585212 @6: /3 :/>/@96: 2/ /,9:;</86 /8 :/31>5;8 13 /,9:12563 H >1:/>/8 2/

/D/>96, /8 /3 J9/:6 6: 69:1 @1:9/ ,/ ,14/ -./ /3 0/96C5/,9:12563 25,058.H/

(18)

31, >68>/89:1>568/, 2/ >63/,9/:63 H 9:5<35>F:526, /8 31 ,18<:/+ ,58 58=63.>:1: 13 :/>/@96: 2/ /,9:;</86,+ 12/0B, /3 0/96C5/,9:12563 58G54/ /3 >:/>505/896 2/3

>1:>58601 2/ 0101 / E)G. H 688/H+ K

7

3 /D/>96 2/ 36, /,9:;</86, ,/ 2/4/ 1 31 589/:1>>5;8 2/ F,96, >68 ,. :/>/@96: H ,/ /8>./89:18 @:58>5@130/89/ /8 /3 8J>3/6+ .8526, 1 31, @:69/781, -./

/,914535?18 13 :/>/@96: 1 .85;8 2/ 31 G6:0681 1 ,. :/>/@96: 139/:1 31

>68D6:01>5;8 2/ /,9/ H 354/:1 1 31, @:69/781, /,914535?189/, E@:58>5@130/89/ $,@

K 2/3 >60@3/A6 G6:0681 :/>/@96: 3 >60@3/A6 G6:0681V:/>/@96: D6:01 G606270/:6, -./ ,/ .8/8 1 .81 ,/>./8>51 /,@/>7D5>1 2/ 8.>3/;9526, 2/86058126, /3/0/896, 2/ :/,@./,91 1 36, /,9:;</86, E K /8 =1:56, </8/, H :/<.318 ,. 9:18,>:5@>5;8

1 @69/8>51 2/ =1:56, >60@./,96, /,9:6<F85>6, /, @:6@6:>56813 1 31 2.:1>5;8 2/ 95/0@6 -./ /3 >60@3/A6 G6:0681 :/>/@96: /,9B /8 /3 8J>3/6 >/3.31: 3 /,9:563 95/8/ .8 95/0@6 2/ 1 # G6:1,+ 31 /,9:681 H /3 /,9:12563 95/8/8 .81 @/:018/8>51 8.>3/1: 589/:0/251 2/ 1 # G6:1,

6, /,9:;</86, 95/8/8 26, 95@6, 2/ :/>/@96:/,O /3 H + H @:/,/8918 25D/:/8>51, 2/ 1D585212 E!36.:569 H >63,+ K / /8>./89:18 /8 31 0/04:181 H ,/ 36>135?18 /8 9/A526, /,@/>7D5>6,O /3 ,/ 36>135?1 /8 @.30;8+ 589/,9586+

:5S;8+ =/A5<1+ /3 ,/ /8>./89:1 /8 G7<126+ 05/89:1, -./ /8 + =1,6, ,18<.78/6, E :813 H 1H1:2+ K+ <3B82.31 0101:51+ J9/:6+ G./,6,+ >6:1?;8+

6=1:56+ @:;,9191+ /@5272506 H 9/,97>.36, ,/ @./2/8 /8>689:1: 1046, :/>/@96:/, EW6L13,N5 H >63,+ "O .>685 H >63,+ K

1 1>>5;8 2/ 36, /,9:;</86 ,/ 33/=1 1 >146 @6: 26, =71,P

%71 </8;05>1O /8 /,91 :.91+ 13 .85:,/ /3 /,9:;</86 1 ,. :/>/@96:+ ,/ 582.>/8

>10456, >68D6:01>56813/, /8 /3 >60@3/A6 @:69/781 :/>/@96:+ @1:1 -./ @./21 33/=1:,/ 1 >146 31 .85;8 1 :/<568/, /,@/>7D5>1, 2/3 + -./ ,/ >686>/8 >606 /3/0/896, 2/ :/,@./,91 1 /,9:;</86,+ 36 -./ 1 ,. =/? 1.0/891 31 ,789/,5, 2/

=1:51, @:69/781,+ /,9/ @:6>/,6 58=63.>:1 95/0@6, @:6368<126,+ 2/ G6:1, 1 271,+

2/ 1G7 -./ /8 41,/ 1 /,9/ 95/0@6 ,/ /=52/8>5/ 31 :.91 </8;05>1 E 1213 H >63,+

O 53,,68 H >63,+ K

(19)

%71 86 </8;05>1O ,/ 33/=1 1 >146 1 9:1=F, 2/ >1,>121, 2/ ,/S135?1>5;8+ >68 31 589/:=/8>5;8 2/ @:69/781, -./ E-./ 1>95=1 1 H 2/853196 >5>31,1+ /8

>68,/>./8>51 1.0/8918 36, 85=/3/, 2/ 586,5963 9:5D6,D196 H >+

:/,@/>95=10/89/

6, /D/>96, /,9:6<F85>6, 582.>526, 2/ 018/:1 :B@521+ >606 31 >1@91>5;8 2/

>13>56 @6: 31 >F3.31 <:18.36,1 H /3 D3.A6 ,18<.78/6 .9/:586 1.0/89126 86 :/-.5/:/8 1>95=1>5;8 2/3 </8O /,96, ,68 0/25126, @6: :/>/@96:/, 0/04:1813/, -./ 25D5/:/8 2/3 :/>/@96: 589:1>/3.31:O /8 :/31>5;8 1 /,96 /C5,9/ .8 >1,6 :/@6:9126 2/ .8 G604:/ -./ @:/,/896 :/,5,9/8>51 1 /,9:;</86, 2/4526 1 0.91>568/, /8 /3 </8 2/ H 1.8-./ 36, /D/>96, 86 D./:68 06:913/, ,/

64,/:=6 -./ 86 ,/ >5/::18 31, /@7D5,5, @6: 36 -./ /3 5825=52.6 95/8/ /,919.:1 1391+

6,9/6@6:6,5,+ 1391, >68>/89:1>568/, ,18<.78/1, 2/ /,9:12563+ $+ ! $ / 58,.3581 E 059G H >63,+ #K

7

3 5<.13 -./ 36, /,9:;</86,+ 36, 182:;</86, 91045F8 /A/:>/8 ,. 1>>5;8 1 9:1=F, 2/3 :/>686>505/896 H .85;8 2/ .8 :/>/@96: /,@/>7D5>6 6, ,/ G18 36>135?126 /8 >6:1?;8 E 1:,G H >63,+ K+ <68121, H >F3.31, ,18<.78/1, E /9/: H >63, K

6, 182:;</86,+ 91045F8 >686>526, >606 G6:0681, 01,>.3581,+ 58>3.H/8 1 31 9/,96,9/:681 H 1 31 25G52:69/,96,9/:681+ 36, >.13/, @1:95>5@18 /8 /3 2/,1::6336 2/

36, >1:1>9/:/, ,/>.821:56, 01,>.3586, H /,950.318 31 /,@/:0196<F8/,5,+ 1 9/,96,9/:681 /, ,589/95?121 /8 31, >F3.31, 2/ /H25< E :585=1,18+ K+

@/:5DF:5>1, 13 ,5956 2/ /,@/:0196<F8/,5, H /8 /3 /@5272506 E 8</D:6:/8 H >63, K 8 /3 G604:/ ,/ @:62.>/8 1 36 31:<6 2/ 31 =521+ 1.8-./ /8 31 0.A/:

@:/0/86@B.,5>1 ,/ ,589/95?1 9/,96,9/:681+ /8 2682/ ,. @:62.>>5;8 /, 0/86:+

@/:6 1.0/891 2/,@.F, 2/ 31 0/86@1.,51

1 9/,96,9/:681 95/8/ 25=/:,1, D.8>568/,+ @6: /A/0@36+ ,/ ,14/ -./ 582.>/ 31 :/31A1>5;8 582/@/825/89/ 2/3 /8269/356 /8 1:9/:51 >6:681:51 H 16:91 15,3121 2/

>68/A6 ,58 31 0/251>5;8 2/ 31 @:6,91<3182581 6 1 >682.>918>51 13

@691,56 H 36, >1813/, 2/ @691,56 2/@/825/89/, 2/ 35<1826 @./2/8 /,91:

