Distribution of the hematozoa of Neotropical birds

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(1)Rev. Biol. Trop. , 26(1): 43-102, 1 978. Distribution of the hematozoa of Neotropical birds*. by Ellen M. White, Ellis C. Greiner, Gordon F. Bennett and Carhon M . Hennan (Received for publication June 16, 1 977). Abstract: The literature pertaining to the prevalence of avian hematozoa in the Neotropics, together with unpublished records from the ftles of the lntemational Reference Centre for Avian Haematozoa, has been examined with respect to the distribution of parasite genera by host fami1y and region. The blood parasites of 35555 birds of 955 species (80 families) occurring in the Neotropics formed the basis for the comparisons. Only 3743 (10.5%) -individuals harbored one or more species of hematozoa. Haemoproteus was the most commonly observed form exhibiting a 7.4% prevalence, followed by Plasmodium (1.9%), microftlaria ( 1 . 2%),Trypanosoma (0.6%), and Leucocytozoon (0.2%). Hematozoan prevalence varied markedly from region to regio n and among families. In comparison with a similar review of Nearctic avian hematozoan distribution, the Neotropics demons­ trated a much lower prevalence and a near absence of Leucocytozoon.. Over the years, the study of the epizootiology of avian hematozoa has fre­ quently been limited to the cataloguing of the hematozoa of the birds of a specific, but localized region. This resulted in checklists such as that of Lucena (194 1 ) which surnmarized parasite presence or absence, but made no pretense to indicate parasite prevalence, an important tool in any epizootiological study. Although Beltran and Pardiñas (195 3 ) surnm arized the blood parasite prevalence in Mexican birds, the first major study to analyse published evidence on a continental basis in an epizoo­ tiological fashion was that of Greiner et al. (1975)** . The latter study attempted to explain the distribution of blood parasites in the birds of North America on the basis of (i) vertebrate-host family, (ü) regional distribution and (ili) distribution of bird nesting sites in a vertical eline .. •. ••. Department of Biology and International Reference Centre for Avian Haematozoa, Me­ morial University of Newfnllndland. Sto John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3X9 Greiner, E. C., G. F. Bennett, E. M. White and R. F. Coombs. 1 975. Distribution of the avian hematozoa oC North America. Can. J. Zool., 5 3 : 1 762-1787.. 43.

(2) 44. REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA TROPICAL. Due to the large volume of disparate literature on the Neotropieal avian hematozoa and the need to consolidate this informatian into a more manageable form, tltis study was undertaken in an attempt to analyse the distribution of blood parasites ln the Neotropical region on the basis of the avian·host faroilies and the regions in whlch they OCCUr. MATERIAL AND METHODS The data presented in Table 1 was eompiled mainly from primary sourees in the literature and from unpublished reeords in the files of the Intemational Refe­ rence Centre foc Avian Haematozoa. [n sOrne cases, where primary soueces were not available, or were diffieult to interpret, summaries of sueh data have been used (e.g. Calindo and Sousa, [1966] summarized the intemal reports of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory). Reeords from eheeklists, or publications from which prevalenee (defined herein as the proportion of infected birds to the total sample) eould not be deterrnined, were included to demonstrate the occurrence of a parasite in a parti­ cular avian host when that parasite had not already been reported as a prevalenee record. Such records are indicated by ( + ) in Tables 1 , 2 and 4. The "Other" category in Tables 1 , 2, 3 and 4 ineludes haemogregarines, A toxoplasmaj Lankesterella and Akiba. A few published reeords of avian hematozoans have been omitted as they cite blood parasites of birds of Neotropical origin examined in other eountries. It was not possible to determine whether these birds were infeeted prior to or after importation into the country in which they were examined. A major attempt was made to check the validity and to cite the authority for eaeh bird species (Tables 1 , 2), using the works of the American Omithologists' Union ( 1 957), Clements ( 1 974), Edwards ( 1974), Pield Museum of Natural History ( 1 9 18-1949), Meyer de Sehauensee ( 1 966), Monroe (1968) and Peters (193 1 - 1 970) as the primary reference material. The Neotropical region was arbitrarily divided into eight regions on the basis of topography. It was elearly recognized that topography would affeet the distri­ bution of both hosts and vectors, tending to eoneentrate certain hosts and (or) vectors into specific regions. In addition to the records of the Intemational Refe­ renee Centre for Avian Haematozoa, the following reports of avian hematozoan prevalence or occurrence were used: (References in parentheses were summarized in the paper wltieh immediately precedes them.) Region 1 :. Beltrán ( 1 942b), Beltrán and Pardiñas (1953) - (Beltrán [ 1939, 1940, 194 1 , 1942a, 1944] , Hewitt [ 1 940], Larenas [1945] , Pardiñas ( 1 946, 1950] ), Clark and Swinehart ( 1969), Galindo and Sousa ( 1 966), Garnham and Lewis ( 1959), Huff and Wetmore ( 1 967), Laveran and Pettit ( 1 909), Saunders ( 1959), and Takos (1947).. Region 2:. Augustine ( 1 937), Brown et al. (1972), MeLaughlin (1 968), and Zajicek and Mauri Mendes ( 1 969).. Region 3:. Ayala and Varela ( 1 975), Bennett and Borrero ( 1976), Renjifo el al. ( 1 952) - (Renjifo [ 1 950]), and Tello and Tantaleán ( 1964).. Region 4:. Anonymous (1958, 1959), Brimont (1909, 1 9 1 2), Gabaldon and Ulloa (1976 a,b), Gabaldon et al. (1974, 1975, 1976), Iturbe and González ( 1 9 1 6), Leger ( 1 9 1 8), and Saunders (1961) · (Anonymous ( 1 960])..

(3) WHITE el al. Hematozoa of Neotropical brrds .. 45. Regioo 5:. Lainson et al. ( 1 970), and Manwell and Sessler ( 1 97 1).. Regioo 6:. Aragao ( 1 908, 1 9 1 1), Carini ( 1 9 1 1 , 1 9 1 2, 1 920), Carini and Botelho ( l 9 14a, b), Carini and Maeiel ( 1 9 1 6), Cerqueira (1 906), Ferraz Franco et al. ( 1954), Giovannoni ( 1 946, 1955), Krettli ( 1972), Lucena (l938a, b, 1 939b, 1 949), Lueena ( l939a) - (Lucena [ 1 938c, 193ge]), Lutz and Meyer ( 1 908), Muniz and Soares ( 1 954), Muniz et al. ( 1 950, 1 9 5 1 ), Paraense ( 1 95 1 , 1952), Pessoa ( l 9�5), Pessoa and Correa ( 1929), Pinto ( 1 925), Primio ( 1925), and Versiani and Gomes ( 1 941).. Regioo 7 :. Aragao ( 1 908), Baeigalupo ( 1 941), Carini and Maeiel ( 1 9 1 6), Cassa­ magnaghi ( 1 945a, b, 1947, 1 950a, b), Jorg ( 1 9 3 1 ), Mazza, Deautier and Steullet ( 1 927, 1930), Mazza, Esteullet and Deautier ( 1932), Mazza, Franke and Lascano González ( 1 927), Migone ( 1 9 1 6), Parodi and NIDO ( 1927), and Petroehi and Zucearini ( 1 925).. Regioo 8:. Forrester el al. ( 1 977), Mazza ( 1 926), Mazza and Fiara ( l 930a, b, 1932), Mazza, Franke and Alvarado ( 1 928), Mazza, Franke and Las­ cano González ( 1 927), Mazza, González, Franke, Laseano González and Alvarado ( 1 927), and Romaña et al. ( 1 946). RESULTS ANO DISCUSSION. A total of 504 of 955 avian speeies examined, representing 59 of the 80 families sampled, were infected with blood parasites (Tables 1 , 2). Only 3743 of 35555 ( 10.5%) individuals harbored one or more speeies of hematozoa. The most cornmonly encountered parasites were species of Haemoproteus (7.4%), repre· senting 70% of all infections found. While species of Plasmodium ( 1 .9%) and micro­ filaria ( 1 .2%) were seen less frequently, infections of Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma and Others ( haemagregarines, A toxoplasmafLankeslere/la and Akiba) eollec­ tively totalled about 10% of the infected birds. Curiously, although 52.7% of the species and 73.8% of the families harbored blood parasites, only 10.5% of the total sample was infected with hematozoans. Why so few individuals of sueh a diversity of speeies should be infected is unknown. A large propartion of the total sample represents birds whieh are introdueed (e.g. Passer domesticus) or are domesticated birds (e.g. Gal/us gal/us, Meleagris gal/opavo, etc.) eornmereially reared under eonditions that eannot be eompared to those under whieh the natural avifauna exists. These birds (Table 2) eomprise 60% of lhe total sample and have a negligible prevalenee of hematozaa (5 .6%). The most heavily infeeted speeies were Passer domesticus (47.1 %), prirnarily wilh Aloxo­ plasma, and Columba /ivia (29.8%) , prirnarily with Haemoproleus. The domesti­ eated birds had a much lower prevalenee with sorne speeies being virtually parasite­ free. The prevalenee of blood parasites in Neotropical birds is much lower (about half) lhan that reported for the Nearctie (Greiner el al., 1975), the region with the e10sest avifaunal aJfmities (Table 3). Aithough there are statistieal differenees, the prevalenc e o f Plasmodium, m icrofllaria, haemogregarines, Atoxoplasmaf Lankesterel/a and Akiba is virtually similar in both life zanes, while the prevalenee =.

(4) of avian trypanosomes in the Neotropics is somewhat lower than that observed in the Nearetie. The prevalenee of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is markedly lower in the Neotropies, espeeially the latter, whieh is virtually absent from this region. Presumably the overall low prevalence of hematozoa in the Neotropical avifauna relleets a general laek of suitable veetors and an almost total absenee of the ornithophilie simulüd vectors of Leucocytozoon. In the sample (Table 1), at least 477 birds (78 species) are migrants from the Nearetie, over·wintering in the Neotropieal region, but not breeding lhere (Edwards 1974) (designated "w" in Table 1). One hundred one (21 .2%) of these birds harbored one or more blood parasites, a figure twiee that of the 10.5% overall prevalence reeorded for the Neotropieal birds (Table 3). The blood parasites occurred in these winter residents with a frequency similar to that in the indigenous Neotropical bird cornmunity. However, if one examines the indigenous Neotropical species (whieh do not also oeeur and breed in the Nearetie), the overall hematozoan prevalence inereases slightly from 10.5% (for all birds) to 19.1%. These species are eonsidered to be endemie (Edwards 1974) and are marked "E" in Table l . Distribution of Avian Hematozoa by Bird Family: In Fig. 1 , the prevalence of haemosporozoans is presented for families io which 100 or more individuals were sampled, The distribution of hematozoa in lhe bird families was highly variable and, generally, there is no eommon pallern evident (Tables 1 ,2, Fig. 1). Hematozoan prevalence was also examined with respeet to avian phylogeny by eombining lhe bird families into their respective avian orders and calculating the hematozoan prevalence in eaeh of the 21 orders represented. The resultant prevalence of blood parasites was highly variable and no evident relationship to avian phylogenetie position was observed. Nor was there a correlation between phylogenetie position and the diversity of parasite geoera infecting the various orders of birds. However, birds with a high prevalence of blood parasites in the Nearetie, also have a eompara­ tively high prevalen ce in the Neotropies. This suggests that eiIher sorne behavioral aspeet or sorne physiologieal eondilion of members of sueh familles as the Colum­ bidae, Fringillidae, 1eteridae, Thraupidae, Turdidae, and Vireonidae brings them into closer contact with vectors or makes them more susceptible to hematozoan ¡ofee­ tion than is the case with members of sueh farnilies as the Aleedinidae, Apodidae, Charadrüdae, Seolopacidae, and Troehilidae. Not only was Ihe prevalence of blood parasites in the various families highly variable, but the prevaleoce of hematozoa within the speeies of one family is equally variable (e.g. Fringillidae: Carpodacus mexicanus [ 56.4% 1 and Sicalis lu­ teola [ 0.0% ] , Thraupidae: Ramphocelus passerini [ 61.2% 1 and Thraupis omata [0.6%]). The reasons for this variability are unknown, but must, as suggested earlier, involve behavioral aspeets of the individual species which either enhance or segregate the species from close contact with the veetors. Only detailed sludies on both birds and veetors will elieit lhe reasons. About 60% of the total prevalenee of Leucocytozoon in the Neotropies was con t ri bu ted by five avian families (Bombyeillidae, Fringillidae, Parulidae, Thraupidae, and Turdidae); the majority (24/3 1 77.4%) of these infeetions were found in avian speeies eommon to both the Nearclie and Neotropies, eilher breeding in both, or overwintering in the 1atter (Table 1). The remaining infeetions of Leucocytozoon are seatlered through an additional 14 families resulting in 19 of 80 families harboring this genus of parasite. This further ilIustrates that while Leucocytozoon is being transmitted in the Neotropics, it is transmitted at a very =.

