Note on bigravity and dark matter

(1)PHYSICAL REVIEW D 79, 063515 (2009). Note on bigravity and dark matter Máximo Bañados, Andrés Gomberoff, and Davi C. Rodrigues Departamento de Fsica, P. Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22,Chile. Constantinos Skordis Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Canada (Received 25 November 2008; revised manuscript received 22 February 2009; published 18 March 2009) We show that a class of bigravity theories contain solutions describing dark matter. A particular member of this class is also shown to be equivalent to the Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity, recently proposed as a candidate for dark matter. Bigravity theories also have cosmological de Sitter backgrounds and we find solutions interpolating between matter and acceleration eras. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.063515. PACS numbers: 98.80.Cq, 95.35.+d. Observations show that most of the energy density in the universe is in the form of dark matter and dark energy [1– 5]. It is therefore of importance to have a simple and natural candidate for these components. Motivated by Yang-Mills theory, multigraviton actions are attractive extensions of general relativity. Consider several metrics ga , a ¼ 1::n. The physical properties and geometric interpretation of such a theory present great challenges. It is known that the full ðdiffÞn symmetry cannot be preserved by consistent interactions [6]. The most general action preserving the full symmetry group is a sum of decoupled Einstein-Hilbert terms for each metric. However, interesting theories can be built by breaking the ðdiffÞn symmetry down to the diagonal subgroup. For n ¼ 2, a particular ‘‘bigravity’’ theory with metrics fg ; q g and action  1 Z pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi gðR  2Þ þ qðK  2Þ I¼ 16G 1 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi þ 2 q½q g þ ððq g Þ2 ‘     q g q g  Þ ; (1) has been extensively studied [7–15]. Here  and  are cosmological constants for each sector of the theory. q and g are the inverses of q and g respectively. K is the Ricci scalar for the metric q .  is a dimensionless coupling. A class of bimeasure theories have been considered in [16] and references therein. The interaction term above was first proposed in Ref. [7] (see note [17]). A key feature of this interaction term is that it gives rise to Fierz-Pauli mass terms [18] for the spin-2 fields. The above is not the most general mixing term that pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi satisfies this condition. In particular, the density q could be replaced by ðqÞu ðgÞ1=2u for any real u. However, for this theory to give rise to a dark matter dominated era, we find that, under the assumptions described below, u ¼ 1=2 is required.. 1550-7998= 2009=79(6)=063515(5). In this short note we point out the following properties of (1). First we prove that for  ¼ 0 the action (1) is equivalent to the Eddington-Born-Infeld (EBI) theory proposed in [19] as a theory for dark matter and dark energy. When one generalizes to the case  Þ 0, it is a natural question to ask whether or not the dark matter/dark energy interpretation still holds. The answer is in the affirmative. The metric q can behave both as matter or as dark energy, and there exist solutions interpolating between them. We present two types of de Sitter vacua and study their stability under a certain set of perturbations. One is the well known solution in which the metrics are proportional. In the other case, which has received less attention, the de Sitter line elements of the two metrics are not proportional. These type of backgrounds were pointed out in different contexts (e.g., in [20] for the flat case, and in [21] in static coordinates). We also display what are the conditions on the couplings that determine whether the Universe evolving from a matter era ends up in the proportional or not proportional vacuum. Finally, we analyze tensor fluctuations on the de Sitter backgrounds. For the proportional case the equations can be decoupled and a condition on the couplings ensuring absence of tachyons is displayed. The large scale structure of the action (1) with  ¼ 0, called EBI theory, has recently been studied in Ref. [22]. In that article, it was shown that the EBI theory has a phase for which the Friedmann background evolution, growth of inhomogeneities and cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum are indistinguishable from those predicted by CDM. These results provide extra support for these theories as candidates for dark matter/dark energy. We shall come back to this point at the end. Theories interpolating between dark matter and dark energy are not new. Examples are the Chaplygin gas [23– 25] and the rolling tachyon [26–28]. For the Chaplygin gas, observational consistency of this interpolation has been challenged in Ref. [29]. We start by analyzing the relationship between the action (1) when  ¼ 0 and the EBI theory written in [19].. 063515-1. Ó 2009 The American Physical Society.