58=63.>:126, /8 /3 0/>185,06 2/ :/31A1>5;8 0/25126 @6: 9/,96,9/:681 1 :/31A1>5;8 /, 2/@/825/89/ 2/3 ,/C6 H 2/3 :/>/@96: >3B,5>6+ 31 1:9/:51

>6:681:51 /, ,5<85D5>195=10/89/ 0B, ,/8,543/ 1 31 :/31A1>5;8 0/25121 @6: 31 9/,96,9/:681 -./ 31 16:91 1045F8 ,/ G1 >60@:64126 -./ 31 9/,96,9/:681 /,

(20)

.8 @69/89/ 1</89/ :/31A189/ /8 31 1:9/:51 >6:681:51 2/ >68/A6+ 58>3.,6 01H6:

-./ 69:6, 18B36<6, 2/ 31 9/,96,9/:681 E/956>63186+ /@5182:6,9/:681+ /818918196 2/ 9/,96,9/:681K E ./ H >63,+ O W1N.>, H >63,+ K

6, /D/>96, 86 </8;05>6, 2/ 31 9/,96,9/:681 >60@:/82/ 31 582.>>5;8 2/

>1,>121, 2/ ,/S135?1>5;8+ -./ 58>3.H/8 1.0/896 2/ >13>56 589:1>/3.31:+ @:69/781

>581,1 H W+ -./ @./2/8 0/251: 31 :/31A1>5;8 2/ 0J,>.36 35,6 H 31 9:18,05,5;8 8/.:60.,>.31: E$/583/58+ K+ 36, /D/>96, 0/25126, 1 9:1=F, 2/

/,91, :.91, ,/ 33/=18 1 >146 /8 ,/<.826, 6 058.96, 6, 1891<685,91, 2/ 31 =71

>3B,5>1 86 589/:D5/:/8 >68 31 =71 86 </8;05>1

/@/825/826 2/3 ,5,9/01 2/ ,/<.826, 0/8,1A/:6, -./ /,9/ .8526 13 :/>/@96:

2/ 182:;</86,+ /, /3 /D/>96 -./ ,/ =1 1 64,/:=1:+ @6: /A/0@36 >.1826 /3 :/>/@96: 2/ 182:;</86, /,91 1>6@3126 1 @:69/781, + ,/ 64,/:=1 .8 1.0/896 /8 /3 >13>56 589:1>/3.31:+ /8 91896 /3 1>6@3105/896 >68 W+ 21 >606 :/,.39126 31 05<:1>5;8+ @:635D/:1>5;8 H 25D/:/8>51>5;8 >/3.31:+ H 31 :/31>5;8 >68 31 12/853196

>5>31,1+ 21 .8 1.0/896 /8 /3 > E$/583/58 H G18<+ K

1 .85;8 2/3 182:;</86 1 :/>/@96:/, 8.>3/1:/, ,/ 582.>/ 31 250/:5?1>5;8 2/3 :/>/@96: E .33/: H >63,+ #K+ D1>53591826 31 .85;8 2/3 :/>/@96: 1 69:1, @:69/781, -./ =18 1 :/<.31: 31 1>>5;8 ,64:/ /3

8

6, 9/A526, /C9:1<681213/, >606 9/A526 125@6,6+ G7<126+ 0J,>.36+ >/:/4:6 H 0101+ ,/ >68=5/:9/8 /8 31, D./89/, @:501:51, 2/ /,9:;</86, H 36, ,5956, 25D/:/89/, 1 F,96,+ /8 36, -./ D6:018+ ,/ >686>/8 >606 D./89/, @/:5DF:5>1,O 125>568130/89/ 1 31 1:60195?1>5;8 @/:5DF:5>1 /C5,9/8 13 0/86, 26, D1>96:/, -./

,68 2/9/:058189/, /8 31 >1895212 2/ /,9:;</86, + -./ ,68 31 1>95=5212 2/

1:60191,1 /8 /3 9.06: H 31 25,@6854535212 2/ 36, ,.,9:196, @1:1 31 1:60191,1 E ./ H >63, + K

1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 31 @31>/891 G.0181 @1:/>/ ,/: 8/>/,1:51

@1:1 31 9:18,D6:01>5;8 2/ $ /8 31, 12:/813/, 019/:81, H D/913/, 1 9:1=F, 2/ 31 >68=/:,5;8 1 /,9:;</86, 1 ,.3D191,1 @31>/891:51+ " G52:6C5/,9/:652/

2/,G52:6</8121O # 5,60/:1,1 H * G52:6C5/,9/:652/ 2/,G52:6</8121O 95/8/ 31

>1@1>5212 2/ >68=/:95: /,9/ @:/>.:,6: /8 9/,96,9/:681+ 1.0/891826 31

@:62.>>5;8 2/ 9/,96,9/:681+ 21826.81 ,/=/:1 =5:535?1>5;8 2/ 36, </85913/, /C9/:86, D/0/8586, /8 31 =521 /04:5681:51 9/0@:181 3 05,06 85=/3 2/

(21)

/C@6,5>5;8 1 182:;</86, 2/3 D/96 01,>.3586 2/D5>5/89/ /8 86 >1.,1 858<.81 186:0135212 </85913 13 81>505/896 E .3.8+ K

8 .39:1,68526 :/135?126 /8 85S1, 2/D5>5/89/, 2/ 06,9:; 31 @:/,/8>51 2/

6=1:56, -.7,95>6,+ 2/4526 @:64143/0/89/ 1 36, 1396, 85=/3/, 2/ <681269:6D581, /8 1.,/8>51 2/ /,9:;</86, / 58G54581O >1:1>9/:7,95>1, G5,963;<5>1, ,50531:/, ,/

/8>689:1:68 /8 6=1:56, 2/ :19;8 9:18,<F85>6+ 2682/ /3 :/>/@96: 2/ /,9:;</86, /,91 139/:126+ 36, 6=1:56, 2/ /,96, :1968/, 06,9:1:68 -.5,9/, G/06::B<5>6, 1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 @1:/>/ ,/: 8/>/,1:51 @1:1 /3 2/,1::6336 86:013 D635>.31:+ ,58 /041:<6+ ,. 2/D5>5/8>51 6 31 :/,5,9/8>51 1 36, /,9:;</86, 86 @1:/>/

@:/=/85: /3 >:/>505/896 D635>.31: 2/,>689:63126

1 2/D5>5/8>51 2/ 6 31 :/,5,9/8>51 1 36, /,9:;</86, /,91 1,6>5126 1 36, ,789601, 2/ 6=1:56 @635-.7,95>6+ 1.8126 13 G/>G6 2/ -./ ,/ G1 64,/:=126

>:/>505/896 D635>.31: 186:013 /8 0.A/:/, 2/D5>5/89/, 2/ 1:60191,1 H 31 25,058.>5;8 /8 /3 8J0/:6 2/ >F3.31, 2/ 31 <:18.36,1 :/,.391 /8 .81 58,.D5>5/89/

@:62.>>5;8 2/ 58G54581+ 36 >.13 @./2/ /C@35>1: 36, 85=/3/, 1396, 2/ ! $ E .3.8+

K

8 /3 G604:/ 12.396 31 D1391 2/ ,789/,5, 2/ /,9:;</86,+ 9:1/ >606

>68,/>./8>51O 31 /3/=1>5;8 2/ 36, 85=/3/, >5:>.3189/, 2/ $ H ! $ 1 @/,1: 2/

36, 85=/3/, /3/=126, 2/ 9/,96,9/:681+ ,.<5:5/826 1,7 31 @1:95>5@1>5;8 2/ 36, /,9:;</86, /8 31 >5:>.31>5;8 </8/:13 6 36>130/89/ /8 /3 >/:/4:6+ ,64:/ 31 ,.@:/,5;8 2/ 31 ,/>:/>5;8 2/ $ E 1:185 H > 63,+ *K

1045F8 ,/ G1 /,9.25126 /3 /D/>96 -./ 95/8/8 36, /,9:;</86, ,589F95>6, ,64:/

36, >:606,601,O 913 /, /3 >1,6 2/3 25/953,9534/,9:63+ /3 >.13 >1.,1 589/:>10456 2/

>:60B9521, G/:0181, /8 36, 358D6>596, 2/ 0.A/:/, /041:1?121, H

@:/0/86@B.,5>1,+ @/:6 ,636 ,/ 64,/:=6 .8 35</:6 1.0/896 2/ 36, 589/:>10456, /8 36, 358D6>596, 2/ 31, 0.A/:/, @6,90/86@B.,5>1, 1 31 >68>/89:1>5;8 0B, 1391 E#' K+ E$533+ O H M63D + K+ /,96 ,/ 64,/:=1 -./ /8 @1>5/89/, -./