(5) low rate, especially in comparison to the Nearctic. AlIhough families,. Haemoproteus infections were found in 4 1 of the examined bird. 89.7% of. these infections occurred in five families (Anatidae, Columbidae,. Cracidae, FringiUidae, and Thraupidae). The vast majority of the bird species from these families harboring haemoproteid infections breed in the Neotropics (Table. 1).. Therefore, the wide distribution o f Haemoproteus i n the endemie Neotropieal bird fauna in combination with Haemoproteus being the dominant hematozoan genus in the Neotropies, suggests that the veetor-complex responsible for the maintenanee of haemoproteids is the most highly evolved veetor-bird relationship in !he Neotropies. Whether biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) or louse tlies (Hippoboseidae) or both are. Haemoproteus in the Neotropics is unknown. Haemoproteus columbae has been demonstrated to be transmitted to. responsible for the transmission of However,. 1908).. pigeons by louse Ilies in Brazil (Aragiío. Plasmodium was the most widely distributed genus of blood parasites with respeet to number of bird families, sinee infeeted with it. However, more than half. 50 of the 80 families examined were (58.4%) of all Plasmodium infeetions. were found in six families (Columbidae , Fringillidae, Ieteridae, Rallidae, Thraupida<;. and Turdidae) and most of the. P1asmodium -infeeted speeies included in these 1). Therefore , while Plasmodium preva­. families breed in the Neotropies (Table. lence in the Neotropics was very low, it is evident that the vectors transmitting it are either very catholic with respect to their feeding behavior or a wide variety of vector species are functioning there. Since. the. haemogregarines,. 20.4% of the. remaining blood parasites viz., Trypanosoma, microfilaria, A toxoplasmafLankesterella and Akiba, together eomprised only. total infeetions, it is diffieult to meaningful!y diseuss their individual. distribution with respeet to the bird families. The same trend is apparent as that experienced with. Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus and Plasmodium in that a wide. range of families was found to be infected with these parasites, but over individual prevalenee is attributable to garines,. 4. families for. 60% of the. Trypanosoma, haemogre·. AtoxoplasmafLankesterella and Akiba, and 6 families for microfilaria. (Tables 1 ,. 2).. When eomparing Tables. 1. and. 2. with Greiner. et al. ( 1 975), the total preva­. lence of hematozoa was higher in the Neotropies than in the Nearelie in only. 8 of. 44. families sampled in both life zones. These included the Alcedinidae , Ardeidae, Caprimulgidae, Ploeeidae, Rallidae, Scolopaeidae , Sylviidae,and Threskiomithidae.. Passer domesticus, harbored pri· Plasmodium and A toxoplasma, but the total prevalence of blood parasites in P. domesticus in the Neotropics was more than 4 times that reeorded for the The ploeeids, represented only by the introdueed marily. Nearctic . However, the Rallidae and Ardeidae have many more endemic species in the Neotropics than in the Nearetic and in the Neotropies possessed. 6. times and. times respectively, the total prevalence observed in the Nearctic. Aramides. 3. cajanea. aeeounted for the majority of the high prevalenee of hematozoa in the Rallidae.. Nyetieorax nyetieorax and Butorides vireseens contributed nearly al! of the total hematozoan prevalence of the Ardeidae. The latter two species were also examined in the Nearetic where they comprised. 25% of the infected Ardeidae. The remaining. five families differed to a lesser extent between !ife zanes with referenee to this point. A eomparison of the prevalenee of blood parasites in all galliform birds in the Nearetic. (Meleagrididae, Phasianidae. and Tetraonidae) and in the Neotropies. (Cracidae, Meleagrididae, Numididae and Phasianidae) is of interest. In the Neotro-.

(6) 48. REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA TROPICAL. pieal region, 1 5 163 galliforms (Tables 1 , 2) were examined and only 1 5 1 ( 1 .0%) individuals harbored blood parasites; 108 (0.7%) with Haemoproteus, 43 (0.3%) with Plasmodium and none with Leucocytozoon. Comparatively, in the Nearctic sample of 8 1 86 gallifonns, 4071 (49.7%) individuals harbored blood parasites; 2410 (29.4%) with Leucocytozoon, 2408 (29.4%) with Haemoproteus and 163 (2.0%) with Plasmodium; many birds were infeeted with two or more genera of blood parasites (Greiner et al. 1975). Sinee a11 !he galliform families under eonsideration here do not inhabit both regions, the Craeidae, endemie to the Neotropies, should be eompared with the Tetraonidae, endemie to the Holaretie. The total prevalenee of the Craeidae (26.9%) is still lower than that of the Tetraonidae ( 6 1 . 1 %), !hus substantiating the differenees noted above. It is quite e1ear that the gallifonn­ vector·parasite relationships in the Nearctic are well established and that a similar relationship has not yet evolved in the Neotropieal region. Distribution of Avian Hematozoa by Region: The prevalence of ,avian hema· tozoa in the eight geographieal regions as defined in Fig. 2, was highly variable and the great disparity in sample size (Table 4) makes aeeurate eomparison diffieult. The greatest proporlion of Leucocytozoon oeeurred in region 1, but !he highest prevalence of this genus was in regioo 8, 3D area with 3D inadequate sample size (Table 4). AH infeelions of Leucocytozoon were observed in birds from montane regions where presumably the lotie breeding habitats of the simullid veetors are more abundan!. Approximately 30% of the Haemoproteus infeetions oeeurred in region 1 and 26% in regions 3 and 4, while the highest prevalen ce oeeurred in the latter region (Table 4). It is interesting to note !hat 633 of 679 haemoproteid infeetions in region 3 were aeeountable to a study on Columba ¡¡via by Tello and Tantaleán ( 1964). If these data were removed from the totals for region 3, !he overall prevalenee would be 1 5.6%, a figure more compatible with the other regioos. Haemoproteus was the most cornmonly encountered genus in all regioos except in regiDo 5 , where Plasmodium was the most common. The prevaJence of Plasmodium was highest in regions 1 and 5 , but the highest pereentage of Plasmodium infeelions oeeurred in region 1 , followed by regions 4 and 6. Mierofi­ laria were relatively abundant in regions 1 , 5 and 8. Region 8 eontained the highest prevalence of microfilaria, but 64.9% of all microfilaria infections were in birds from region 1 . Trypanosoma prevalence, although low in a11 afeas in which it was found, was highest in regions 6 and 8 while the greatest proportion of Trypanosl>­ ma-infeeted birds were in region 1 . Haemogregarines, A toxoplasmafLankesterella and Akiba ( "Other") were observed in only four regions, never exeeeding 2.0%. Thus, the influenee of sample size can be readily diseerned by the faet that in most of the aforementioned relationships, the highest prevalenee of a eertain parasite genus does not direetly relate to the highest proportion of infeelions of that genus on a regional basis. =. CONCLUSIONS The greater diversity and endemieity of the Neotropieal avifauna, in eontrast to that of the Nearetie, should offer a greater potential for a higher prevalenee of avian hematozoa. However, upon comparison of the hematozoan prevalence of the Neotropies and the Nearelie, that of the Nearetie was substanlially higher !han !hat.

(7) WHITE et al.: Hematozoa of Neotropical birds. 49. of Ihe Neotropics. Moreover, 29 1 of the 388 (75.0%) examined species in the Nearctic harbored at least one hematozoan (Greiner et al. 1975) in contrast to 504 of the 955 (52.7'10) species examined in the Neotropics (Tables 1 ,2). The paucity of infections of Leucocytozoon in the Neotropics was of particu­ lar interest since this was the dominant avian hematozoan genus encountered in certain regions of the Nearctic (Greiner et al. 1975). The distribution of avian hematozoa with respect to· regions of Ihe Neotropics was variable, but part of this variability was probably due to the small sample sizes from sorne regions. Further­ more, certain bird familles seem lo be predisposed to infection with these parasites, while other families were rarely if ever, ¡nfected. Since no data could be found on several minar avian families restricted to the Neotropics, viz. Dulidae, Phytoto­ midae, Thlnocoridae, and Todidae, it wauld be of interest to examine members of these families for blood parasites. Unfortunately, due to the dearth of information on ornithophilic biting fijes in the Neotropics, little could be said regarding vectors .and it is hoped that this paper might stimulate research on this aspect of the biology of the Neotropical avian hematozoa. J. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We wish to thank Isabel Martins and Gail Aldretti for their assistance with translating papers. We also acknowledge Ihe financial support of the National Research Council of Canada.. RESUMEN. La literatura sobre la prevalencia de hematozoarios de las aves en el Neotró­ pico, juntamente con datos inéditos de los archivos del International Reference Centre for Avian Haematozoa, fueron estudiados con relación a la distribución del parásito por huésped y geográficamente. Les parásitos sanguíneos de 35.555 aves del Neotrópico de 955 especies (80 familias) constituyen la base para las compara­ ciones. Solamente 3.743 ( 1 0,5%) individuos hospedaron una o más especies de hematozoarios. Haemoproteus fue el más común, con una prevalencia de 7 A% seguido por PllC<modium, ( 1 ,9%), micromarias (1 ,2'10), Trypanosoma (0,6'10) y Leucocytozoon (0,2'10). La prevalencia de hematozoarios varió notoriamente de región a región y entre familias. En comparación con una revisión similar sobre la distribución de los hematozoarios de las aves en el Neoártico, se demostró que su prevalencia es mucho menor en el Neatrópico y que hay una casi total ausencia de Leucocytozoon..

(8) TABLE 1 Prevalence al hematozoo in (he Neotropica/ avifauna, based on $urIJeys recorded in rhe lirerature and (he files al (he InterlUltional Reference Centre for A vian Haematozoa: ("Regions" refer 10 rhose mus/rated in Fig. 2; "Reference Numbers" refer lo (he numericol listing o{ authors in (he LITERA TURE ClTED).. Family and species. Total birds. lnfected birds. Total birds infected with: L. '. H. '. P. '. T. '. M. '. Regions. Reference Numbers. 1 6 4 4 1,3,4,6 3 1,3 7. 16 63 42,43 50 17,42,44,100,f 96 17,44 29. 1,4 3 4 1,3,6 4 3,4 1,3,4,7 1. 14,16,42,44,100 96 50 44,96,f 50 19,96 16,42,44,68,96 16,44. 4 1 1 4 1 1,4. 18,19 44 44 50 16 42-,43,49. O'. ACCIPITRIDAE. E E E W E. E E E E E E E. A ccipiter strialus Vieillot A ccipiter sp. Busarellus nigricollis (utham) 2 Bureo leucorrhous (Quoy & Gaimard) 7 Buleo magnirostris (Gmelin) 6 Buleo ni(idus (Latham) 1 Buleo plalypterus (Vieillot) 16 Buleo polyoSOTrUl (Quoy & Gaimard) 2 Buteogallus anthracinus. (Lichtenstein) Geronospiza caerulescens (Vieillot) Geranospiza gracili s (Temminck) Harpagus bidentarus (Latham) Harpia harpyja (ünné) Heterospizias men'diofUllis (Latham) Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin) Leptodon cayanensis (Latham). E Leucopternis albicollis (Latham) E Leucoprernis princeps Sclater E Leucopternis semiplumbea Lawrence Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck) E Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin) Unidentified species Total: i fected: jo n. o. O 1 1 1 O 5 O. +. 3. 2 +. 4 1 3 6 2 2 6 2. 1 O 3 3 1 O 2 1. 1 1 1 1 5. O O 1 O O. 70. 20. 10. 7. 28.6. 14,3. 10.0. 3 1. 2 1 +. +. 4 1.4. 5.7.