(2) BAÑADOS, GOMBEROFF, RODRIGUES, AND SKORDIS. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 79, 063515 (2009). This is straightforward. In what follows it is convenient to refer all lengths to ‘. We thus define two new dimensionless couplings  and 0 by   ¼ 2: (2)  ¼ 20 ; ‘ ‘ The first step is to write the action (1) in Palatini form with a connection C  associated to the metric q . Varying with respect to q , the equations can be algebraically solved for this field,   1 1 K  2 g (3) q ¼  ‘ and therefore the solution can be replaced back in the action. The resulting action depends on g and the connection C  and is precisely the EBI action,  1 Z 4 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 d x gðR  2Þ þ 2 IEBI ½g; C ¼ 16G ‘ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi   detðg  ‘2 K Þ : (4) Note that the action (1), for  ¼ 0, in its Palatini form, is a parent action in the sense that one may either eliminate q to obtain EBI, or eliminate the connections to get (1) in terms of the metrics only. Born-Infeld type actions have appeared repeatedly for many years in many different contexts. The action (4) is particularly close to the one discussed in [30] although different in interpretation. Another class of class of BornInfeld theories are tachyonic fields [26,27], which are another candidate for dark matter and dark energy [31]. This field is described by the following effective action, qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Z It ¼  d4 xVð Þ  detðg þ @ @ Þ þ IEH ðg Þ;. put it back in the action (7). We get Z V qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Ip0 ¼ d4 x 0  detðg þ @ @ Þ; Uð Þ. which is precisely the tachyon action (5) action when Uð Þ ¼ V0 =Vð Þ. Considering the form of action (7), it is suggestive to add a kinetic term to the auxiliary metric field q . The obvious choice is to also add an Einstein-Hilbert term with a cosmological constant. If we do so, we obtain precisely the first line of (1) plus Ip in (7). This is EBI action in bigravity form plus a scalar field minimally coupled to the metric q . The variation of this action with respect to q gives, again, an equation that may be solved algebraically for the q-metric. Inserting this back in the action, and redefining V0 , we obtain the following generalization of (4),    1 Z pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 4 g R  20 þ 2 I¼ 16G ‘ ðU þ 2Þ ‘ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi   detðg  ‘2 K þ @ @ Þ : (9) which becomes EBI when U ¼ ¼ 0. Our second goal is to study the cosmological properties of the bigravity system described by (1). Assuming that both metrics are homogeneous and isotropic flat FRW, ds2g ¼ dt2 þ a2 dx~ 2 ;. Vð Þ ¼. V0 : coshða Þ. For a given set of couplings , 0 ,  there exists more than one de Sitter vacua. We distinguish two cases: proportional vacuums (PV) if both metrics are proportional and nonproportional vacuums (NPV). In the proportional case the functions a, X, Y are given by a ¼ eðH=‘Þt ;. This action can be seen as Polyakov’s version of (5), except that the metric field is q . This is seen by varying with respect to q . We obtain an equation which allows us to algebraically solve q in terms of , therefore, we may. X2 ¼. 1  ð0  6Þ 1. Y ¼ aX (11). with H2 ¼. (6). Just as the square root in the EBI theory (4) can be transmuted into a standard kinetic term by introducing q , a similar manipulation holds for (5). Consider the following action,  Z pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 1 1   q  q @ @  Uð Þ  q g : Ip ¼ V0 2 2 (7). ds2q ¼ X 2 dt2 þ Y 2 dx~ 2 : (10). (5) where IEH ðg Þ is the Einstein-Hilbert action including a cosmological constant and Vð Þ is an effective potential, which, in open string theory is [32]. (8). 1  ð0  6Þ : 3ð1  Þ. (12). The only condition for the existence of this solution is the positivity of the constants H 2 and X 2 above. Note that if 0  6 ¼ 1 , then this vacuum becomes Minkowski. Also note that for  close enough to 1, or  sufficiently large, the de Sitter acceleration can be made arbitrarily large, even if the cosmological constant, 0 =‘2 , vanishes. Conversely, even for big values of 0 we may fine-tune the couplings in order to obtain arbitrarily small acceleration. This is an attractive feature in the context of the problem of the cosmological constant. A second class of de Sitter vacua with nonproportional metrics also exists (NPV). Let Y ¼ aXA, where A is a. 063515-2.