.,18 1895>68>/@95=6, >68 41,/ /,9:6<F85>1 E$1,.0 H >63,+ K H 91045F8 ,/

G18 :/@6:9126 05>:6,19F359/, E$62<,68 H >63,+ K B8>/: 2/ 6=1:56

1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 ,/ /=13J6 /8 >1:>58601, 6=B:5>6, H ,/ 64,/:=;

580.86:/1>95=5212 @1:1 /8 /3 ,5956 2/ 58=1,5;8O /3 18B35,5, 2/3 .,6 139/:8195=6 2/ 31, 0J395@3/, >6@51, 2/3 /C;8 @6: 06,9:; -./ 36, 9:18,>:596, .,126, @:58>5@130/89/ ,68 /3 > H 2EW1<1 H >63, + K

(22)

/ :/@6:9; 12/0B, -./ /3 /C68 2 6 ,/ .,1 /8 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 /3 >1,6 2/ 9.06:/, 2/ >F3.31, 2/ 31 <:18.36,1 6=B:5>1 6, 9.06:/, /@59/3513/, 6 2/ 31 ,.@/:D5>5/ /@59/3513 /,9:6013 ,68 /3 U 2/ 9626, 36, 8/6@31,01, 6=B:5>6, H 2/3 U 2/ 31, 0135<85212/, 6=B:5>1, E 1,186 H

$1:121+ K

B8>/: 2/ 0101P

68 :/,@/>96 13 >B8>/: 2/ 0101 ,/ G1 /8>689:126 -./ /3 9/A526 125@6,6

@/:5DF:5>6 H /3 9.06: 05,06 ,68 ,5956, @69/8>513/, 2/ 456,789/,5, 2/ /,9:;</86, H -./ ,/<J8 189/8 H >63,+ E *K+ 2/89:6 2/3 9.06:+ 31, >F3.31, /,9:6013/, 2/3 9.06: ,68 .81 D./89/ 2/ /,9:;</86, H 182:;</86, E%18 182/<G/0 H >63,+

KO >.H1 @:62.>>5;8 /, ,.D5>5/89/ @1:1 1.0/891: /3 >:/>505/896 >/3.31:

E /CN013 H >63,+ O 1N10.:1 H >63,+ K , 50@6:9189/ ,/S131: -./ 13 5<.13 -./ ,/ G1 /8>689:126 /8 01>:;D1<6,+ 91045F8 ,/ ,14/ -./ 31

@:58>5@13 D./89/ 2/ >596>581, /8 /3 >B8>/: 2/ 0101 ,68 01>:;D1<6, H 358D6>596, E /:,9/58 H >63,+ K+ 36, >.13/, @./2/8 58D539:1: 13 9.06:+ 12/0B, ,/ G1 =5,96 -./ 13 5<.13 -./ 31, >596>581,+ 31 H /3 ! @./2/8 /,950.31: 1 E 50@,68+ H >63,+ KO @6: 36 91896 /, @6,543/ 58D/:5: -./ 31 580.86,.@:/,5;8 /,9F 1,6>5121 >68 .81 :/2.>>5;8 /8 31 58>52/8>51 2/ >B8>/: 2/ 0101 2/ 86=6 /8 @1>5/89/, -./ :/>54/8 9:18,@3189/,+ 2/4526 1 -./ /,9B :/2.>521 31

@:62.>>5;8 2/ >596>581, H /8 >68,/>./8>51 31 ,789/,5, 2/ /,9:;</86, E 58<G 1 H

>63, *O 6: H >63,+ K 8 69:6 ,/89526 1,-.13585 H G/:59/ E K /8>689:1:68 -./ @6: .8 3126 36, /,9:;</86, 58G54/8 /3 >:/>505/896 /3 9.06: 13 58G545: 31 1>95=5212 2/ 31 ,.3D191,1

8 69:6 /,9.256+ /8 >B8>/: G.0186 2/ 0101+ ,/ 0525; 31 1>95=5212 2/ H 86 G.46 >6::/31>5;8 /89:/ 31 >68>/89:1>5;8 2/ 1:60191,1 H 31 G5,96@19636<71 2/

36, 9.06:/,+ /212+ /,9126 0/86@B.,5>6+ /,9126 2/3 8626 358D652/ H 31 /91@1 2/ 31 @1>5/89/+ @/:6 36, 9.06:/, ,58 1>95=5212 2/ 1:60191,1 ,/ 1,6>51:68 >68 .8 1.0/896 /8 31 ,64:/=521 2/ 31 @1>5/89/+ >68 .8 @:60/256 2/ " 0/,/, 2/,@.F, 2/3 585>56 2/3 9:19105/896 18958/6@3B,5>6 E 533/: H >63, + K

1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 9/A526 0101:56 9.06:13 /,9B :/<.3121 @6:

=1:56, D1>96:/, E@6: /A/0@36 >+ H 36, @:60696:/, H K H /, 25D/:/89/ 1 1-./336, -./ 36 G1>/8 /8 9/A526 0101:56 86:013 E@6: /A/0@36+ /3 @:60696: # /, /,950.3126 @6: <3.>6>6:95>652/,K 1 >1:1>9/:5?1>5;8 2/ 36, D1>96:/, 2/

(23)

9:18,>:5@>5;8 -./ 589/:1>9J18 >68 /3/0/896, :/<.3126:/, >/:>186, 1 36,

@:60696:/, "+ + /3 /3/0/896 H 1:6 1H.21 1 /89/82/: /3 0/>185,06 2/

/8>/82526 139/:8195=6 2/ /C68/, /8 /3 9/A526 0101:56 86:013 H /3 9.06:13+ 1,7

@6: /A/0@36+ ,/ @:6@68/ -./ /8 /3 9/A526 0101:56 86:013+ 31 D.8>5;8 2/3

@:60696: " H /,91 ,.@:50521 @6: 31 .85;8 2/ + ! H 1 H 1 9:1=F, 2/ 31 .85;8 2/ 31, @:69/781, 8153Q 3.< 1 ,5956, 2/ .85;8 -./ 58G54/8 31 1>95=5212 2/ 1:6 8 9/A526 >18>/:6,6+ 36, 85=/3/, 2/ /C@:/,5;8 2/

+ !+ + 8153 H 3.< 25,058.H/8 H 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 ,/

,64:/ :/<.31 1 9:1=F, 2/ 31 .85;8 2/ 1 H 31 .85;8 2/ 6 D1>96:/, :/31>568126, 1 1:6 6: 69:1 @1:9/+ 2/ 018/:1 /C;</81 31 1>95=5212 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 >F3.31, -./ 31 /C@:/,18 @./2/ 0625D5>1:,/ 41A6 9:19105/896 >68 58G54526:/, 2/ 1:60191,1 H /3 1895/,9:;</86 * + @./, ,/ @5/8,1 -./ /3 1.0/896 2/ 31 1>95=5212 2/ 31 1:60191,1 @6: /3 .,6 2/

58G54526:/,+ ,/ 2/4/ 1 K .81 25,058.>5;8 2/ 31 2/<:121>5;8 2/ 31 @:69/781+

2/4526 1 31 D6:01>5;8 2/3 >60@3/A6 58G54526: @:69/781+ K 31 ,64:/::/<.31>5;8 2/3

</8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 1 9:1=F, 2/3 > H 31 582.>>5;8 2/ 31 /C@:/,5;8 @6:

<681269:6D581, -./ ,68 354/:121, @6: 31 G5@;D5,5, /8 :/,@./,91 1 31 :/2.>>5;8 2/

36, 85=/3/, 2/ /,9:;</86, >5:>.3189/, /8 31 0.A/: @:/0/86@B.,5>1 / G1 /8>689:126 -./ /3 1895/,9:;</86 +* ,.@:50/ 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/