(9) ALAUDIDAE o. Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus). 33. ALCEDINIDAE E E E E. Ceryle torquata (Linné) Chloroceryle aenea (Pallas) Chloroceryle amazona (Latham) Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin) Chloroceryle inda (Linné). Unidentified specics Total:. % infected :. 1. 100 16,44,f 44,f. O O. 4 1. 50 49. 23 4. Chloroceryle sp.. 16,44,5 1,100. O O. O O. 1. +. 1,7 6 1 1,6,7 1,6. 8 3. 41. +. f. Ana)· bahamensis Linné Anos brasiliemis Gmelin. W Anos discors Linné Dendrocygna au(umnalü (Linné). E E E. Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot) Dendrocygna viduata (Linné) Dendrocygna sp. Metopiana peposacu (Vieillot) Neochen jubala (Spix) Oxyura dominicus (Linnacus). E. Sarkidiornis me/anotas (Pennant). E. Unidentified species Total:. • �. •. 3. �. ANATIDAE E E. !'t. ;z:. 2.4. 2.4. :;;:. i'!; t;j. S N. 1 62 9 177 31 123 14 3 3. O 3 1 1 O 5 O O O O. 1 25. O O. 449. 10 2.2. % infected:. 3. 3. +. 1. + +. 3. 4. 6. +. 0.9. 1.3. 0.2. 4 4,7 1,4 4 4 4,7 4 7 4 4. 42 40,42,43 40,43,44,99,100 40,42,43 40,42,43 40,42,43,79 42 79 43 40,42. 4 4. 40 42,43. 4. 42. o � o �. Z • o. ". o "O. o' "". a".. �. ANHIMIDAE E. Anhima camura (Linné). 4. O. �.

(10) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. Total birds. Infccted birds. Total birds infected with:. L. ". H. ". P. ". T. ". M. ". D.". Regions. Reference Numbers. 1,4. 42,44,100. 6 4 1 4 4. f. 3 1,4,6. 96 16,42,60. 2,4. 42,103. 1 6 4 1 4 1,3,4 3,4,6,7 1,4 1,4 1,3,4 1,4,6 1,4,6. 44 93 40,42,43 44 43 17,40,42,44 17,40,42,56,79,84,f 40,44 40,43,44 40,42,99,100, f 42,44,93 40,42,44,56,63. ANHINGlDAE Anhinga anhinga (Linné). APODIDAE E Chaetura andrei Berlepsch & Hartcrt E Chaetura cinereiventris Sclatcr W Chaetura pelagica (Linné) CluJetura vauxi (J. K, Townsend) E Panyptila cayennensis (Gmelin) E Reinarda squamata (Cassin) E Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw) Total:. 3. 4 28 6 8 3. O O O O O. 2 4. O O. 55. O. 2. O. +. 42 16,44 42 19,42. +. ARAMIDAE Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus). ARDEIDAE E Agamia agami(Gmelin) Ardea cinerea Linné E Ardea cocol linné Ardea herodias linné E Botaurus pinnatus (Wagler) Bubulcus ibis (Linné) E Butorides striatus (Linné) Butorides virescens (Linné) E Casmerodius a/bus (Linné) E Cochlearius cochleariús'(Linné) Egretta thufll (Molina) Flan'da caeru/ea (Linné). O 16 1 2 66 15 25 40 6 2 12. 3 O 1 O O 6 2 1 O O. 3. +. + 2. 3 2 + +. +.

(11) Hydronosso tricolor (P. L.S. Müller) Nyctanasso violacea (Linné) Nycticorax lIyccicorox (Linné) Nycticorax sp. E Syrigma sibilotrix (Temminck) E Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddacrt) E Tigrisoma salmon; Sclater & Salvin. Unidentified spccies Total:. 1 1 47. O O. +. 37. 1. 7. +. 1. O. 3,4,7 1 1,4,6. +. 5. O. 247. 51. 2. 20.6. 0.8. % infectcd:. 37. +. O 6. 1 1,4 6 6. +. 0.4. 9. 38. 2. 3.6. 15.4. 0.8. 44 20,56 32 65,93 79 40,79,96 44 42,49,93. 0.4. BOMBYCILLlDAE W Bombydllo cedrorum Vieillot E Ptilogonys cinereus Swainson Total:. 6 2 8. "/0 infected:. 4 1. 16 16. 3. 5. 3. 62.5. 37.5. 12.5. 12.5. BUCCONIDAE. E Chelidoptera tenebrosa (Pallas). E Hapaloptilo castanea (J. Verreaux) E Malocoptilo paflameflsis Lafresnaye. E Ma!ncoptifa miara (Spix). E Monaso morphoeus (Hahn & Kusler) E Notharchus mac.rorhynchos (Gmeün) E Notharchus tectus (Boddaert) E Nyslalus chacuru (Vieillot). E Nysralus maculatus (Gmeün). 1 1 12 2 2 9 2 13. 1. O. 3 1. O 5. 3. 3. 2. 2. + 1 43. % infected:. 13 30.2. 6 14.0. 4 9.3. 1,3 6 8 1. 96 17 44 f 17,44 16,44,100, f 1 7,44 84, f 75 49. 4. 40,42,43. 1. O. E Nystalus radiatus (Sclatcr) Total:. 3 1. 3 3 1 6 1,3. 5 11.6. BURHINIDAE E Burhinus bistriatus (Wagler). 8. O.

(12) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and spccies. Total birds. lnfccted birds. Total birds infected with: L. '. H. '. P. '. T. '. M.'. O. '. Regions. Reference Numbers. 3 1,3 3 1. 96 17,49 96 49. 1,4,8 1 1 1,3 6 6 1,3,4,6 6 6. 44,50,72 16 16 7,44. CAPITONIDAE. E Cppito niger (P.L.S. Müller) E Eubucco bourcierii (l.afresnayc) E Eubucco '¡chardson; (G. R. Gray) Unidentified specics Total:. 2 2 1 2 7. % infected. 1 1 O O 2. 2 14.3. 28.6. 28.6. CAPRIMIJLGlDAE. E. E. CaprimuIgus rnfus Boddaert CaprimuIgus vociferus Wilson Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann) ChordeUes minor (1. R. Forster) HydroPSillis brasiliana (Gmelin). E. Luroca/is semitorQuatus (Gmelin) Nyctidromus albico/lis (Gmelin) Nyctiphrynus oce/fatus (Tschudi). E. Unidentified spccies Total:. 2 6 1 2 1 3 8 3 5. O 3 O 2 O O O O O. 31. 5. % infectcd:. 16.1. + 3. 4 3.2. 12.9. f. f 17,40,44, f f. 84. 1 3.2. CARIAMIDAE E Cariama cristata (ünné). +. 6. 65. 1,4,6 1,4,6 1,6 1. 43,44,94 18,19,40,42,43,44,60,94 26,44 49. CATHARTIDAE ·Quhartes aura (ünné) Coragyps atralUs (Bechstein) E $orcoramphus papa (Linné). Uoidentified species. 8 11 1 1. Total:. 21. % infected:. 4 O O O 4 19.0. 3. 3 14.3. +. +. 1 +. + + +. 1. +. 4.8.

(13) CHARADRIIDAE W Plul'iolis sqUIJtorola (Linnaeus) E Vonellus chilensis (Molina) Unidentified species Total:. I 15 I. O O O. 17. O. 2 3 9. O O I. +. +. 4 3,4,6 6. 3 40,42,43,63,96 84. 4,6 3,4 1,4,6,7. 26,40 40,42,99 42,43,44,65,79. 1,4,6 1,3,4,6 8. 16,42,44,49,f 16,17,42,44,60,f 38. 8 4 4 I 1,6 I. 38 99 2 44 44,60,f 16. 4. 42. 1,4 1,3,4 4 I I 3. 42,44 42,44,96 43 16 98 17. CICONIIDAE E Euxenura galeata (Molina) E Jabiru mycteria (Lichtcnstcin) Mycterin americana Linné Total:. +. +. +. +. 14. % infected:. +. 7.1. 7.1. 3 3 I. I 2. COEREBlDAE E Chlorophanes $pizo (Linnacus) E Coerebo j7aveola (linnaeus) E Conirostrum cinereum Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny E Coniroscrum tamarugensis Johnson & Millie E Cyanerpes caeru/eus (ünnaeus) E Cyanerpes cyaneus (linnaeus) E Cyanerpes lucidus (Sclatcr & Salvin) E Dacnis cayana (Unnaeus) E DigloSSfl bariculo Wagler. 11 101 4. O 5 I 31 2. 3 O 3 I. 157. 14. E Diglossa cyanea (Lafresnaye) Total:. 2 2 I. + 3 2. 2. O. % infected:. 8.9. 2. 7. 7. 1.3. 4.5. 4.5. I 2. 4. CQLUMBIDAE E CJaravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Perez) E Columba coyennensis Bonnaterre Columba corensis Jacquin Columba [OSCUlIO Say Columba j7avirostris Wagler E Columba goodsoni Harterl. 40 62 3 3 31 2. 16 24 O 2 18 O. 15 18. 2 11. 7.

(14) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. E E E E E E. Total birds. lnfected birds. 22 2 36 27 20. 10 2 36 5 2. Total birds infected with: L. '. + 10 2 33 5 2 + 1 1 2 1 76. Columba maculosa T�mminck Columba nigrirostris Sc1ater Columba picazuro Temminck Columba cayennensis Bonnaterre Co/umba speciosa Gmelin Columba subvinacea (Lawrence). Columba sp, E Columbina cruziana (Prévost) 5 E Columbina minuta Unné 3 Columbina passerina (Unnaeus) 7 E Columbina picui (femminck) 6 E Columbina (a[pacoti (Temminck) 225 E Geotrygon albi[acies Sc1ater 1 E Geotrygon chrysio Bonaparte 1 E Georrygon lawrencii Salvin 2 E Georrygon linearis (Prévost) 19 E Geotrygon montana (ünnaeus) 14 E Geotrygon veraguensis Lawrence 1 E Leptotila plumbeiceps Sc1ater & Salvin E Leplotifa ru[axilfa (Richard & Bernard) 4 Leplotifa verreauxi Bonaparte 259 Leptotila sp, 1 E Metriopelio ceci/iae (lesson) 1 E Metriopelia melanoptera (Molina) 3 Scardl1[ella inca (lesson) 2 E Scarda[elfa squammota (Lesson) 29 Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky) 12 75 Zenaida asiatica (Unnaeus) E Zenaida aun'cu/JJta (Des Murs) 62 E Zenaida aurita (Temminck) 3 Zenaida maCToura (ünnaeus) 47 Unidentified species 263. ToJal:. % infccted:. 1294. H. '. 1 1 2 4 77 O O 2 O 2 O. P. '. T. '. M. '. +. D. '. 29 +. 3. +. + 3 2. 2. 2 2. Regions. Reference Numbers. 7,8 1 6,7 4,6 1,3,4 4 4,6 8 4,6 2,4 6,8 1,3,4,6 1 2 1 4 1,6 1. 28,75 44 63,84 26,56,57 40,42,43,44,96 40,42,43 63 38 42,96 8,42 57,70 17,40,42,43,44,50,57,84,96,f 16 103 44 42 44,f 44. 3,4,6 1,4,6 6 8 8 1 4,6 4 1,8 3,4,8,7 2 1 1,4. 96,f 16,40,42,43,44,98,100, f 84 38 38 16,98 40,42,43,60,84 40 16,38,98 40,42,43,60,69,70,96 103 44,98 40,42,43,49. O O 21 1 O O O 11 1 75 10 1 44 18 386 29.8. 20 1. 2. 2 0.2. 4. 11 1 59 7 1 39 18 336 26.0. +. +. 33 3. +. 5. + 14 1.1. +. 60 4.6. 31 2.4.

(15) CONOPOPHAGIDAE E Conopophaga lineata (Wied) E. Conopophaga melanops (Vieillot). Total:. 93. 14 O. 11. 3 96. 14. 11. 4. 14.6. 11.5. 4.2. % infected:. 4. 6 6. 60,f f. 1 1 1 1,4 6,7,8 6 3,4 1,4 1 1. 14,16 16 16 40,42,43,49 28,29,65,70,72, f 42,43,96 16,42 16 16,44. 6 1 1 1,3. f 44, f 44 1 7,44. 1,3 1. 1 7,44 16. CORVIDAE 2 AphelocomLl ultramLlrina (Bonaparte) E AphelocolrUl unicolor (DuBus) 10 Cyanocitta stelleri (Gmelin) 7 E Cyanocorax affinis Pelzeln 12 E Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot) 7 E Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck) 1 E Cyanocorax violaceus DuBus 9 E Cyanocorax yncas (Boddaert) 7 E Cyanolyca pulchra (Lawrence) 8 E Psilorhinus morio (Wagler) 4 Total:. 67. % infected:. +. O 5 5 4 O O 2 4 6 3. 2 +. 5 4 1. +. 1 +. 2 6 2. 29. 2. 12. 12. 43.3. 3.0. 17.9. 17.9. f. 2 1.5. 3.0. 2. 1 2. 3. 2. COTINGIDAE E E E E E. AttiÚl rufus (Vieillot) Attila spadiceus (Gmelin) Carpodectes nitidus Salvin Lipaugus unirufus Sclater Pachyramphus cinnamomeus. l.aWIence E Pachyramphus mLljor (Cabanis) E Pachyramphus mLlrginatus (Lichtenstein) E Pachyramphus polychopterus (Vieillot) E Pachyramphus rufus (Boddaert) E Pachyramphus viridis (Vieillot) E PÚltypsaris agÚliae (Lafresnaye) E PÚltypsaris rufus (Vieiltot). 8 2 7 5. O 1 4 O. 10 3. 3 1. 3 1. 6 11. 4. 1 3 3. O 1 2. + +. 3. 4 +. 6 6 1 6. 26,44, f 26,89 f. 16, f f.