(3) NOTE ON BIGRAVITY AND DARK MATTER. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 79, 063515 (2009). FIG. 1. Stability regions for the proportional vacuum solution (PV) and the nonproportional ones (NPV). In the left the value of 0 ¼ 0:5 is fixed. In the right  ¼ 0:9 is fixed.. constant (which is 1 for the previous case). In this case a ¼ eðH=lÞt where A, X and H are constants determined by the equations: X2 A3 2 3 3H 2 1 ¼  2 2þ 2  2: 4X A 4X X. ¼. X 2 A2 4. 0 ¼ 3H 2 þ. (13). To find the metric parameters H, A, and X one needs to solve a third order algebraic equation. This means that, in general, we may expect three different NPV for a given set of couplings. In [20], these kind of solutions are also discussed. In that case, however, the cosmological constants are adjusted to have flat backgrounds, so the mixing term used here, called V 1 in that reference, gives rise only to the proportional vacua. We may ask now if the above vacua are stable. Consider perturbations of the form aðtÞ ¼ a0 ðtÞ þ a1 ðtÞ;. XðtÞ ¼ X0 ðtÞ þ X1 ðtÞ;. YðtÞ ¼ Y0 ðtÞ þ Y1 ðtÞ; where the subscript 0 indicates the background solutions found above. We expand the equations to linear order in and look for the conditions on the couplings such that the perturbations do not grow in time. These conditions are best expressed with a picture. In Fig. 1 below, we show the regions of stability for the PV and the NPV with 0 ¼ 1=2 and  ¼ 0:9 respectively.. The vertical axis represent the value of . Note that there are regions where both solutions are stable. Those are the regions where we have degenerated vacuum. We do not know, however, if one of them turns out to be metastable. Now we proceed to show, by studying the background cosmological evolution, that this theory encompass a dark matter candidate, even for  Þ 0. To this end, the equations of motion coming from (1) are evaluated with homogeneous and isotropic metrics. We assume that both metrics are not singular at the same time [33], which implies that, when the scale factor aðtÞ [with að0Þ ¼ 0] is sufficiently close to zero, XðtÞ  X0 þ X1 t;. YðtÞ  Y0 þ Y1 t;. (14). where X0 , Y0 , X1 , and Y1 are constants. Inserting this into the equations of motion, with q and g metrics given by (10) , one finds Y1 and X1 as a function of X0 , Y0 , , and ‘. The Friedmann equation for aðtÞ in the limit of aðtÞ sufficiently small reads, Y3 1 3H 2  8G þ 2 0 3 : (15) ‘ X0 a where is the energy density of other conventional fluids (e.g. radiation or baryons). Therefore, we see that the q-metric plays the role of an additional dustlike matter, irrespective of the presence of other conventional fluids Y3. like radiation or baryons. Adjusting the constant ‘2 X0 one 0 can have any desired amount of ‘‘dark matter’’. In particuY3. lar choosing ‘2 X0 ¼ 3:34  107 wc Mpc2 where wc  0 0:09–0:12 we get the right amount of dark matter as. 063515-3.