1:60191,1+ @/:6 /3 0/>185,06 86 ,/ >686>/ E ,9/418 H >63, + K 6: 69:1

@1:9/ ,/ ,14/ -./ /3 @./2/ .85:,/ 1 + E.81 :/<5;8 ,53/8>5126:1 2/ +

@:/,/89/ /8 /3 </8 G.0186K H /,91 .85;8 :/<.31 1 31 41A1 31 1>95=5212 2/3

@:60696: 2/ + /,96 2/0./,9:1 -./ 36, :/>/@96:/, 8.>3/1:/, @1:95>5@18 /8 31 062.31>5;8 2/ 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ /8 /3 9/A526 G.0186 2/ 0101 E ./ H

>63,+ K

#$ % P / G1 /8>689:126 1>95=5212 2/ 1:60191,1 /8 >F3.31, /,9:6013/, -./ >68,959.H/8 /3 9/A526 /8260/9:5;95>6+ 05/89:1, -./ /8 /8260/9:56 /.9;@5>6 86 ,/ G1 @62526 2/9/>91: E G//8121H13. H >63,+ K 9:1=F, 2/ >.395=6, >/3.31:/,+ ,/ G1 /8>689:126 -./ 31 /C@:/,5;8 H 1>95=5212 2/ 31 1:60191,1 1.0/891 >.1826 ,/ 1S12/8 13 >.395=6+ > H /,96 ,/ /C@35>1 /8 41,/ 1 -./ ,/ G1 64,/:=126 -./ 1 * @1:/, 2/ 41,/, ,/ /8>./89:1 .81 :/<5;8 -./ D318-./1 13 @:60696: + 2/86058121 /3/0/896 2/ :/,@./,91 13

>+ @6: 36 -./ 2/4526 1 31 >/:>1871+ F,9/ @./2/ 1>95=1: 13 @:60696: 2/ 31

(24)

1:60191,1 H @6: /82/+ 0.91>568/, /8 25>G6 /3/0/896 25,058.H/8 31 >1@1>5212 2/3 > @1:1 582.>5: 13 @:60696: E 18< H >63, K H @6: /3 >689:1:56 ,5 ,/

1D/>91 31 1>95=5212 2/ 1 85=/3 /8?50B95>6 6 <F85>6 ,/ 58G54/ /3 >:/>505/896 2/3 9/A526 .9/:586 />9;@5>6 E!18< H >63,+ K+ 1,7 >606 @6: @/,95>521, >606 /3 96C1D/86 H /3 >36:2186 /8 9/A526 >18>/:6,6, 2/ 0101 E G/8 H >63,+ K

#$ & P / @5/8,1 -./ /3 2/,1::6336 H >:/>505/896 2/3 >1:>58601 2/3

>/:=5C /, ,/>.821:56 1 .81 58D/>>5;8 @6: =5:., 2/3 @1@53601 G.0186 H ,/ G1 2/06,9:126 .81 >6::/31>5;8 /89:/ /3 >:/>505/896 2/3 9.06: H 31 @:62.>>5;8 2/

G52:6C5/,9:681 /8 :19;8 58D/>9126 >68 /3 =5:., 2/3 @1@53601

#$ ' P / G1 64,/:=126 .8 1.0/896 /8 31 D6:01>5;8 2/ /,9:563 /8

@1>5/89/, >68 >B8>/: 2/ @:;,9191 /8 :/31>5;8 1 ,.A/96, ,186,+ H 86 ,/ G18 G/>G6 /,9.256, 2/ 31 G52:6C5/,9:681

( ' % " P 36, @1@53601, 31:78</6, 2/ G.0186, 649/8526, @6:

/,>5,5;8 -.5:J:<5>1 0./,9:18 .8 1.0/896 ,5<85D5>195=6 /8 /3 0/914635,06 2/3 /,9:12563 1 G52:6C5/,9:681+ /8 >60@1:1>5;8 >68 9/A526 31:78</6 ,186O 31 G52:6C5/,9:681 1,7 >606 /3 /,9:12563 /, >1@1? 2/ /,950.31: /3 >:/>505/896 2/3 /@59/356 31:78</6+ 91896 2/ 9/A526 86:013 >606 58D/>9126 @6: /3 =5:., 2/3

@1@53601 E 5@@/:9+ K ) % %

/ 2/D58/ >606 .8 9.06: 4/85<86 45/8 2/35059126+ D5:0/ .H D:/>./89/ /8 J9/:6 H 0/86, D:/>./89/ /8 9.46 25</,95=6 H @1:9/, 431821, EW.8G1:29+ H >63, +

*K !6:0126 @6: G1>/, 2/,6:2/8126, 2/ 0J,>.36 35,6+ 36 -./ 3/ >68D5/:/ .8 1,@/>96 01>:6,>;@5>6 D1,>5>.3126 /8 31 ,.@/:D5>5/ 2/3 >6:9/

3 018/A6 1>9.13 86 -.5:J:<5>6 2/ 36, 3/5605601, :125>1 /8 :/2.>5: 31,

>68>/89:1>568/, >5:>.3189/, 2/ 31 G6:0681 0/25189/ /3 .,6 2/ 36, 1<685,91, 8 $ E58G54/8 31 ,/>:/>5;8 2/ <681269:6@581, H G6:0681, 6=B:5>1, 1 85=/3 2/

31 12/86G5@;D5,5,

3 >:/>505/896 2/3 0560/9:56 2.:189/ @/:5626, /8 36, -./ 1.0/891 31 ,/>:/>5;8 2/ /,9:;</86,+ >606 /8 /3 /041:1?6+ ,/ 2/4/ 1 31 G5@/:9:6D51 0.,>.31:+ -./

>68,5,9/ /8 .8 1.0/896 2/3 =63.0/8 589:1>/3.31:O /3 >:/>505/896 2/3 05601 .9/:586 2/ 018/:1 ,50531: /, /,950.3126 @6: /,9:;</86, 58D3.526, @6: /3 >5>36 0/8,9:.13O ,58 /041:<6+ /8 36, D54:601, /,91 G6:0681 @1:/>/ /,950.31:

91045F8 31 @:635D/:1>5;8 >/3.31: 3 9:19105/896 2/ 3/5605601 >68 18B36<6, 2/

(25)

8 $ :/2.>/ /3 =63.0/8 2/3 9.06: 13 :/2.>5: /3 =63.0/8 >/3.31:+ /,96 ,/ 1@6H6 13 64,/:=1: -./ 31 >/3.31:5212 @6: B:/1 1.0/891 2/,@.F, 2/3 9:19105/896 >68 18B36<6, 2/ 8 $ H @6: /3 >689:1:56 86 ,/ G1 64,/:=126 -./ G1H1 @F:2521 2/

>F3.31, 2/ 3/5605601, 9:19126, >68 18B36<6, 2/ 8 $ 3<.86, /,9.256, 5825>18 -./ 31, >F3.31, 0560/9:513/, 9:18,D6:0121, ,68 58,/8,543/, 1 31 582.>>5;8 2/ 1@6@96,5, 2/,@.F, 2/ 31 ,.@:/,5;8 G6:06813 H /C@35>1 /3 :B@526 1.0/896 /8 /3 =63.0/8 2/3 9.06: 2/,@.F, 2/ -./ 9/:0581 31 9/:1@51 E .::6.<G, H >63, *K

/56056,1:>601P .06: 0135<86 -./ @./2/ @:/,/891:,/ /8 J9/:6+ 9.46 25</,95=6+ :/9:6@/:5968/6+ 69:1, @1:9/, 431821,+ @1:/2 2/ =1,6, ,18<.78/6,

<:182/, !6:0126 @6: G1>/, 2/ >F3.31, 0.,>.31:/, 35,1, G/9/:697@5>1,+ >68 8.0/:6,1, 0596,5,

%

1 @/:D.,5;8 2/3 J9/:6 31 33/=18 1 >146 31, 1:9/:51, .9/:581, -./ ,68 :101, 2/

31, 1:9/:51, 5351>1, 589/:81, ,91, 1:9/:51, @/8/9:18 /8 /3 35<10/896 18>G6+

>/:>1 2/ 31 @1:9/ 319/:13 2/3 D;:85C =1<5813+ @6: /8>501 2/ 36, .:F9/:/, 1 1:9/:51 .9/:581 ,/ 25=52/ /8 /3 5,906 2/3 J9/:6+ /8 .81 <:18 :101 1,>/82/89/ -./ 5::5<1 /3 >./:@6 H .81 @/-./S1 :101 2/,>/82/89/ -./ 5::5<1 13 >./336 H 31 =1<581 3 J9/:6 91045F8 :/>54/ ,18<:/ 2/ 31, 1:9/:51, 6=B:5>1,+ -./ ,68 :101, 2/ 31 16:91 1 1:9/:51 .9/:581 @1,1 1 36, 3126, 2/3 J9/:6 2/89:6 2/3 35<10/896 18>G6 H 3./<6 ,/ <5:1 319/:130/89/ /8 /3 3.<1: 2/ /89:121 2/ 31, 9:60@1, .9/:581+