(16) TABLE 1 (Continued). Family and species. E �o,ocnias averano (Hermann) E Procnws tricaruncu/ata (J. & E. Verreaux) E Pseudatti/a phoenicurus (Pelzeln) E Queru/a purpurata Lawrence E Rhytipterna ho/erythra (Sclater & Salvin) E Rhytipterna simplex (Lichtenstein) E Tityra cayana (Linnaeus) E Tityra inQuisitor (Lichtenstein) E Tityra semífasciata (Spix) Unidentified species Total:. Total birds. Infected birds. Total birds infected with: 0 L.. HO. P. o. T. o. M. '. D. '. Regions. Reference Numbers. O. 4. 42. 4 4 18. O O. 44. 2. 1 6 1. 2 2. O O. +. 1,3 6 6. f. 18 9 4. 13 4. 1 1,3 1. 44 16,17,44 49. 1 16. 36. 3. 31.0. 2.7. 4 4 4 1 7,8 1 4 4 1 4 6 3.6. 42 40,42,43 19 16,44 69,72 44,1 00 42 40,42,43 16 42 24 65,96. 1,4 6 4 1,4. 40,43,44 26 43 40,42,43,45. % infected:. 2. 11 3. 8 1. 5. 26. 19. 4.3. 22.4. 16.0. O. f 44 1 7,44 89. CRACIDAE. E Aburría aburrí (Lesson) E Oax alberti Fraser E Crax nigra linné E Crax rubra Linné E Ortalis canicollis (Wagler) E Ortalis garru/iJ (Humboldt) E Ortalis motmot (Linné) E Ortalis ruficauda Jardine E Orta/is vetu/a (Wagler) E Pene/ope argyrotis (Bonaparte) E Pene/ope montagnii (Bonaparte) E Pene/ope obscura Temminck E Pene/ope purpurascensWagler E Pene/ope superciliarisTernminck E Pipile pipile (Jacquin) Unidentified species Total: % infected:. 2 18. O 3. 3. + 2. + 3 3 324 2 2. 3 O 90 2. 2. 2. 7. 4. O. 3 90 1. +. 8 2. +. + 4. + 1 28. 1. 394. 106. O. 26.9. +. 102 25.8. 13 3.3. 2 0.5. + 0.3.

(17) cucuLIDAE E E. E. Coccyzus americaf/us (Linné) Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieillot Coccyzus pumilus Strickland Crotophaga af/i Linné Crofophaga mojor Gmelin Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson. E Dromococcyx pavof/inus Pelzeln Geococcyx lIelox (Wagner) E Guira guira (Gmelin) E Morococcyx erythropygus (Lesson) E Neomorphus geoffroyi (Tcmminck) E. E. Piaya cayaf/a (Linné) Piaya sp. E Tapera noevio (Linné) Unidentified species Total:. 2 2 2 39 4 49 2 2 11 2 1. O O O 2 O 4 O O O O O. 45. 21. + 2. +. 4. 3. 17. 18. 2 1. O O. 164. 27. 3. 5. 4. 16.5. 0.9. 1.5. 2.4. % infected:. 1 6,7 3 3,4,6,7 1,4,7 1 6 1 6,7 1 1. 16 29,60,84, f 16 44. 1,4,6 6 4,6 1. 16,42,44,84,100 63 42, f 49. 16 74,84 17 1 7,42,50,60,84,96, f 42,100, f 16,44 f. 5.6. DENDROCOLAPTIDAE E. Compyl9rhompus pusillus (Sclater) Compylorhampus trochilirostris. 2. O. 16 36 2 4. 2 1 O 1. 4,6 1,3,4,6 1 1. 42, f 17,44, f 44 44. lichtenstein E Delldrocolaptes platyrostrjs Spix E GlyphorhYllclius spirums (Vieillot) E Lepidocolaptes aff/nls (Lafrcsnaye). 2 12 7 3. O 1 O O. 3 6 1,3 1,3. 17 f 1 7,44 16,17. (VieiUot) E Lepidoco/optes fuscus (Vicillot) E Lepidoco/aptes souleyelii (Des Murs) E Siuosomus griseicopi/lus (Vieillot) E Xiphocolaptes albico!lis (Vieillot). 2 45 18 27 5. 2. 8 6 1,3 6 6. 70,75 f 14,44,96 f. E. (Lichtenstein). E DendrocincJofuligillosa (Vieillot) E Dendrocincla homochroa (Sclater) E Dendrocolaptes cerrhla (Boddaert) E Dendrocolaptes picumnus. E Lepidoc% ptes ongustirosrris. O 3 1 O. 44. +. 2 2. f.

(18) TABLE 1 (Continued). Family and species. Total birds. Total birds infectcd with:. Infected birds L. E E E. Xiphocolaptes 11U1jor (Vieillot) Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus. (Lesson). .'. H. '. 1. P. '. T. '. M. '. O'. Regions. Reference Numbers. 8 1. 70 16. 3. 17. 1 3. 2. 2. O. 2. O. 11. O. 5. O. 3. O O O. 4 3 3. 50 96 96. 1 1 6. O O O. 1 4 1,3. 44 42 49,96. 218. 14. O. 4. 40. O O O 6. 1,3 1 1 1,4,6,7,8. 44,96 16 44, f 16,28,29,42,43,49,56.70.73,84. 2. Xiphorhynchus erythropygius. (Sclater). E Xiphorhynchus flavigaster Swainson E Xiphorhynchus guttatus (Lichtenstcin). E Xiphorhynchus mchrymosus. (Lawrence) E Xiphorhynchus obsoletus (Uchtenstein) E Xiphorhynchus picus (Gmelin) E Xiphorhynchus spixii (Lesson) E Xiphorhynchus trumgult1ris. (Lafrcsnayc) Xiphorhynchus sp.. !Jnidentified species Total: % infected:. 6.4. 16, f 1,3. 44,96 44. 3. 4. 2. 5. 2. 1.4. 1.8. 0.9. 2.3. 0.9. EURYPYGIDAE E Eurypyga helias (Pallas) FALCONIDAE E" Daptrius americanus (Boddaert). E. Falco peregrinus Tunstal1 Falco rufigularis Daudin Fa/m sparverius Unné. 3 1 2 14. 3. 3.

(19) E Herpetotheres cachinnans (Unné) E MicrQstur ruficollis (Vieillot) E Milvago chimachima (Vieillot) Polyborus plLmcus (l.F. Miller) Unidentirted species Total:. 1 7 12 7 2. O 2 5 3 O. 49. 16 32.7. % infected:. 2 5 3. 1.8. 13. 3. 26.5. 5.5. 1.8. 1 1,6 1,3,4,6 3,4,6 1,4. 44 44, f 40,42,43,50,84,96,100 26,40,42,96 42,49. 6 1. 24,25, f 44 44. 6,7 1 6 6. 26,68 44 f f. 6 1,6 1. f 44,60, f 44. 1.8. FORMICARIlDAE E E E E. Batara cinerea (Vicillot) Cercomacra nigricans Sclater. E E E E. Cymbiloimus lineatus (Leach) Drymophilo ma/ura (femminck) Drymophila ochropyga (Hellmayr) Drymophila squamata. CerCOf1llJcra tyrannilUl (Sclater) Chanllleza campanisona. 1 1 5. O O 1. 3 8 2. 1 O O. 1 44 3. O 8 O. +. + 1. (Lichtcnstein). (Uchtcnstein) E Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck) E Dysilhamnus puncliceps Salvin E DYsilhamnus xanlhoplerus (Burmeister) E Formicarius analis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) E Form;carius colrtUJ Boddaert E Gra/lario guatimalensis Prévost & Des Murs E Gralwria ochroleuca (Wicd) E Gralforia vario (Boddaert) E Grallaricula j1I1viroslris (Sclater) E Gymnopithys feucaspis (Sclater) E Herpsilochmus rufirtUJrginatus (fernminck) E Hy/ophylax naevioides (Lafresnaye) E Mackenziaena leachii (Such) E Microrhopias quixensis (Cornalia). 2. 2. 4. +. O. 6. 1 7. 1 O. 1 6. 44 f. 2 1 1. 1 1 O. 1 6 6. 16,44 f 24, f. 2 4. 1 O. 1 4 2 2. O O O 1. +. 44 44 6 1,3 6 1,3. f 17,44 60, f 16,17.

(20) TABLE 1 (Continue<l) Family and species. E E E E E E. Myrmeciza immllculota (Lafresnaye) Myrmoderus squamosus (Pelzcln) MyrmotheruÚJ guwris (Spix) Myrmotheruw surinametlsis (Gmelin) Myrmotherula unicolor (Ménétriés) Phaenostictus mcleannani. (L..awrence) E Pittasomo michleri Cassin E Pyrig/ena leucoptera (Vicillot) E Taraba mojor (Vieillot) E Thamnophilus caerulescens VieilJot E Thamnophilus doliatus (Unné) E Thamnophilus multistriatus Lafresnaye E Thamnophilus polliatus (Uchtenstein) E Thamtlophilus punctatus (Shaw) E Thamnophilus ruficapillus VieiUot Unidcntified species Total:. Total birds. Infected birds. 2 18 8 2 4. Total birds infected with: Regions. Reference Numbers. O O I O O. I 6 6 1,3 6. 44 f f 17,44 f. I I 44 4. O O 4 I. +. I I 6 1,3,6,8. 44 44 60, f 44,70,94,96. 35 19. I 7. 2. 6 1,3,4. 60, f 16,42,96. O. 3. 17. I 4 15 !l. O I I O. 3 1,3 6. 96 17,44,96 60,f. 266. 31. 4. 11.7. 1.5. % infected:. L. -. N. '. P. '. r. '. M. '. 2. I 7. O.'. 44,49 15 5.6. 9. 4. 3. 3A. 1.5. l.l. FREGATIDAE Fregara magnificens Mathews. Total:. % infectcd:. 25. 2. 25. 2 8.0. 1,2 I 4.0. 4,0. 20,33.

(21) FRINGILLIDAE E Aimophiltl strigiceps (Gould) -6 E A mmodramus aunfrotlS (Spix) E Ammodramus humeralis (Bosc) 15 Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin) 1 Amphispiza bilineala (Cassin) 1 E A"emon aurantiirostn"s Lafresnaye 19 E Anemon taciturnus (Hermann) 8 E Arremonops chloronotus (Salvin) 1 E Arremonops conirostris (Bonaparte) 60 Arremonops rufivirgatus (Lawrence) 1 E Alltlpetes brunneinucha (Lafresnaye) 5 E Alltlpeles gutturalis (Lafresnaye) 1 ÚIrdinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus) 6 E Úlrdinalis phoeniceus Bonaparte 16 E Úlrduelis notara DuBus 2 ÚIrduelis psaltria (Say) 29 Corpodi1cus mexicanus (Müller) 110 E Coryorhraustes canadensis (Linnaeus) 4 E ÚItamenia analis (d'Orbigny & Lafrcsnaye) 2 Coccothraustes abeillei (Lesson) 2 E CoryphospingUs cucullarus (Müller) 4 E Coryphospingus pileatus (Wied) 1 E Emberizoides herbicola (Vicillot) 25 E Embernagra plarensis (Gmelin) 5 E Gubernalrix crislara (Vieillot) E Haplospiza unicolor Cabanis 20 W Melospiza Jincolnii (Audubon) 4 E Oryzoborus angolensis (Linnaeus) 49 E Oryzoborus crassirostris (Gmelin) 2 E Paroaria capitata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) E Paroaria coronara (Miller). +. O. 8 3 6,7 1 1 1,3 3,6 1 1 1 1,3 1 1 4 1 3,4 1. +. O O. 1 1 1. O. 24 1 1. 22. O. 4 12 O 2 62. 5. 4 12. 4. 2 23. 20. 17. O. (. 44 16 16,1 7,44 16 16,33 42,43 16 17,40,42 16,33 44. O 1 3 1 1 O 3 2 3. 73 96 28,29,60, ( 16 33 17,44 96, (. 2 + +. + 2 3. O +. +. +. + +. 8 1 6,8 4 3,6 6,7 7 6 1 1,6. 38 16 57,75 42 64,96, ( 26,29,76 27,28,29,76 ( 16 44,60. 3,4. 17,42. 6 7. 93,94 27,28,29,63.