(4) BAÑADOS, GOMBEROFF, RODRIGUES, AND SKORDIS. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 79, 063515 (2009). required by cosmological observations. Note that the  constant has no role at the above regime, and so both the bigravity action (1) and the EBI model describes the same physics when aðtÞ  1. Our final task is to study gravitons propagating on the de Sitter vacua. In the following we use conformal time. We start by perturbing the FRW metrics as ds2g ¼ a2 ½d. þ ðij þ hij Þdxi dxj . (16). þ Y 2 ðij þ ij Þdxi dxj ;. (17). 2. and ds2q ¼ a2 X 2 d. 2. where hij is the tensor mode perturbation of the g-metric and ij the tensor mode perturbation of the q-metric. The tensor modes are transverse and traceless. From now on we drop the indices on hij and ij since no confusion arises. We find that the field equations for h and  are 2. a_ 2a ~ 2h ¼  p h€ þ 2 h_  r ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ½X 2  2ð1  w0 Þðh  Þ 2 a ‘ w0 (18) where w0 ¼  Y 2 , and  _  Y a_ X_ ~ 2 € þ 3   _ þ w0 r Y a X a2 X 2. ¼. 2a2 w0 2 ½X  2ð1  w0 Þðh  Þ; ‘2 X2. (19). respectively. We now adopt the above equations to the special case of de Sitter vaccua. For the proportional _ _ de Sitter vacuum described above with XX ¼ 0, YY ¼ aa_ and w0 ¼ 1 these two equations can be collected in matrix from as  2   a_ @ @ ~ 2 þ a2 M2 h ¼ 0;  r (20) þ 2  a@ @ 2 where the mass matrix M2 is. ! 1 : 1 : X2. 2. we must have X > 4 which translates to 1  0 þ 2ð1 þ 2Þ > 0: 1. (23). If these conditions are fulfilled, this theory describes a massless and massive graviton. In particular, they imply stability for the EBI vacuum tensorial modes, which were first studied in Ref. [35]. It is important to mention that gravitons are not the only physical excitations; vector and scalars modes may also propagate. The reason is that the action has two metrics but only the diagonal subgroup of diffeomorphisms leaves the action invariant. This means that the scalar and vector modes of only one of the metrics can be set to zero by a gauge symmetry. This raises the issue of the stability of the theory which should be analyzed along the lines of Ref. [36,37]. It was shown in those references that cosmological massive gravitons are stable if the mass of the graviton obeys m2 > 2=3. We expect similar results to hold in our case. To conclude, we have studied in this note several cosmological aspects of bigravity actions of the form (1). Most importantly we have shown that generically these actions contain a phase at early times where the second metric behaves as dark matter. The equations also admit a deSitter background which is an attractor if some conditions on the couplings are fulfilled. This implies a transition between the ‘‘matter’’ and ‘‘de Sitter’’ phases. For the case  ¼ 0 this transition has been explored in detailed in [22] and shown to be problematic at the level of fluctuations and the calculation of CMB spectra. However, as shown in [22], one can choose initial conditions and couplings such that the metric q is locked into its matter phase up until today. In this case, bigravity predicts a CMB spectrum which is indistinguishable from standard particulate dark matter. The calculations for  Þ 0 are far more complicated and we shall consider them in a separate publication.. Thus in order for the theory not to contain spin-2 tachyons,. We would like to thank M. Henneaux for a useful discussion and his encourage to consider bigravity actions. We also thank P. Ferreira for many useful discussions and N. Kaloper for suggestions. This work have been supported, in part, by FONDECYT-Chile Grants No. 1051084, No. 1051064, No. 1060648, No. 7080116, and No. 3070008. Research at the Perimeter Institute is supported in part by NSERC and by the Province of Ontario through MEDT.. [1] A. G. Riess et al. (Supernova Search Team), Astron. J. 116, 1009 (1998).. [2] S. Perlmutter et al. (Supernova Cosmology Project), Astrophys. J. 517, 565 (1999).. 2 1 M ¼ 2 ðX 2  4Þ  X12 ‘ 2. (21). One of the eigenvalues is clearly zero while the other one is   2 2 1 2 m ¼ 2 ðX  4Þ 1 þ 2 : (22) ‘ X. 063515-4.