181,9606,B826,/ >68 31, 1:9/:51, 6=B:5>1, 1, =/81, .9/:581,+ /89:18 /8 /3 35<10/896 18>G6 A.896 >68 31, 1:9/:51, 2/3 05,06 8604:/ H D6:018 .8 @3/C6

=/86,6 .9/:586+ 1 >121 3126 2/3 >./336+ 2:/818 G1>51 31, =/81, 5351>1, 3 @3/C6

=/86,6 .9/:586 ,/ >60.85>1 >68 31 =/81 :/>913 ,.@/:56: D6:01826 .81 181,9606,5, @6:96 ,5,9F05>1 E 66:/+ *+ 1G533H+ K

1, 1:9/:51, 2/ 31, 9:60@1, .9/:581, 2/:5=18 2/ 31, 1:9/:51, .9/:581, H 6=B:5>1, H 31, :101, 2/ 31, 9:60@1, @/8/9:18 2/89:6 2/ 31, >1@1, 2/3 0/,6,B3@58C

1, 1:9/:51, 6=B:5>1, 81>/8 /8 31 16:91 142605813+ 1 31 139.:1 2/ 31 =F:9/4:1 H 2/,>5/82/8 @6: 31 @1:/2 142605813 @6,9/:56: 3 33/<1: 13 /,9:/>G6 ,.@/:56: 2/

31 @/3=5,+ 31, 1:9/:51, 6=B:5>1, ,/ >:.?18 >68 36, =1,6, 5351>6, /C9/:86,+

@1,1826 @6: /8>501 2/ /336,+ H /89:1826 /8 /3 35<10/896 ,.,@/8,6:56 31 139.:1 2/3 6=1:56+ 31 1:9/:51 6=B:5>1 /059/ :101, -./ @1,18 @6: /3 0/,6 6=1:56

(26)

G1,91 /3 6=1:56 H ,/ >68958J18 0/25130/89/ /8 /3 35<10/896 18>G6 @1:1 5::5<1:

31 9:60@1 .9/:581 ./<6 ,/ 181,9606,18 >68 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581

1, =/81, 6=B:5>1, 141826818 /3 G536 2/3 6=1:56 @1:1 D6:01: .8 @3/C6

@10@585D6:0/ /8 /3 35<10/896 18>G6 >/:>1 2/3 6=1:56 H 2/ 31 9:60@1 .9/:581 ,9/ @3/C6 ,/ >60.85>1 >68 /3 @3/C6 =/86,6 .9/:586 121 =/81 6=B:5>1 ,/

6:5<581 /8 /3 @3/C6 @10@585D6:0/ H 14182681 31 @/3=5, 0/86: 1 =/81 6=B:5>1 2:/81 1 31 =/81 >1=1 58D/:56:+ 05/89:1, -./ 31 5?-.5/:21 36 G1>/ 1 31 =/81 :/813 5@,5319/:13

!5< " ,-./01 2/ 31 =1,>.31:5?1>5;8 .9/:581

1 1:60191,1 ,/ >31,5D5>1 >606 # H ,/ 36>135?1 /8 /3 :/97>.36 /826@3B,05>6+ A.896 >68 $+ 1:60195?1 182:;</86, @1:1 D6:01: 25D/:/89/, /,9:;</86,O ,/ >68,.0/8 " 063/, 2/ $ H " 063/, 2/ 6C7</86 @1:1 D6:01: .81 063 2/ /,9:;</86O 36, /-.5=13/89/, :/2.>96:/, 2/ $ ,68 9:18,D/:526, =71 D31=6@:69/781 1 31 1:60191,1+ 31 >.13 ,/ .8/ 13 ,.,9:196 182:6<F85>6 / 58,/:91 6C7</86 1 31 063F>.31+ 33/=1826 1 >146 " G52:6C531>568/, ,/>./8>513/,O 2.:189/ 31 :/1>>5;8 /3 0/9536 2/3 >1:4686 + ,/ @5/:2/ /8 D6:01 2/ B>526 D;:05>6+ A.896 >68 31 1:60195?1>5;8 2/3 185336 E /@G1:9 H 50@,68+ KO /8 :/31>5;8 1 31 1:60191,1 G.0181 ,/ 2/9/:0586 -./

>68,959.H/ /3 2/ 31, @:69/781, 05>:6,6013/, E$1:121 K

1 1:60191,1 /,9B 13910/89/ >68,/:=121 /8 36, 0107D/:6, H /8 9626, 36,

=/:9/4:126,+ H /, 52F895>1 2/3 13 U /8 31 >12/81 @635@/@9725>1 /89:/ 31,

(27)

D6:01, @:/,/89/, /8 @/>/, H 0107D/:6, E 683/H H $58,G/3L662+ O .:8/: H

>63,+ K /4526 1 -./ 31 1:60191,1 /, .81 /8?501 -./ ,/ /8>./89:1 2/

018/:1 58/,9143/ /8 31 0/04:181 @31,0B95>1+ G1451 ,526 25D7>53 /8>689:1: .8 1895>./:@6 /,@/>7D5>6 >689:1 /331+ ,58 /041:<6+ H1 ,/ G18 25,/S126 =1:56, 1895>./:@6, @635 H 0686>36813/,+ 12/0B, ,/ ,14/ -./ 0.>G6, D1>96:/, @./2/8 582.>5: ,. /C@:/,5;8+ /89:/ 36, -./ ,/ /8>./89:18 /3 >+ F,9/: 2/ D6:463 E K+ 2/C10/91,681+ 58,.3581+ <3.>6,1+ 182:;</86,+ D1>96: 2/ >:/>505/896 /@52F:05>6+ @:631>9581 H D1>96: 2/ >:/>505/896 95@6 58,.3581 E$1:121 H >63, +

K

3 </8 G.0186 2/ 31 1:60191,1 ,/ /C95/82/ * N4+ /C5,9/8 2196, -./ 5825>18 -./ /3 </8 2/3 >/:26 H 69:6, </8/, 2/ 0107D/:6, .,18 /3 05,06 ,5956 2/

,@35>58< -./ /3 G.0186+ /8 31 :/<5;8 86 9:12.>521 2/3 9:18,>:596 E 683/H H

$58,G/3L662+ K

6, ,.,9:196, 2/ ,68 31 9/,96,9/:681 H 31 182:6,9/8/25681+ ,58 /041:<6+

31 $ 182:6,9/8/25681 ,/ .,1 125>568130/89/ /8 31 @31>/891 @1:1 31 ,789/,5, 2/ /,9:563 2.:189/ /3 /041:1?6 1 1:60195?1>5;8 @./2/ 21: 3.<1: 1 31 D6:01>5;8 2/ @:62.>96, >606 $ H 6C6 182:6,9/8/25681 H 9/,96,9/:681 36 >.13 13 @1:/>/: 6>.::/ >.1826 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 :/2.>91,1 /, 5812/>.121 H

@6: 36 91896 86 ,19.:1 1 31 1:60191,1

1 1:60191,1 0./,9:1 69:1, 1>95=5212/, >1913795>1, >606 /3 2/ G52:6C531,1+

05,01 -./ /, :/,@68,143/ 2/ 31 D6:01>5;8 2/ 36, >19/>63 /,9:;</86, /8 31

@31>/891 G.0181 H /-.581

1 1D585212 2/ 31 182:6,9/8/25681 @1:1 31 1:60191,1 /,9B /8 /3 :18<6 81860631: H 13 0/86, .8 6:2/8 2/ 01<859.2 01H6: -./ 69:1, /8?501, G52:6C531,1, 2/ /,9/:652/,+ 5825>1826 -./ 31 1:60195?1>5;8 ,/1 /D5>5/89/ 1 0.H 41A1, >68>/89:1>568/, 2/ ,.,9:196 683/H H $58,G/3L662+ K