(22) TABLE 1 (Continued) Total birds. lnfected birds. Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin) W Passerina ciris (ünnaeus) W Passerina cyanea tUnnaeus) E Passerina cyanoides (Lafrcsnaye) E Passerina feclancherri Lafresnaye E Passerina pare/lina (Bonaparte) Passerina versicolor (Bonaparte). I 9 6 II 19 4 5 4. O 3 2 I 2 O I I. W P!leucticus /udovicianus (Linnaeus). 3 2. Family and species. E Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus) E Paroaria gularis (Linnaeus). E Pheucticus aureoventris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye E Pheucticus chrysopep/us (Vigon) Phel{cticus me/anocephalus. (Swainson). E Phrygi/us fruticeti (Kittlitz) E Phrygilus pfebejus Tschudi Pipilo erytlirophtha/mus. (Linnaeus) Pipilo fuscus Swainson E Pityfus gTossu.r"(ünnaeus). W Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin). E Poospiza nigrorufa (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) E Poospiza thoracica (Nordman) E Rhodothraupiscelaeno (Deppe) E Saltator albicol/is Vieillot E Saltator atriceps (Lesson) E Sa/tator atripennis Sclater. E E E E. Saltator coerulescens Vieillot Saltator maximus (Müller) Soltator orenocensis Lafresnaye Sa/tator similis. d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye. Total birds infected with: L. '. H. '. P. '. T. '. M. '. O, , +. +. 3. 2. +. I 4 4. I 4 O. 2 I 10 I. O O 2 O. 6. O. I 4 123 2 15 54 I. I I 28 O 1 2 O. 34. 7. I 4. + 2. 2. + 18. I!. 2 +. 6. Regions. Reference Numbers. 6 3 I I 1,3,4,6 1,3 I I I. 6 96 14,16,33 16 16,1 7,42,43,44,57 16,17,44 16 16 16. 7 1,4 I. 88 16,42 44. I 8 8. 14,16 38 38. I I 1,3,6 I. 16,33 16 17,44, f 33. 7 6 I 3,4 3 1,4 1,3,4 4. 1. 29 63 16 17,43 44 17 1 6,42,43 16,1 7,42,44 40. 6. 57,63, f.

(23) Serinus canaria (linnaeus) Sicalis columbiana Cabanis E Sicalis fIaveo/a (linnaeus) E. E Sicalis IUleo/a (Sparrman) E Sicalis uropygialis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) E E. W E. E. E E. E E E E E. E. E E E. E E E. E. Spinus magel/anicus (Vieillot) Spinus spinescens (Bonaparte) Spiza americana (Gmelin) Spize/Ia atrogularis (Cabanis) Sporophila a/bogularis (Spix) Sporophila americana (Gmelin) Sporophila bouvreuil (Müller) Sporop}¡ila caer:ulescens (Vieillotl Sporophila castaneivenlris Cabanis Sporophila intermedia Cabanis Spo1'Ophila lineoJa (linnaeus) Sporophila luctuosa (Lafresnaye) Sporophila minuta (ünnaeus) Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot) SporophiJa obscura (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) Sporophi/a plumbea (Wied) Sporophila telasco (Lesson) Sporophila IOrqueo/a (Bonaparte) Sporophi/a sp, n'ari! fuliginosa (Wied) Tiaris olillQcea (liimaeus) Volatini4 ¡ocarina (linnacus). E Xenospingus concolor (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) E Zonotrichia capensis (Müller) Unidentified spedes Total:. OJo infected:. O. 2 27 98. 12 15. 116. O. 12 7. +. +. 4. 3. +. 7,8 8. 6. O. 32 2 35 3. 1 O O 2. 2. 361 1 50 1 13 2 2 20 8. 52. 46. 2 10 6 3 5 8 1 74. O O O. 12. 4 316. 92. +. O 2. + 5. 6. +. +. 2. O O O O 1 O. 1. +. O 1. O 8. 3. 72. 17. 225. 89. O. 36. O. 1970. 373 18.9. 4,6,7 4 3,4,6,7. 12 0.6. 1 1 .4. 4.5. 21. I.l. 6,7,8 4 1,4 1 6 1,3 6 6,7 4 3,4 4 3 1,3 3,4,6. 17 64,96 38 16,44 42,63. 38 16,17 ,27,28,29,38, 42,57,60, r 42,44,47,49,96. 3. 8 1�,4,6,7,8. +. 1,3,4,6. 40. 14 0.7. 38. 27,28,29,31,38,60, r 42 16,42,44 33 6,63 17,44 64 26,27,28,29,57, r 42 17,40,42,43 40 17 16,17 17,42,64. 3 3,6 8 1 4,6 6 3 1.3,4,6,7. 5. 2.0. 42,63 50 28,29,40,42,43,50, 64,84,96, r 28,29,97. r. 17 16,17,40,42,43,44, 57,96, f.

(24) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. Total birds. Infected birds. Total birds infected with: L. '. H. '. P. '. T. '. M. '. D.'. Regions. Reference Numbers. FURNARIIDAE E E E E E E E. Anabacerrhiaamauroris (femminck) Anabazenop$ fuscus (VieiUot) Asthenes dorbignyi (Reichenbach) Aslhenes. mode$1a (Eyton) AUlomolus leucophthalmus (Wicd) A ulomolusochroloemus (fschudi) Automolus rubiginosus (Sc1ater) E Cert}¡i!zxis cinTUlmomea (Gmelin) E Cichlocoloptes leucophrys. E E E E E E. 3 [ [ [ 57 5 2 2. O O O O 3 [ [ [. (Jardine & Selby) Cinc/odes fuscus (VieiUot). 13 2. O O. Oanioleuca pollida (Wied) Furnarius rufus (Gmelin) Heliobletus contaminatus Berlepsch Loc}¡mi!zs nematura (Lichtenstein) Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus. 37 7 30. (Wied) E E E E E E E E E E E E. Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied) Philydor atricapillus (Wied) Philydor rufu$ (Vieillot) Premnoplex brunne$cens(Sc1ater) SclerurU$ gu4lemalensi$ (Hartlaub) Sclerurus mexicanus Sclater Sclerurus seansar (Ménétriés) SYTUllloxis brachyura Lafresnaye Synalloxis erylhrothorax Sclater Syna/laxis frontalis Pelzeln Synalloxis ruficapilla Vieillot SYTUlllaxis spixi Sc1ater Synallaxis sp. E Syndactylo rufosuperci/iota (Lafresnaye). 6 6 8 8 6 [,3 [ 6. 2. ( (. 38 38 60, ( 17,44 [6 57. O O 2. 6 8 6 6,7 6 6. ( 38 26 29,84, (. 3 5 8 3 2 2 [ 8 35 2 3 [7 3 2. O O [ O O O [ O 2 2 O O O O. 6 4,6 6 6 [ [ [ 6 [,3 [ 6 6 6 4. 60, ( 42,84 (. 4[. 2. +. 2 2 +. 6. ( (. (. 44 44 [6. (. 17,44 [6. (. 26, ( ( 42 (.

(25) E Syndactyla suba/Qris (Sclater) E Thripadectes ignobilis (Sclater & Salvin) E Upucerthia va/idiroslris (Bulmeister) E Xenops minutus (Sparrman) E Xenops rutilans Temminck Unidentified species Total:. 2. O. 3. 17. 1 1 15 2 2. O O 2 O O. 3 8 1,6 6 1. 17 38 44, f f 49. 319. 18. 1,3 3 1. 16,1 7,44 96 44. 6 1,2 4,6 1 1,4 3,7 3,6 1. 84, f 44,103 6,50,63, f 44 42,44 69,96 17, f 44,49. 2. 5.6. % infected:. 5. 5. 4. 5. 1. 1.6. 1.6. 1.3. 1.6. 0.3. GALBULIDAE E Galbula ruficauda Cuvier E Calbula tombacea Spix E lacamerops aureo (P. L. S. MüUer) Total:. 5 1 1. 1 O O. 7 14.3. 14.3. % infected:. HIRUNDINIDAE E Alopoche/idon [ucara (Temminck) Hirundo rustica Linnaeus E Notiochelidon eyano/euca (ViciUot). Unidentified species. 6 30 11 4 53 1 25 11. Total:. 141. Petrochelidon pyrrhonola (Vieillot) E Progne chalybea (Gmelin) E Progne tapera (ünnaeus) Stelgidopteryx ruficol/is (Vieillot). % infectcd :. O O O 2 3 O 1 O. + 2 2. 6. 2. 2. 4.3. 1.4. 1.4. + 1 +. 0.7. 0.7. HYDROBATIDAE Oceanodromo me/ania (Bonaparte). 5. 33.

(26) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. Total birds. Infected birds. 1. 1. O O. 3 43 2 18 5 4 6 I 1 6 19. O 3 O 5 3 2 1 O 1 1 6. 8 4 1 3 16 13 1 6 65 14 20 1 6 13 1 3. 1 1 O 1 4 7 1 2 3 2 1 O O 11 O 1. Total birds infected with: L. '. H. '. P. '. T. '. M. '. O. '. Regions. Reference Numbers. 3 2 6,7. 17 103 26,27,28,29. 7 4 6 I 1 1,3 1 2 I 1,4 6,7. 29 40,42,43,50. 3,4 6,7 1 1 1 1 1 1 4,6 1 4 1. 42,43,96. ICfERlDAE E Agelaius icterocephalus (!innaeus) AgeJaius phoeniceus (Unnaeus). E Agelaius thifius (Malina). 9. +. O. +. +. E Amblyramphus holosericeus. E. (Scopoli) Cocicus celil (Linnaeus). E Cocicus haemo"hous (Linnaeus) E. ÜJcicus holosericeus (Deppe). E Cocicus melanicterus (Bonaparte) E Cacicus uropygialis (Lafresnaye) Úlssidix mexicanu$ (Gmelin). E Divcs alroviolace/l (d'Orbigny) E Dives dives (Deppe) W Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus) E Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot) E Gymnomystax mexicanus (!innaeus) E Icterus C4yanensis (linnaeus) E lcleru$ chrysater (Lerson) Icterus CfJcullatus Swainson E lcrerus dominicensis (Unnaeus) W /cterus galbuJa (Linnaeus) /cterus gradUlIcouda Lesson N /cterus gulluis (Wagler) E /cterus icterus (Linnaeus) E /cterus mesomeJas (Wagler) E Icterus nigroguJaris (Hahn) E lcterus pectoralis (Wagler) E /cterus pustulotus (Wagler) W Icterus spurius (linnaeus) /cterus sp. E Leisres militar;s (Linnaeus). 2 4 3 1. 2. 1. I +. 1. 1 2 1 2 2. 2. 1 1 6. 1. +. +. 1 3 4 + 1 2 1. 5. +. 4. +. +. I. 1 1 3. r. 16,44, r 16 17,44 16,100 103 16 42,44 26,28,84,85, f r. 16 16 16,44 16,44 16 14,16 40,42,43,63 44 42,44, r 16 16 14,16,44 16 96.

(27) Molothrus ll.eneus (Wagler) E Molothrus badius (Vieillot) E Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin) Molothrus sp. E Pezites militaris (Linnaeus) E Psorocolius angustifrons (Spix) E. E. Psaroco/ius decwrumus (Pallas) Psarocolius montezuma (Lesson). Psarocofius sp. E Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot). E Pseudoleistes virescens (Vieillot) E Quisca/us lugubris Swainson E Quisca/us niger (Boddaert) Sturnello magna (Unnaeus) E Zarhynchus wagleri (Gray & Mitchell) Unidentified species TOlal:. 7. 5. 42. 8. 65 4 6 6 13 I 3. 12 O 2 2 3 I I. 109 2 3. 17 I I. 8 4. 2 O. 567. 112. + 2. 4 + 5. I +. 4. 7. + +. + 2. I I 3. +. % infected:. 19.8. 4 1. 17. +. I 7,8 3,4,6,7.8 I 7 3 3,4 I 4 6,7. 16,49 27,28.29.74,75,97 29,42,43,57,60,64. 72,84,96. f 16 29 1 7,96 42,96 44,49 42 84, f. 7 4 2 1,4. 27,28.29 40,42,43 103 16,42. 2 2 0.4. 24 4.2. 71 12.5. 15 2.6. 16,44 49 10 1.8. 2 0.4. JACANIDAE lacana jacana (ünnaeus) E lacana spinoS4 (Unné). E. Total:. 43 5 48. % infected':. 2. +. 2. 2. +. 4.2. 4.2. 2 O. 3,4 1.2.6. 40,42.43,96 44,60,103. LANIIDAE Lanius ludovicianus ünnaeus. 2. O. 16. O. 33. O O. 33 16,33. LARIDAE E Anous sto/idus (Linné) W Larus californicus Lawrence Larus heermanni Cassin Larus occidentalis Audubon. 2 1 1 23. O. 3l.