(5) NOTE ON BIGRAVITY AND DARK MATTER. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 79, 063515 (2009). [3] D. N. Spergel et al. (WMAP), Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.. 170, 377 (2007). [4] D. Clowe et al., Astrophys. J. 648, L109 (2006). [5] C. Alcock et al. (MACHO), Astrophys. J. 542, 281 (2000). [6] N. Boulanger, T. Damour, L. Gualtieri, and M. Henneaux, Nucl. Phys. B597, 127 (2001). [7] C. J. Isham, A. Salam, and J. A. Strathdee, Phys. Rev. D 3, 867 (1971). [8] C. J. Isham and D. Storey, Phys. Rev. D 18, 1047 (1978). [9] T. Damour, I. I. Kogan, and A. Papazoglou, Phys. Rev. D 66, 104025 (2002). [10] T. Damour and I. I. Kogan, Phys. Rev. D 66, 104024 (2002). [11] N. Arkani-Hamed, H. Georgi, and M. D. Schwartz, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 305, 96 (2003). [12] D. Blas, C. Deffayet, and J. Garriga, Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 1697 (2006). [13] Z. Berezhiani, D. Comelli, F. Nesti, and L. Pilo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 131101 (2007). [14] Z. Berezhiani, D. Comelli, F. Nesti, and L. Pilo, J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2008) 130. [15] C. Deffayet, Classical Quantum Gravity 25, 154007 (2008). [16] E. I. Guendelman and A. B. Kaganovich, arXiv:0811.0793. [17] The map between the constants in (1) and those from [8] reads: q ¼ f k2g =k2f , ‘12 ¼ 32 M2 ,  ¼ k2g =ð6k2f Þ. [18] M. Fierz and W. Pauli, Proc. R. Soc. A 173, 211 (1939). [19] M. Banados, Phys. Rev. D 77, 123534 (2008).. [20] T. Damour, I. I. Kogan, and A. Papazoglou, Phys. Rev. D 67, 064009 (2003). [21] D. Blas, C. Deffayet, and J. Garriga, Phys. Rev. D 76, 104036 (2007). [22] M. Bañados, P. G. Ferreira and C. Skordis, arXiv:0811.1272v1. [23] A. Y. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella, and V. Pasquier, Phys. Lett. B 511, 265 (2001). [24] N. Bilic, G. B. Tupper, and R. D. Viollier, Phys. Lett. B 535, 17 (2002). [25] M. C. Bento, O. Bertolami, and A. A. Sen, Phys. Rev. D 66, 043507 (2002). [26] A. Sen, J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2002) 048. [27] A. Sen, J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2002) 065. [28] G. W. Gibbons, Phys. Lett. B 537, 1 (2002). [29] H. Sandvik, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, and I. Waga, Phys. Rev. D 69, 123524 (2004). [30] S. Deser and G. W. Gibbons, Classical Quantum Gravity 15, L35 (1998). [31] G. W. Gibbons, Classical Quantum Gravity 20, S321 (2003). [32] D. Kutasov and V. Niarchos, Nucl. Phys. B666, 56 (2003). [33] This ansatz is in close relation to the proposal of having meaningful physics even when g ¼ 0 explored in [19,34]. [34] M. Banados, Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 5911 (2007). [35] D. C. Rodrigues, Phys. Rev. D 78, 063013 (2008). [36] A. Higuchi, Nucl. Phys. B282, 397 (1987). [37] S. Deser and A. Waldron, Phys. Lett. B 508, 347 (2001).. 063515-5.

(6)

Nuevo documento

Para apuntar al cumplimiento de estándares educativos formulados por el Ministerio de Educación, a las metas curriculares de la institución educativa, a los fines de la docente y a la

El tercer capítulo, Proceso de lectura literaria en el aula: un camino a la construcción de la experiencia estética, se refiere a la descripción detallada de las actividades con

CAPÍTULO III: PRÁCTICAS DE LECTURA LITERARIA EN LA ESCUELA COLOMBIANA En este capítulo presentamos algunas experiencias de aula que ilustran el trabajo desarrollado con la lectura

El análisis e interpretación de las baterías o test psicológicas aplicado a los estudiantes de la Unidad Educativa Chillanes demostraron que el 60% de estudiantes presentan impulsividad

Igualmente, se diseñó una estrategia didáctica basada en textos e imágenes con el objetivo de mejorar el nivel de comprensión lectora inferencial La estrategia se compuso de 18 unidades

Interpretación: Luego de realizada la tabulación respectiva se puede notar que el apego seguro está muy relacionado con la autoestima elevada, debido a que un buen apego en la infancia

Un ejemplo de lo anterior se evidencia en el Plan Distrital de Lectura y Escritura, “Leer es Volar”, cuyo objetivo es garantizar el acceso de todos los habitantes de Bogotá a la cultura

INTRODUCCIÓN El presente trabajo de investigación sobre ¨La Tolerancia a la Frustración y las Distorsiones Cognitivas en los Estudiantes con Consumo de Alcohol de Segundo año de

Título: Lectura literaria: aportes para una didáctica de la literatura Resumen Puntos de Breve síntesis del documento convergencia con mi en la que se presente el Datos investigación

Dentro de los avances de investigación realizadas desde el énfasis Escenarios Educativos en esta misma fundación y en aras de hacer aportes al área de prácticas, en los tres últimos