1 2/D5>5/8>51 2/ 31 1:60191,1 >1.,1 =5:535?1>5;8 /8 31 012:/ 2.:189/ /3 /041:1?6 H @2/.26G/:01D:62595,06 /8 /3 D/96 D/0/8586 H /8 /3 G604:/ =5/A6 2/4526 1 .8 @63506:D5,06 /8 /3 </8 + G1H @:/25,@6,5>5;8 1 31 6,9/6@6:6,5, E /81:6 H >63,+ #K 1 1>95=5212 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 31 @31>/891 ,/ G1 2/9/:058126 @6: 31 >68=/:,5;8 2/ * "$ 182:6,9/8/25681 1 * * "$ /,9:12563 1 :/31>5;8 2/ 31 1:60195?1>5;8 @6: @31>/891, 86:013/, D./ /3 05,06 -./ /3 -./

,/ 649.=6 2.:189/ 31 >658>.41>5;8 2/ 31, 0./,9:1, 2/ @31>/891, 86:013/, E G6?. H >63, + K

(28)

1 1>95=5212 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /, 582.>521 @6: <681269:6@581, H >+ /,96, 26, >60@./,96, 91045F8 58>:/0/8918 31 1>95=5212 2/ 31 /8?501 -./ /,>582/ 31

>12/81 319/:13 2/3 >63/,9/:63 3 /,9:12563 ,/>:/9126 ,/ 6C521 2/ 018/:1 :/=/:,543/ G1,91 </8/:1: /,9:681 0/25189/ 31 * G52:6C5/,9/:652/

2/,G52:6</81,1 H /,6, 26, /,9:;</86, @./2/8 >68=/:95:,/ /8 /,9:563 1 /,9:681 /, ,589/95?121 @6: 36, 6=1:56, H @6: 6C521>5;8 2/3 /,9:12563 /8 /3 G7<126

1 182:6,9/8/25681 /, 1:60195?121 1 /,9:681 /8 36, 9/A526, @/:5DF:5>6,+ >606

=1<581+ E /:018 H >63, + "K /3 125@6,6+ /3 G7<126+ 36, 0J,>.36, /,-./3F95>6,+ /3 G5@69B3106 H 36, D637>.36, @536,6, 1 >68=/:,5;8 2/

182:6,9/8/25681 1 /,9:681 2/@/82/ 2/ 31 25,@6854535212 2/3 ,.,9:196 H 1.0/891

>68 31 /212 H 01,1 >6:@6:13 8 36, G604:/, 12.396, H 0.A/:/,

@6,0/86@B.,5>1,+ 31 1:60195?1>5;8 @/:5DF:5>1 2/ 31 182:6,9/8/25681 ,.@:1::/813 1 /,9:681 /, 31 D./89/ @:58>5@13 2/ /,9:;</86,

1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 9/A526, G.0186, ,/ 33/=1 1 >146 @6: /3 .,6 139/:8195=6 2/ @:60696:/, /8 31 @31>/891 E@:60696: K EW1019 H /82/3,68+

K 9/A526 125@6,6 E@:60696:/, #+ " H K E <1:/13 H >63, + K H <68121, E@:60696: K 1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 86 ,/ 64,/:=1 /8 G7<126 12.396+

9/A526 .9/:586 86:013 H 12:/813 1 /C@:/,5;8 /C>/,5=1 6 5812/>.121 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 D54:6431,96, 125@6,6, H >F3.31, /,9:6013/, 2/:5=121, 2/

/8260/9:56,5, 1,7 >606 /8 9.06:/, 9/,95>.31:/,+ G/@B95>6,+ 12:/813/, H .9/:586, /,918 1,6>5126, >68 .8 1.0/896 /8 31 >68>/89:1>5;8 36>13 /8 /,96, 9/A526, />5/89/0/89/ ,/ /,9.256 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 9.06:

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(29)

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(30)

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(31)

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(32)

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(33)

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(34)

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(35)

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(36)

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(37)

3 0 2/ 9/A526 0101:56 86:013 /, 9:1,>:596 @:58>5@130/89/ @6: /3 /C68 4 E #K 2/3 </8 58 /041:<6+ /8 9/A526 2/ >B8>/: 2/ 0101 ,/ 9:18,>:54/ >68 D:/>./8>51 /3 /C68 >Q 2 E "Q K /,9/ >10456 ,/ /8>./89:1 >68 D:/>./8>51 /3/=126 >68>6059189/0/89/ >68 36, 85=/3/, 2/ 0 1:60191,1O @1:1 253.>521: /3 0/>185,06 2/ /,9/ >10456 ,/ /,9.251:68 36, /3/0/896, :/<.3126:/, 2/3 /C68 4 H ,/ /8>689:; -./ G1H 26, /3/0/896, 8/>/,1:56, @1:1 31 9:1,>:5@>5;8 2/3 /C68 4 /89:/ " H 4@ /8 31 :/<5;8 @:60696:1O /,96, 26, J85>6, /3/0/896, 95/8/8 .8 ,/>./8>51 >68,/8,6 2/ G60636<1, E$1:121 H >63, O K

!5< />./8>51 /,-./0B95>1 2/3 /C68 4 60126 2/ E$1:121 H >63, O K

6: 69:1 @1:9/ .,1826 .8 ,5,9/01 2/ /8 3/=12.:1 ,/ /8>689:; -./ /C5,9/ .81 .8 D1>96: 9:18,>:5@>56813+ 2/86058126 2/26, 2/ ?58> V 8153 E 81$K H 69:6 05/04:6 2/ 31 D105351 8153 3.< + -./ 589/:1>9J18 >68 .81 :/<5;8 :/<.3126:1 >/:>181 13

@:60696: " 2/3 </8 G.0186 2/ 31 1:60191,1+ 12/0B, /,9B, @:69/781, /,9B8 /C@:/,121, /8 378/1, >/3.31:/, 86 >18>/:6,1, H /8 D54:6431,96, /,9:6013/,+

@/:6 /,9B8 /C@:/,126, /8 85=/3/, ,5<85D5>195=10/89/ 41A6, /8 378/1, >/3.31:/, 2/ >B8>/: 2/ 0101+ /3 18B35,5, :/=/3; -./ 81$ ,.@:50/ 31 1>95=5212 2/3

@:60696: "+ 36 >.13 5825>1 -./ @6,543/0/89/ /8 /3 9/A526 2/ >B8>/: 2/ 0101 /3 @:60696: / /,91 ,64:/ :/<.3126 H -./ @6,543/0/89/ 25,058.H/ 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 81$ H 3.< E N.46 H >63, + K

(38)

/ G1 64,/:=126 -./ /C5,9/ .81 >6::/31>5;8 /89:/ 31 58>52/8>51 2/ >B8>/: H 31

@:/,/8>51 2/ /,9:;</86, E$1:121 H >63, + K+ H ,/ G18 :/135?126 25=/:,6, /,9.256, /8D6>126, 1 >.1895D5>1: 31 /C@:/,5;8 H 1>95=5212 2/ /8?501, -./

,589/95?18 /,9:;</86,+ H1 ,/1 /8 9/A526, <681213/,+ @/:5DF:5>6, H 9.06:13/,+ 913 /, /3 >1,6 2/ 31 1:60191,1+ /8?501 -./ ,/ /8>./89:1 /8 9/A526, <681213/, E6=1:56,K H /C9:1<681213/, E9/A526 125@6,6 H >/:/4:6+ /89:/ 0.>G6, 69:6,K E$1:121 H >63, + K H 2126 /3 G/>G6 2/ -./ ,/ G1 /8>689:126 /8 =1:56, 3/>G6, =1,>.31:/,+ 0.H @:64143/0/89/ @.25/:1 91045F8 /,91: @:/,/89/ /8 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581 G.0181 H /,91: :/31>568121 2/ 13<.81 018/:1 >68 9.06:/, 2/

0560/9:56 1045F8 G1 ,526 @:6@./,96 @6: $58,G/3L662 H >63, E "K -./ 31 :/<.31>5;8 2/ 31 @:62.>>5;8 2/ /,9:;</86, 1 85=/3 </8F95>6 6>.::/ 1 9:1=F, 2/