(28) TABLE 1 Family and species. Total birds. Infected. I. 4. O O O O O. 84. O. 29. 1. 5. I. 2. W Larus philadelphia (Ord) Sterna fuscata linné. 50. Sterno lrU1xilrU1 Boddaert SteT!la sp.. I I. Unidcntified speclCS Total:. birds. (Continued). Total birds infected with: L. ·. H. '. p'. ' T.. M '. D. '. Regioos. Reference Numbers. I. 4. 33 33 44 42. 4. 42. I. 44. 1 1. MIMIDAE W Dumerella carolinensis (linnaeus) Dumetelfa sp. E Melallotis caerulescens (Swainson) E Mimodes graysoni (Lawrence) E Mimus gilvus (VieillOI) E. Mimus polyglotlos (Linnaeus) Mimus satuminus (Lichtenslein) TOXOSI017Ul longirosrre (Lafresnaye). Total:. I. 1 1. 21. 1. I. O. 23. 7. + 2. 5. I I. 16 16. 1. 33 16,40,42,43. 1,4 1 6,7. I. 1 4 ,1 6 27,28,29,60,84, f 16,33. 2. O. 84. 12. 1. 2. 8. I. 14.3. 1.2. 2.4. 9.5. 1.2. 1.2. I. 16. 3. 5. 1 1. 1. 1,3. 44 16 16,96. 3. 6. 16.7. 33.3. % infected: MOMOTIDAE E E E E. Aspar"a gu/aris (Lafresnayc) Baryphthengus ruficapillus (Vicillot) Eumomota superciliosa (Sandbach) Momotus momola (Linné). Total: % infcctcd:. I. O. 7 4 6. 6. 18. 10. I 3. 55.6. 2 1 1 .2. 1 5.6. MOTACILUDAE W Anthus spinoletta (Linnaeus). 33.

(29) NYCfIBIIDAE 16. O. E Nycribius griseus (Gmelin) QPISTHOCOMIDAE E Opisrhocomus hoazin (P. L. S. Mül1cr) 1 0. 3,4. 2. 40,96. PARIDAE 33 16. 2 1. 2 O. 2. 3. 2. 2. 2 Bnsi/eulerus coronofUS (fschudi) 11 Basileuterus culicil'orus (Deppe) 24 BaSi!eutenlS hypoleucus Bonaparte Basi/euterus leucoblepharus (Vieillot) 15 Basileuterus nigrocristatus (Lafresnaye) I. 3 1,6 6 6 3 1,3,6 1. 17 16,f f f 17 1 7,44,f 16. 1 1 1 1,2,3 3 1 4 1 1 6,7 1 1,3 1 1 1 1. 44 16 44 14,16,17,44,49,96, 1 03 96 16 42 16 16 26,f 44 17,44 16 44 16,44,f. W Auriparlls flaviceps (SundcvaU) W Parus bicolor Linnaeus Total: PARULlDAE. Basi/euterus rufifrons (Swainson). 13 2. O O 1 O O 1 O. W Dendroica coronara (Linnaeus) W Dendroico dominica (Linnaeus) W Dendroica pensyll'anica (Linnaeus) Dendroica perechia (Unnaeus) W Dendroica slnata (Forster) W Dendroica townsendi (Townsend) Dendroica sp. E Erga(icus roba (Swainson) E Ellthlypis lachrymosa (Bonaparte) E Georltlypis aequinoctialis (Gmelin) E Geothlypis formosa (WUson) E Geofhlypis semifial'a Sclatcr E Granafellus so/loe; (Bonapartc) W Helmitheros V€rmivorus (Gmelin) lcteria virens (Unnacus) W Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon). 1 1 3 26 1 1 1 1 3 19 2 6 1 1 5 1. O O O 6 O O O O 1 2 O 1 1 O O O. E E E E E E E. Basileuterus rivularis (Wied). 3. 2. +. r.

(30) TABLE 1 (Conlinued). Family and species. W Mniotilta varia (linnaeus) E Myloborus brunnieeps (Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny) E Myioborus miniatus (Swainson) E Myioborus /orquatus (Baird) W Oporomis philadelphia (Wilson) W Oporornis tolmiei (Townsend) E Paru/a piliayumi (Vieillot) W Protonotario eitreo (Boddaert) W Seiurusaurocopillus (Unnaeus) W Seiurus motacilla (Vieillot) W Seiurus noveboraeensis (Gmelin) Setophaga picta Swainson W Setophaga ruticilla (linnaeus) W Vermivora ehrysoptera (linnaeus) W Vermivora peregrina (Wilson) W Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) W Vermivora rufieapilla (Wilson) W Wilsonia canadensis (linnaeus) W Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert) Unidentified species Total:. Total birds. Infected birds. Total birds infected with: ' L.. H. '. P. '. T. '. Mo·. O. '. Regions. 16. O. + 4 1 6 1 8. 1 3 3 24 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1. 1. 8 1,3 1 1,3 1 1,6,7 1 1. O. 1. 3 1. 1 1 1,4 1 1 1 1 1 4. 2 1 O O 2 O. O. +. O O O. +. 1. O O. 9 213. % infected :. Reference Numbers. 1. 72 16,17,49 49 17,44 16 33,60,f 44 16,44 16,44 44 16 44,99 44 14.1 6.44 44 16 44 f 44,49. 25. 3. 7. 9. 4. 2. 1. 11.7. 1.4. 3.3. 4.2. 1.9. 0.9. 0.5. PELECANIDAE Peleeanus oeciden/alis Linné. 31. O. 16,33,44. O. 33. PHAETHONTIDAE E Phaethon aethereus linné.

(31) PHALACRQCORACIDAE W Plwlacrocorax auritus (Lesson) Phali1crocoTOX olivaceus (Humboldt) W Phali1crocorax penicillatus (Brandt) Total:. 5 8 2. O O O. 15. O. 1 1,4 1. 16,33 40,42,43,44 16. PHALARQPODIDAE W Lobipes lobatus (Linné). O. 33. PHASIANIDAE E. E E E. Colinus cristatus (Linné) Colinus virginianus (Linné) Odontophorus capueira (Spix). 79 4. Odontophorus guianensis (Gmelin) Odontophorus }¡yperythrus Gould. O O. O. 85. O. E Celeus castaneus (Wagler) 8 E Celeus flavus (P. L. $. Müller) 1 E Centurus superciliaris (femminck) 1 W Centurus uropygiaUs Baird 1 E Chrysoptilus melonochloros (Gmelin) 5 E C}¡rysoptilus punctigulo (Boddaett) 5 4 Coloptes cafer (Gmelin) 13 E Colaptes campesrris (Vieillot) Dendrocopos scaloris (Wagler) 3 E Dryocopus lineatus (Linné) 9 E Leuconerpes candidus (Qtto) 6 E Melanerpes aurifrons (Wagler) 1 E Melonerpes cruentatus (Boddaert) 3 Melanerpes formicivorus (Swainson) 3. O 1 O O 1 1 3 1 O 3 O O O O. Total:. +. + +. +. +. O. 1. Unidentified species. +. 4 1 6 4 3. 40,42,43 16 26,65 19 17 49. % infected: PICIDAE. 3. +. + 2. 1 4 2 1 6 3,4 1 6 1 1,3,4 7. 1 3,4 1. 44 40 103 33 84,f 17,42,43,96 16 26,84,f 16,33 16,42,44,96 29 f 42,96 16.

(32) TABLE t (Continucd) Family and species. To ral. birds. E E. E E E. E. E E. Me/anerpes /¡ypopolius (Waglcr). Piculus allrulellws (Tcmminck) Picu/us ruviginoSlls (Swainson). E PiCII/US simp/ex (Salvin) E Picllmnus granadem-is Lafresnaye E E E E E. 4. 56 Melanerpes pucherall; (Malhcrbe) , ¡l-Jelnnerpes rubricapillus (Cabanis) Phlococeastes guatel1wlensis (Hartlaub) 1 9 P/¡/oeoceasres melono/eucos (Gmelin) 1 0 3 Picu/us aemginosus (Malherbc). PiclImllus squamulorus Lafresnaye Picumnus temmincki Lafresnayc Velliliornis [umigatus (d' Orbigny) VeniliorniJ spi/ogaster (Wagler) Veniliornis sp. Xiphidiopicus percllssus (Temminck) Unidentified species. Total:. 1 3. Infectt:d. Total birds infected with: Regions. Referencc Numbcrs. 1 1 4. 16 44 42 44,49. 3,4. 50,96. 1. 1. 16. O. 6 1. [ 16. 1 3 J 6. 44. 17 [ 42. biIds. * L.. H. '. P. '. ' T.. M . '". O.'. O 1 O. 1. 2. 3 O. °. 1 2. O O O. 21. O O O O. 17 96 60,f. 22. 1. 3 6 4 2. 17. O. 1,4. 42.43,44,49. 230. 16. 6 J. 60.r 17 44 [. 1 2 2. 2. 8. 7.0. 0.9. 3.5. 327 2 4. 3 2 2. 2 2 2. 33 2. O O 2 2. % infccted:. OA. 5. 2. 2.2. 0.9. 103. PIPRlDAE E. Chiroxiphia caudata. Nodder). (Shaw &. E Chloropipo Iwlochlora Sc1atcr E Corapipo leuwrr!w(J (Sc1ater) E flicura militaris (Sila\'.. & Noddcr) l E. Manacus candei (Parzudaki) ¡I,fanacus manacus (Linnacus). E E. Manocus vitellinllS tGould) Neopelrna aurifrorls (Wied) Pfpra coronara Spix. E. 64 37 45 4. 1 O. 1. 6 1. 1. +. 16,[. 3.4,6 1,3. 17.f 17,44. 6 J. 26,f 17.

(33) E E E E E. Pipra erythrocepha/a « Linnaeus) Pipra menta/is Sclater Schiffornis turdinus (Wied) Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye) Teleonema filicauda (Spix). Unidentified species Total:. 7 7 3 62 1. O O 1 1 O. 4. O. 602. 14 2.3. % infected:. 4 1 3. f. ti. f. 3. 16,44 17. 96. 49 7. 3. 2. 3. 1.2. 0.5. 0.3. 0.5. PODICIPEDIDAE Podiceps dominicus (Linnaeus). 5. 1. 1,4. 44,100. Unidentified species. 2. O. 1. 49. Total:. 7. 1 14.0. % infected:. 14.0. PROCELLARIDAE Puffinus opisthomeliJs COlles Puffinus puffinus (Brünnich). Total:. 10 2. O O. 12. O. 1 2 1 44 8 1 140 7 1 2 2 2 1. O O. 16 33. PSITIACIDAE E E E E E E E E E E E E E. Amazona aestiva (Linné) Amazona amazonica (linné) Amazona autumnalis (linné) A mazona barbadensis (Gmelin) A mazona farinosa (Boddaert) Amazona /eucocephala (linné) A mazona ochrocephala (Gmelin) Ara chloroptera G. R. Gray Ara macao (Linné) Ara manilata (Boddaert) Ara militaris (Linné) Ara nobilis (linné) Ara severa (Linné). O. O O O O 2 O O 1 O O. +. 7,8 3,4 1 4 1 2 1 ,3,4 4 1 3 1 4 4. 70, f 40,96 44 40 44 103 16,40,42,43,96 40,42 16 96 16 42 40.

(34) TABLE I (Continued) Family and species. E E E E E E. Ara sp.. Infected birds. Total birds infected with: L, •. H. '. p, •. r. '. 24. O. 1 1 1 14 214. O O O O 1 1. 2 1 1 125. O 1 O. 2 2 6 24 8. O O O O O 23 3 2 O O O O. 2 3. 3 1 2. Unidentified species. 51 46 2 3 23 3 427. Total:. 1199. 36. 9. 9. 1. 3.0. 0.8. 0.8. 0.1. O. +. Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) Aratinga astec (Souancé) Aratinga canicultlris (Linné) Aratinga euops (Waglet) Aratinga fimchi (Salvin) Aratinga pertinax (Linné). E Aratinga strenua (Ridgway) Aratinga wagleri (G. R. Gray). E. Aratinga sp., E Bolborhynchus {inenla (Cassin). E Brotogeris cyafloptera (Salvadori) Brotogeris jll.gultlris (P.L.S. MüUer). E. E Brotogeris versicolurus (P.L.S. MüIler). E Cyano/iseus patagonus (Vieillot) E Forpus conspici/latus (Lafresnaye) E Forpus passerinus (Linné) Melopsittacus undultltus (Shaw). E Pionopsitta haematotis (Sclater & Salvin). E Pionus menslruus (Linné) E E E E. Total birds. Pionus senilis (Spix) Pionus sordidus (linné) Py"hura hoemtltotis Souancé Touit balavica (Boddaert). 1 5. % infected:. M, '. +. 1. 21 1. +. O. '. Regions. Reference Numbers. 4 7 1 1 2 1 3,4 1 3,4 4 1. 42,43 63 44 16 103 44 40,42.43,96 16 17,42 42 1<. 3 1,4. 96 16,40,42,43,100. 6 7 3 4,6 7. 84 29 17,96 40,42,43.64 29. 1,3 1,3 1 4 4 4 1,4. 17,44 17,44 16 42 42 42 40,42,43,44,49. 4. 19,42. 22 1.8. PSOPHllDAE. E Psophia crepitans Linné. 2. +.