0.91>568/, 6 @6: /3 .,6 139/:8195=6 2/ @:60696:/, 2/@/825/826 2/3 9/A526O 9601826 /8 >./891 /,96 /, 589/:/,189/ >686>/: >.13 /, /3 9:1,>:596 2/3 /C68 -./ ,/ .9535?1 /8 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581 H ,5 /C5,9/ .81 .9535?1>5;8 25D/:/8>513 2/ 25>G6, 9:18,>:596, /8 1:9/:51 2/ J9/:6 ,186 H 1:9/:51 2/ J9/:6 @1963;<5>6

6: 69:1 @1:9/ ,/ G18 G/>G6 /,9.256, :/31>568126, >68 >B8>/: 2/ 0101+ /8 36, -./ ,/ 64,/:=1 -./ G1H .81 :/31>5;8 25:/>91 /89:/ 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ H 2/

E 1<6 H >63, + K 1,7 91045F8 ,/ G1 /8>689:126 /,91 05,01 :/31>5;8 1 85=/3 =1,>.31: EW1A58105 H >63, + #O 1H1:2 H >63, + KO W/8 H >63, + K

6: 36 /C@./,96 189/:56:0/89/ /,9/ 9:141A6 ,/ @3189/; >68 31 D58135212 2/

/=13.1: 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 1:9/:51 .9/:581 G.0181+ 1 85=/3 2/

@:69/781 E 80.86G5,96-.705>1K H <F85>1 EG54:521>5;8 >68 0K @1:1 253.>521: >.13/, ,68 36, 9:18,>:596, 2/3 /C;8 -./ ,/ .9535?18 /8 /331 H 9:191: 2/

@:6@68/: 13<.81 :/31>5;8 >68 /3 2/,1::6336 2/3 3/5605601+ -./ /, .8 9.06:

/,9:;</86 2/@/825/89/

C5,9/8 /,9.256, /8 36, -./ ,/ G1 :/@6:9126 31 D.8>5;8 2/ 31, G6:0681, ,/C.13/, /8 31, D.8>568/, =1,>.31:/, E .?.N5 H >63, + K -./ /8 .8 2/9/:058126 060/896 @62:718 /C@35>1: 31, 25D/:/8>51, /8 31 :/1>95=5212 2/ 36, 25D/:/89/, =1,6, ,18<.78/6, E 1N191 H >63, + K H 9/85/826 /8 >./891 /,96+

91045F8 /, 2/ <:18 589/:F, 64,/:=1: 31 @:/,/8>51 2/ 36, :/>/@96:/, 2/

/,9:;</86, H 182:;</86, /8 /,91 :/<5;8 =1,>.31:+ -./ /8 .8 060/896 2126

@.25/:18 9/8/: 13<.81 :/31>5;8 /8 /3 2/,1::6336 2/ 9.06:/, /8 /3 J9/:6

(39)

+

\ C5,9/ 13<.81 25D/:/8>51 /8 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /8 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581 86:013 H 1-./331 @:6=/85/89/ 2/ J9/:6, -./ @:/,/8918 8/6@31,51,]

\ ;06 ,/ /C@:/,1 /3 </8 -./ >625D5>1 @1:1 31 1:60191,1 /8 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581 G.0181 H >.13 ,/:71 31 @6,543/ 50@35>1>5;8 2/3 .,6 /,@/>7D5>6 2/ 13<.86 2/ 36, 36, 25D/:/89/, 9:18,>:596, 2/3 /C68 2/3 </8 2/ @1:1 /3 2/,1::6336 2/3 3/5605601]

\ .13 /, /3 @19:;8 2/ /C@:/,5;8 2/ 36, :/>/@96:/, 2/ /,9:;</86, H 182:;</86, /8 1:9/:51 .9/:581 G.0181 2/ J9/:6 86:013 H @1963;<5>6]

(40)

!

1 1:60191,1 /,9B @:/,/89/ /8 1:9/:51 .9/:581 G.0181

1 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 1:60191,1 /, 01H6: /8 1:9/:51 .9/:581 @:6=/85/89/ 2/

0.A/:/, >68 3/5605601 .9/:586 -./ /8 1:9/:51 .9/:581 2/ 0.A/:/, ,58 05601 .9/:586

3 .,6 2/ 36, 9:18,>:596, 2/3 /C68 /, 25D/:/89/ /8 1:9/:51, 649/8521, 2/

@1>5/89/, ,58 05601 .9/:586 H >68 05601 .9/:586

3 @19:;8 2/ /C@:/,5;8 2/ 36, :/>/@96:/, 2/ /,9:;</86, H 182:;</86, /, 25D/:/89/ /8 1:9/:51 2/ J9/:6 86:013 2/ 1-./331 2/ J9/:6 @1963;<5>6

(41)

49/8/: 1895>./:@6, @635>36813/, >689:1 31 1:60191,1

49/8/: 1895>./:@6, @635>36813/, >689:1 1:60191,1 /8 >68/A6,

60@:641: 31 /,@/>5D5>5212 2/ 36, 1895>./:@6,+ @6: 0/256 2/ 31 9F>85>1 2/

@6: 58G545>5;8 >68 G1@9/86

/9/:0581: 31 /C@:/,5;8 2/ 31 @:69/781 2/ /8 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581 H 05601 2/ 0.A/:/, >68 3/5605601 .9/:586

/25189/ 580.86G5,96-.705>1 >60@:641: 31 /,@/>5D5>5212 2/ 36, 1895>./:@6, >689:1 1:60191,1 /8 6=1:56 2/ :191

" 2/895D5>1: 0/25189/ G54:521>5;8 58 ,59.+ /3 6 36, 9:18,>:596, 2/3 /C68 E 1+ 4+

>+ H 2K -./ ,/ .9535?18 /8 31 1:9/:51 .9/:581

# 2/895D5>1: 1 36, :/>/@96:/, 2/ /,9:;</86, H 182:;</86, /8 1:9/:51 .9/:581 G.0181 2/ J9/:6 86:013 H @1963;<5>6

# /135?1: 31 9F>85>1 2/ 580.86G5,96-.705>1 /8 31 1:9/:51

(42)

) / ) #

:9/:51, .9/:581,

:6=5/8/8 2/ @1>5/89/, 1 31, >.13/, ,/ 3/, G1H1 /C9:1726 /3 J9/:6 @6:

@:/,/891: 05601, E8^ K H 2/ 31, -./ ,/ 3/, G1H1 /C9:1726 /3 J9/:6 @6: @:631@,6 .9/:586 E8^"K

5601 .9/:586

3 05601 649/8526 2/4/ @:6=/85: 2/ .8 J9/:6 >68 0J395@3/, 05601, E8^ K 560/9:56 .9/:586

3 0560/9:56 2/4/ @:6=/85: 2/ .8 J9/:6 ,186 E8^"K

691 :9/:51 05601 H 1:9/:51 0560/9:56+ ,/ 6495/8/8 2/ 31 05,01 @1>5/89/

691 1, @1>5/89/, 86 2/4/8 @:/,/891: 9:19105/896, :12563;<5>6,+

-.50569/:1@F.95>6, . G6:06813/, 13 0/86, .8 1S6 189/, 2/3 /,9.256 1 /212 2/4/:B /,91: >60@:/82521 /89:/ " H # 1S6, 2/ /212

(43)

) -

E 18<G/:1 H >63, O K

6,69:6, 2/,1::633106, 1895>./:@6, @635>36813/, >689:1 .8 @F@9526 ,589F95>6

>6::/,@6825/89/ 1 .8 ,/<0/896 2/ 10586B>526, E:/,52.6, 2/ "* " K+ -./

/, >60J8 1 31 :191+ 13 G604:/ H 13 @6336 /:6 -./ 95/8/ 1 ,. =/? .81 078501 G60636<71 >68 69:6, # , >68 31 :/<5;8 >6::/,@6825/89/ 3 @F@9526 ,589/95?126 ,/ 1>6@3; 1 .81 @:69/781 1>::/126:1+ 31 G/06>518581 1 9:1=F, 2/ .8 1</89/ /89:/>:.?189/+ /3 I 013/50526@:6@5685>6 B>526 G52:6C5,.>>5850521 .8526 1 .8 :/,52.6 9/:05813 2/ 31 >5,9/781

/>./8>51 2/3 @F@9526P

"* ,@ ,@ %13 3/ ,@ 3H H: :6 %13 H, H, 3H G: ,8 3/ 3/ /. ,8 3/ 3H "