(35) RALLIDAE E Aramides cajanea (P, L S, MOller) E Loterallus albigu/aris (Lawrence) E Lotera/lus me/anophaius (Vieillot) E Micropygia schomburgkii (Richard Schomburgk) Porphyrulo martinico (Linné) V POrlana carolina (Linné) Rallus longirostris Boddaert Unidentified species Total:. 126. 57. 30 1. O. 1 30 1. O 4 O. 14. O. 203. 62. 2. 52. 30.5. 1.0. 25,6. % infected:. 11. 49. 3. 1. 3. + +. 12 5.9. 1 6. 40,41,43,44,57,60, 96,100, f 44 f. 6 1,4 1 4 4. f 40,42,43,44,100 44 56 42. 3 1 4 3 1 3 4 6 1 1,3 4,6 3,4 4 1,4. 17 16 42 96 16,44, r 96 42 26 44 17,44 50,81,83 42,96 19,99 44 40,43,49. 4. 40. 1,3,4,6. 3 1.5. RAMPHASTIDAE E Aulacorhynchus haemotopygus (Gould) E Aulocorhynchus prosinus (Gould) E Aulacor}fynchus sulcatus (Swainson) E Pteroglossus castanot;s Gould E Pteroglossu� torqutltus (Gmelin) E Pteroglossus vin'dis (Unné) Pteroglossus sp, E Romp}fastos dicolorus Linné E Romphastos suljurotus Lesson E Ramphastos swoinsonii Gould E Ramphastos toco p, L. S, Müller E Ramphastos tucanus Linné E Rampho$los vitellinus Lichtenstein E Selenidero spectabilis Cassin Unidentified species Total:. % infectcd:. 1 3 2. 38 1 1. 4. O O O 1 6 O O. 35 9 4 2. 19 3 2 O. 2 3. 1 O. 105. 32. 2. 17. 3. 17. 30.5. 1.9. 16.2. 2.9. 16.2. 1 2. 13. 1 4. 1 2. + 10 1. +. 1. RECURVIRQSTRIDAE. Himantopus himolllopus (Linné). O.

(36) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. Total birds. lnfected birds. Total birds infected with: L. '. H. '. p. '. T. '. M. '. Regions. Reference Numbers. 6. 26. O. '. RHEIDAE E Rhea americana (Linné). +. RHINOCRYPTIDAE 6. O. E Merulaxis afer Lesson ROSTRATULIDAE. +. E Nycticryplles semicollaris (Vieillot). 4. 56. 4 4 4. 2 2 .42. 4 4 1 4. 42 2 44 2. 4 1 4 1,3 4. 42 100 2 44,96 43. 3. 17. SCOLOPACIDAE W Actitis ma culLIria (Linné) W Arenaria interpres (Linné) W O:llidris mewnotos (Vieillot) W Colidris minutillLI (Vieillot) W Ollidris pusilla (ünnaeus)" W Capefla gaffinago (Unné) W Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin) W Micropawma lIimantopus (Bonapartc) W Numenius pluJeopus (Unné) W Tringa flavipes (Gmelin) W Tringa solitaria Wilson Unidentified species Total:. 5. 1 3 4. 1 1 1. 1. 1 2 13. 1. O O. O O O O O O O O 1. O 1. 34. % infected:. 2.9. 2.9. STEATORNITHIDAE E Steatornis caripensis Humboldt. 2. O.

(37) STRIGIDAE W Aegolius aCtldicus (Gmelin) Asio fozmmeus (Pontoppidan) E Occaba nigrolinet1ta Sclater E Occaba virgata (Cassin) GÚlucidium brasilianum (Gmelin) E Otus choliba (Vieillot) E Otus gUlltemalae (Sharpe) Otus trichopsis (Wagler) E Pulsatrix perspicillata (Latham) E Rhinoptynx cÚlmator (Vieillot) Speotyto cunicularia (Molina) Unidentified species Total:. 2 1 2 9 12 2 4 2. O 1 O 3 2 1 2. 6. O O. 41. 10 24.4. % infected:. 1 6 4. +. 1. + +. 3 2. 1,6,7 1.3,4,6,8 1,4,6. +. 1. 2. 1 6 4,6,7,8 4. + +. +. 7 17.1. 4 9.8. +. 16 65 42 16 16,51, f 43,60,73,96,100, f 23,44,56,63,65 16 44 63 40,42,43 ,65,92,97, f 42. 2.4. SULlDAE Sula leucogaster (Boddaert) E SUÚl nebouxii Milne-Edwards. Total:. 1 19. O O. 20. O. 3 2. O O. 4 1. 2. 33 33. SYLVIIDAE E Microbates cinereiventris (Sclater) Polioptila caerulea (ünnaeus) E Polioptili1 dumicola (Vieillot) Polioprila melanura Lawrence Polioprila sp. E Ramphocaenus me/anwus Vieillot Unidentified species Total:. % infected:. + 2. O 1. O 12. 2. 3 25.0. 8.3. 16.7. 1,3 1 7 1 4. 17,44 33 29 33 43. 1 4. 16 42.

(38) TABLE I (Continue(l) Family and species. Total birds. Infected birds. Total birds infected with :. r. '. H. '. P. '. ' T.. M. '. D .'. Regions. Reference Numbers. 4,6 I 3 3. 42,50, f 16 17 17. 3 3 I I I I. I. 17 96 49 16 44 44 16. 1,4 I I 6 4,6 4 3 I 6 6 6 I 1,3 3,6 I 1,8 4 I I. 42,44 44 44 f 50,99, f 42 17 44 f f f 44 17,44 17, f 16 16,10,71,72 42 16 44. THRAUPIDAE E E E E E. Chlorophonia cyaneiJ (Thunberg). 46 I I 2. 31 O O I. I E 2 E I E I E I E 12 E I E Euphonia laniiroslris d 'Orbigny & Lafresnaye 2 E Euphonia luteicapilla (Cabanis) 3 E Euphonia minuta Cabanis I E Euphonia pecrora!is (Latham) 28 E Eupnonia violacea (Linnaeus) 72 E Euphonia Xilnrhogaster (Sundevall) I E Habia aiSlala (Lawrence) I E Habia fuscicauda (Cabanis) 6 E Habia rubica (Vieillot) 22 E Hemithraupisguira (Linnaeus) I E Hemithraupisruficapil/a (Vieillot) 3 2 E Heterospingus xanrhopygius (Sclater) E Mitrospingus cassinii (Lawrence) 8 E Pipraeidea melanonOla (Vieillot) 6 E Piranga bidentata (Swainson) I Piranga /lava (Vieillot) 4 E Piranga leucoptera (Trudeau) I W Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) I W Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) 10. O I I I O O O. Chlorophonia occipitalis (DuBus) Chlorospingus{lavigulilris (Sclater) Chlororhraupis olivacea (Cassin). 30. Chlorothraupis stolzmanni. (Berlepsch & Taczanowski) Cissopis leverialll1 (Gmelin) Eucometis penicillilta (Spix) Euphonia affinis (Lesson) Euphonia anneae Cassin Euphonia gouldi Sclater Euphonia hirundinacea Bonaparte. I I O I 27 O O 4 I O I 2 I O I 4 I I 5. I 27. +. +. 3 I I 2. 2. 4 I I 3. 2 I 2. 2. +.

(39) W E E E E E E E E E E E E W E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E. Pil'Qnga rubra (Linnaeus). 24 Ramphocelus bresilius (Linnaeus) 21 Ramphoce/us carbo (pallas) 18 Ramphocelusdimidiatus Lafresnaye 1 RamphoceJus ftammigerus 8 (Jardine & Selby) Ramphocelus passerinii Bonaparte 707 Ramphocelus sanguinolentus (Lesson) 9 RhodinodchJa rosea (Lesson) 1 SchistochÚlmys meJanopis (Latham) 2 SchislochÚlmys ruficapillus (Vieillot) 18 Stephanophorus diadematus (Temminck) 44 Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot) 21 Tachyphonus cristatus (Linnaeus) 1 Tachyphonus deJatrií Lafresnaye 10 Tachyphonus rufos( (Boddaert) 35 Tachyphonus surinamus (Linnaeus) 1 Tachyphonus sp. 1 Tangara arthus Lesson 2 Tangara cabanisi (Sclater) 1 Tangara cayana (linnaeus) 32 Tangara cyanocephaJa (Müller) 5 Tangara cjOiioptera (Swainson) 21 Tangaradesrnaresti (Vieillot) 14 Tangara /lorida (Sclater & Salvin) 1 Tangara guttata (Cabanis) 3 Tangara gyroJa (Linnaeus) 2 Tangara heinei (Cabanis) 1 Tangara icterocephaJa (Bonaparte) 1 Tangara inornata (Gould) 3 Tangara Úlrvata (DuBus) 14 Tangara mexicana (Linnaeus) Tangara nigrocincta (Bonapru:te) 5 Tangara ruficervix (Prévost & Des Murs). 16 5 1 O O. 433. 12. 386. 4 O O. 110. O 1 O. 4 5. 4. 49. 1. +. +. 2. + 2. 2. 5. +. +. +. 11. 2 1. 2 11 4. j. 6 3,4 3 3. 1. +. 1 4 3,6. 16,44 42 96, f. 6. 60,63,93, f. 6,7 6 6 3 1,3,4,6 3 4,5 4 1. 28,29,63 57. f f 17 1 7 ,42,43,44,63, f 96 42,66 42 16. 4,6 6 4,6 6 4 4 4. 42,43, f f 50,89 f 44 42 42 42. 1 1 1 4 J,3. 44 44,49 44 99 16.17. 3. 17. 1. 2. +. 16,44 6, f 40,42,43,96, f 17 17. 44. 3. 2 O J6 O 2 7 1 O O O 1 2 11 4 O O 2 O. 2.

(40) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. Tangara seledon (P, L S, Müller) Tangara xanthogastra (Sc1ater). E E E E E. Thraupis abbas (Deppe) Thraupis bonan'ensis (Gmelin) Thraupis cyanocepha/Q. E E. Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot) Thraupis episcopus. (d'Orbigny & Larresnaye). (Unnaeus) E. E E E. Thraupis ornato (Sparrman) Thraupis palmarum. Total birds 10 5 3 3. Thraupis sayoco (Unnaeus) Trichothroupis me1l1nops (Vieillot). Unidentified species Total:. Total. birds inrected with:. L'. H*. 5 1. 4. O. +. O. p'. r'. M'. Regions. 4 1. +. 144 328 34. 16 2 6. 10 1 5. +. 85 2 86 14. 13 2 1 1. 12 2. 1999. 645. % infected:. 32.3. 3 1. 5 1 2. +. + 1. 3 0.2. 525 26.3. 132 6.6. 20. 1.0. 99 5.0. Reference Numbers. O'. 2 13. (Wied) Throupis sp,. Infected birds. 6 3 1 7,8. f 17 16 27,28,29,38,75. 4 6. 40 f. 1,3,4 6 1,3,4,6 6 6 6 1,4. 16,1 7,40,41 43,50,96, f 32, f 6,17,42,44,50 63,84,%, f 26,90, f 57 f 42,49. 4 4 3 4. 40 42,43 96 40,42,43. 3 3,4,7. % 40,43,79,96. 3. 0. 2. THRESKIORNITHIDAE Ajaia ajaja (Unné) E Eudocimus ruber (Linnaeus) E Guara rubra (Unné) E Mesembn'nibis cayennensis (Gmelin) E Phimosus infuscatus (üchtenstein) E Theristicus caud/ltus (Boddaert). Total:. % infected. 1. 17 1 11 2 4 36. O. O. 1 2. 1 2. 1. +. O. 4. 4. 11.1. 11.1. +.