/25: # 3 2/3 >68A.<126 E@F@9526K H 0/?>31: >68 # 3 2/ ,63.>5;8 5,69;85>1 /,9F:53

691P # 3^ < 2/ @F@9526 31 0/?>31 189/:56: 125>5681:P

/8 31 @:50/:1 580.85?1>5;8+ 3 2/3 12H.=189/ >60@3/96 2/ !:/.82 /8 31 ,/<.821 120585,9:1>5;8+ 3 2/3 12H.=189/ 58>60@3/96 2/ !:/.82 /8 31 9/:>/:1 120585,9:1>5;8+ 3 2/ ,63.>5;8 ,13581 $1,91 1-.7 >121 580.85?1>5;8 ,/ :/135?1 >121 271, H * 271, 2/,@.F, 2/ 31 J39501 580.85?1>5;8 ,/ ,18<:1 13 185013

691,P / 120585,9:1 /3 96913 2/3 =63.0/8+ 25=525F82636 /8 =1:51, 58H/>>568/,

@6: =71 589:12F:05>1 H ,.4>.9B8/1+ /,96 /8 31, 26, @:50/:1, 120585,9:1>568/,+

/8 91896 -./ 31 9/:>/:1 ,/ 1@35>; @6: =71 589:10.,>.31:

31 ,5<.5/89/ ,/0181 2/ 31 9/:>/:1 120585,9:1>5;8 ,/ /C9:1/ 03 2/ ,18<:/

@1:1 :/135?1: 31 9F>85>1 2/

3 271 ,5<.5/89/ ,/ 3/ 120585,9:; 12H.=189/ 58>60@3/96 2/ !:/.82 @6: =71 589:12F:05>1 H ,.4>.9B8/1+ @/:6 /,91 =/? ,58 /3 1897</86

81 ,/0181 2/,@.F, ,/ 3/ /C9:1A/:68 " 03 2/ ,18<:/ @6: =71 589:1>1:251>1 6,9/:56:0/89/ 271, 2/,@.F, ,/ 3/ 120585,9:6 /3 1897</86+ 253.526 /8

12H.=189/ >60@3/96 H /0@5/?1 /3 /,-./01 2/ 580.85?1>5;8 @1:1 36, " >68/A6, / 649.=5/:68 1895>./:@6, @635>36813/, >689:1 31 1:60191,1 /8 979.36, 12/>.126, E P K+ -./ ,/ >60@:64; 0/25189/ 31 9F>85>1 2/ @6:

58G545>5;8 @6: G1@9/86+ 12/0B, 2/ 06,9:1:68 /,@/>5D5>5212

(44)

) + 7

/ 31, >63.081, 1 31 ,/ 125>56818 3 2/3 @F@9526 >68A.<126 >68 G/06>518581 E <Q03K H ,/ 58>.41 @6: G6:1, 1 9/0 1045/89/

/ 436-./1 >68 3 2/ ! 13 U+ @6: " 058

" @1:95: 2/ 31 D531 ,/ 1<:/<18 3 2/ 1 >121 @6?6

# 8 31 D531 ,/ 1<:/<18 32/3 @/@9526 ,636 E <Q03K+ H @6,9/:56:0/89/

,/ 96018 3+ @1:1 @1,1:36, 1 31 D531

80/251910/89/ 2/3 @1,6 189/:56: ,/ 125>5681 .81 >68>/89:1>5;8 D5A1 2/3 1895>./:@6 E>689:1 1:60191,1K+ 31 >.13 /, @1:1 31, >63.081, 2/ 31 1 31 * 2/

P H 1:1 31, >63.081, 2/ 31 1 31 2/ P# + 125>5681826 1 >121 @6?6 3+ ,/ 2/A1 9:18,>.::5: 31 :/1>>5;8 @6: G6:1, 1 9/0@/:19.:1 1045/89/

3 ,/<.826 1895>./:@6 E G5=6 1895>68/A6K,/ 125>5681 1 .81 >68>/89:1>5;8 D5A1 2/ P E 3K+ @/:6 /8 /,91 6>1,5;8 1 95621 31 @31>1 E58>3.H/826 /3

>689:63 H ,/ 2/A1 :/1>>5681: @6: G6:1, 1 9/0@/:19.:1 1045/89/

* / 125>5681 31 ,63.>5;8 :/=/3126:1 E 3K @6: 058 H ,/ 2/95/8/8 >68 3 2/ B>526 ,.3DJ:5>6

/ 3// /8 /3 /,@/>9:6D69;0/9:6 1 # 80

691 P 1 >63.081 /, /3 >689:63+ H ,636 ,/ 3/ 125>5681 + /8 9626, 36,

@1,6,+ >68 /C>/@>5;8 2/3 ,/<.826 1895>./:@6 H 31 ,63.>5;8 :/=/3126:1 691 P 89:/ >121 @1,6, ,/ :/135?1:68 31=126, "C

C A = 0 D 05 0 ; 0 < ; A D 4 C 9 A

E ; 1 FE 6 @ C G C 90 @ A H 0 ; A ? I 1 4 = 5 H

!5< :1D5>1 -./ 0./,9:1 31 /,@/>5D5>5212 2/ 36, 1895>./:@6, >689:1

1:60191,1+ /8 31 -./ ,/ 64,/:=1 -./ 31 .85;8 2/3 1895>./:@6 >68 /3 @F@9526 ,58

>68A.<1: /, 01H6:+ @./, 2/,@31?1 2/ ,. ,5956 2/ .85;8 13 @F@9526 >68A.<126

(45)

) 2

3 9/A526 ,/ D5A1 /8 31 ,63.>5;8 2/ @1:1D6:0132/G726 E13 #UK+ 1@:6C501210/89/

=/>/, /3 =63.0/8K H ,/ 2/A1 @6: G6:1, 1@:6C501210/89/ 1 9/0@/:19.:1 1045/89/

6,9/:56: 1 /,9/ 9:19105/896 ,/ /8A.1<1 /3 9/A526 >68 1<.1 /,9F:53 H 9:19121 >68 5/953@5:6>1:468196

:6>/2505/896 2/ 50@:/<81>5;8 /8 @1:1D581P

1, 0./,9:1, ,/ 50@:/<81:68 /8 @1:1D581+ .9535?1826 /3 $H,96N58/9+ /3 >.13

@/:059/ @1,/ ,/>./8>513 2/ 31 0./,9:1 /8 13>6G63 13 * U+ 13>6G63 13 U+

13>6G63 13 U+ 13>6G63 13 U H C53/86+ 1@:6C501210/89/ 1 # G6:1, /8

>121 ,63.>5;8 1 9/0@/:19.:1 1045/89/

89/, 2/3 @:6>/2505/896 2/ 80.86G5,96-.705>1 31, /3 9/A526 ,/ :/G52:191 @6:

0/256 2/3 ,5<.5/89/ 9:19105/896 ,/>./8>513P '53/86 058+ 13>6G63 13 U 058+ 13>6G63 13 U 058+ 13>6G63 13 U 058+ 13>6G63 13 * U 058 H D58130/89/ /8

) ! - 8

81 =/? :/G52:19126, 36, 9/A526,P

3 9/A526 ,/ @/:0/14535?1 >68 9:59;8 13 U @6: 058

/ 58>.41 >68 /3 @:50/: 1895>./:@6 @6: 26, G6:1, 1 "* <:126, >/897<:126, H ,/ :/135?18 31=126,

" 1, 310585331, ,/ 58>.418 >68 ,./:6 D/913 46=586 E UK E6 >68 134J0581 13 UK @6: " 058

# / 58>.41 >68 /3 ,/<.826 1895>./:@6 E>G5=6 1895>68/A6K @6: G6:1 1

"*<:126, H ,/ 31=1

/ <.1:218 /8 6,>.:5212 H ,/ 64,/:=1 /8 /3 05>:6,>6@56 2/ D3.6:/,>/8>51 691P 3 J39506 =1,6 95/8/

6, 31=126, ,/ :/135?18 >68 9L//8 2.:189/ 058 626, 36, @1,6, ,/ 33/=18 1 >146 /8 >B01:1 GJ0/21

1 >68>/89:1>5;8 2/ 36, 1895>./:@6, >689:1 D./ 2/ P H @1:1 /3 ,/<.826 1895>./:@6 E>G5=6 1895>68/A6K D./ 2/ P

:/@1:1>5;8 2/ :/1>95=6,P

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