(41) TINAMIDAE E Crypturellus cinereus (Gmelin) E Cryprurellus cinnamomeus (Lesson) E Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck) E Crypturellus parvirosrris (Wagler) E Crypturellus soui (Hermann) Cryrurellus sp. E Norhura IrUlculosa (Temminck) E Tinamus I1Uljor (Gmelin) E Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot) Tinamus sp. Unidentified species. + O 3 19 11. +. I. 19,56 f 65. f. 1,4 6 6 1. 3 1. 17 16. O O. 4 I. f 16. O O O O O O O O. 3 4 1 1 1 4 1 1. 17 f 44 16 16 f 16 33. ,. 2. +. 7. +. 1. +. O 4 10.5. % infected:. I. 44,96,100, j 42 27,28,29 19,44 65 63 49. + 1. 4 6 6 1,3,4 4. O. 3. 38. Total:. +. +. 3. +. 7.9. 1. 1. 2.6. 2.6. TROCHILlDAE E E E E E. Aglaiocercus kingi (Lesson) Amazilia berylfina (Lichtenstein) Amazilia chionopectus (Gould) Amazilia cyanura Gould Amazilia ¡ranciae (Bourcier. Mulsant). &. E AmaziHa tobaci (Gmelin) E Amazilia tzacatl (de la Llave) E AlrUlzilia violiceps (Gould) Amazilia yucatanensis (Cabot) E Anthracothorax nigricollis (Vieillot) E Anthracothorlix prevostii (Lesson) W Calypte costae (BouIcier) E Campylopteru� curvipennis (Lichtenstein) E Campylopterus hemileucuros (üchtenstein) E Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddacrt) E Coeligena coeligena (Lesson) E Coeligena wilsoni (De L.attre & Bourcicr). 1 5. 1 5 71 5 1 2 3 1. O 2. 2. 16. O 7. 2 1. 1 O O. I 6 3. 16 60, f 17. 3. 17.

(42) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. E Co/ibri thalassinus (Swajnson) E Eupetomena macroura- (Gmelin) E Eutoxeres aquila (BouIcier) E Glaucis hirsuta (Gmelin) E Heliodoxa jacu/a Gould E He/iomaster longirosrris (Audebert & Vleillot) E Hy/ocharis chrysura (Shaw) E By/ocharis eliciae (Bourcier & Mulsant) E Lampornis amethystinus Swainson E Lampornis viridipa/lens (Bourcier & Mulsant) E Metallura tyrianthina (Loddiges) E Phaethornis guy (Lesson) E Phaethornis hispidus (Gould) E Phaethornis /onguemareus (Lesson) E Phaethornis superci/iosus (Unné) E Phaethornis syrmatophorus Gould E Phaethornis yaruqui (BouIcier) E Thalurania turcara (Gmelin) E Threnetes ruckeri (Bourcier) E Tilmatura dupontii (Lesson) Unidentified species Total:. Total birds 2 2 9 5 I. lnfected birds. Total birds infected with:. L. '. 1 2 2 O O. H. '. p. '. T. '. M.'. O. '. 2 I. I. O I. 4 I 2 I I 5 I 5 2 14 3 31. O O O O O O O O O I I O. 202. 13. % infected:. 6.4. Reference Numbers. I 6 1,3 I I. 16 84 17,44 44, f 44. I. 16 f. 7. O I I. Regions. 16 16. 0.5. 4. 5. 2. 2.0. 2.5. 1.0. I 3 3 3 3 I 3 3 3 1,3 I 1,3,4. 16 17 17 96 17 44 17 17 17 17,44 16 43,44,49,96. I I I I 3. 16 16,44 16 44 17. 0.5. TROGLODYTIDAE E Campy/orhynchus griseus (Swainson) E Campylorhynchus zonatus (Lesson) Ostothorus plarensis (Latham) E Cyphorhinus aradus (Hermann) E Cyphorhinus thoracicus Tschudi. 4 4 I 13 I. O I I I O.

(43) E Henicorhina leucophrys (Tschudi) E Henicorhina leucoslicla (Cabanis). E Microcerculus marginalus (ScIater). Salpinctes obsoletus (Say) Thryothorus atrogu/LJris Salvin Thryolhorus longirostris Vieiltot Thryolhorus modestus Cabanis ThryotJlOrus nigricapillus ScIater Thryorhorus pleurostictus Sclater E Thryothorus·rurilus Vieillot E Thryothorus thoracicus Salvin Thryolhorus sp. Troglodytes aedon Vieittot W Troglodytes troglodytes (ünnaeus). E E E E E. Unidentified species Total:. 1 11 1 2 13 8 7. 7 4 12 6 6 29 1 11 142. % infected:. O 5 O O O 1 1 2 1 1 O O 2 O O. 1 1 3 1 1 6 1 1,3 1 1,3,4 1 1 1,3,4 3 1,3. 5. 11. 16 0.7. 11.3. 7.7. lb. 16,44 17 33 44 f 16,44,49 17,44 16 49,50,96 44 44 16,17, f 17 49,96. 3 2.1. 0.7. TROGONIDAE. Unidentified species. 1 2 9 1 9 1 12 1 9 1. Total:. 46. E Pharomochrus mocino de la Uave. E Priotelus temnurus (Temminck). E E E E E E. E. Trogon Trogan Trogon Trogon Trogon Trogon Trogan. clathratus Salvin elegans Gould massena Gould mexicanus Swainson rufus Gmelin surrucura Vieittot lIiolaceus Gmelin. 1 O 4 O O 1 2 O 3 O. 3. 2 2. S. 11 23.9. % infected:. 2. 2.2. 10.9. 1 2 1 1 1 1 1,4 7 1 1. 49 103 44 16 44 16 44,50 f. 44 49. 5 1.1. 10.9. TURDIDAE E Catharus dryas (Gould) W Catharus fuscescens (Stephens) W Catharus guttatus (Pallas). 1 2 2. O O 2. 16 44 16.

(44) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. E Calhorus mexiconus (Bonaparte) W Cathorus minimus (Lafresnaye) E Cathorus occidento/is Salvin & Godman W Cathorus uslulolus (Nuttall) W Hylocichlo muslelina (Gmelin) E Mimocichla plumbea (Linnaeus) E Myadesles obscurus Lafresnaye E Myadestes ralloides (d'Orbigny) E PlatycichÚl flavipes (Vieillot) E Turdus albicollis Vieillot E Turdus amaurocholinus Cabanis E Turdus chiguanco lafrcsnaye & d'Orbigny E Turdus fumigatus lichtenstein E Turdus fuscater Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny E Turdus grayi Bonaparte E Turdus ignobilis Sclater E Turdus leucomelas Vieillot E Turdus nudigenis lafresnaye E Turdus olivater (Lafresnaye) E Turdus rufitorques Hartlaub E Turdus rufiw!ntris Vieillot E Turdus rufopalliatus Lafresnaye E Turdus serranus Tschudi Turdus sp. Uniden tified species Total: % infected:. Total birds. Infected birds. 11 4. 2 1. Total birds infected with:. L. '. H. '. r. '. M.'. O .'. 18 8. 1 2 5 3. 6 15. 1 5. 4. 3 55 11 38 18 1 1 1 16 3 2 2 4. 3 5. 3 2. O. 19 4. 1 3. 3. 2. 8 2. O. O. 2. 1. 2 1. 4. O. 4. 1 5 9 4. 3. O. 11 2. 5. 2. 1. 2. 1. 1 16 2 1. 1. 8. +. 2. O. O 110 17.2. Regions. Reference Numbers 16,44 44. 1 121 11 1 1 1 41 102 48. 640. P. '. 13 2.0. 21 4.2. 25 3.9. 10 1.6. 44 6.9. 1 0.1. 1 1,3 1 2 1 1,3,4 4,6 1,3,4,6 6,1. 16 11,44 44 103 16 1 7 ,42,44 42,50, f 16,42,96, f 21,28,29, f. 8 1,4. 38,71 43,44,50. f. 4 1 3 3,4,6,7 4 4 1 6,1 1 1,3 6 1,4. 42 16,44,49 17,96 50,57,60,96, f 42,43, f 42 16 26,21,28,29,51,60, f " 16 16,17 60,84 42,43,49.

(45) TYRANNIDAE E Agriornis mOnla/U1 (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye) E Anairetes /lovirostris Sclater & Salvin 4 E Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus) 1 E Ozmptoslol11l1 obsoletum (Ternminck) 6 E Capsiempis j'kIveola (Lichtenstein) 11 E Colonia cok?nus (Vieillot) 5 E Conlopus cinereus (Spix) I E Contopus fumigalus (Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny) I COnlOPUS sordidulus Sclater 5 W Contopus virens (Linnaeus) 4 Contopu.t .�j). 1 E Eloenia albiceps (Lafresnaye 2 & d'Orbigny) E Eloenia chiriquensis Lawrence 29 E E/aenia crislara (Pelzeln) 24 E Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg) 26 E E/aef/ia meso/euca Cabanis & Heine 38 E Elaenia obscura (Lafresnaye 54 & d'orbigny) E Elaenia parvirostris (Pelzeln) 4 Elaenia sp. 4 Empidonax difficilis Baird I E Empidonax eu/eri (Cabanis) 30 W Empidofll1x /laviventris (Baird & Baird) I Empidonax fu/vi/rons (Giraud) I W Empidonax minimus (B�rd & Baird) 2 W Empidonax traillii (Audubon) 4 W Empidonax virescens (Vieillot) 2 2 E Empidonomus varius (Vieillot) E Fluvicola nengeta (linnaeus) E Fluvicolo piaz (Boddaert) 1 E Gubernetes yetapa (Vieillot) 2 E Hemilriccus diops (Ternminck) 6 3 E Idioplilon nidipendulum (Wied). + O O O 3 2 O. 3 I. O O I O 1 O O 1 2. +. 2. I O O O 1 1 O I O O O O O O O. +. 8. 70. 8 6 3,6 4 1,3 6. 38 60 17, f 50 17,44,96 f. 4 I 1,2,3 3. 50 44 16,17,103 17. 6,8 6 6 1,3,4,6 6. 26,38. f. f 16,17,60, f f. 6 4,6 6 1 6. f 42, f. I 1 I I 3 6 6 4 6 6 6. 16 16 16 44 17 f 26 42. f 16 f. f. f f.

(46) TABLE 1 (Continued) Family and species. Total birds. E Idioptilon orbitatum (Wied) 1 E Knipolegus nige"imus (Vieillot) 5 E Legalus leucopluJius (Vieillot) 1 E Leptopogon amaurocephalus Tschudi 1 2 E Leptopogon rufipectus (Cabanis) 1 E Leptopogon superciliaris Tschudi 2 E Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot) 7 E Megarhynchus pilangua (ünnaeus) 66 E Mionectes olivaceus Lawrence 9 E Muscipipra vetula (lichtenstein) 1 W Muscivora forficata (Gmelin) 2 E Muscivora tyrannus (linnaeus) 32 Myiarchus cinerascens (Lawrence) W Myiarchus crinitus (linnaeus) E Myiarchus [erox (Gmelin) E Myiarchus stolidus (Gosse) E Myiarchus swainsoni Cabanis &. E. E E. E. E E W E. O. 20 1. + 12 1. 1 3. 2. O. P' ". 3. r. ". 4. +. O. M.'. 7. +. D .'. Regions. Reference Numbers. 6 6 1 6 3 3 7,8. f 84 44 f 17 17 29,72 16,44 17,42,44 f 16,44 42,43,49,69,96, 100, f 33 16 96 103. 1. 1,3,4 6 1 1,3,4,6,7. 2. O. 6. 4 16 4 Myiobius atricaudus Lawrence 21 Myiobius barbatus (Gmelin) 4 Myiobius villosus (Sclater) 2 Myiodynastes luteiventris Sclater 3 Myiodynasles maculatus (Müller) 3 Myiophobus [asciatus (Müller) 26 Myiotriccus omatus (Lafresnaye) 1 Myiozetetes cayanensis (linnaeus) 19 Myiozetetes granodensis Lawrence 1 Myiozetetes similis (Spix) 96 NultalIornis borealis (Swainson) 6 Onychorhynchus mexicanus (Sclater) 1. 1 3 O 1 O O 1. Myiarchus tyrannulus (Müller) Myiorchus sp.. E. O O. H. ". O. & Lafresnaye). E. O O O O. L. ". 1 1 3 2. Myiarchus tuberculifer (d'Orbigny. E. birds. O O. Heine. E. 1 3 1 1. Total birds infected with:. Infected. O O O 1 O. 36 2. O. 1 2. 35 1. 1,4 1,3,6 3 3,6 1 3 1 4,6 6 3 3,6. 1. 1,4,6 1 1. 16,33,42 16,17,33, f 96 17, f 44 17 16,44 42, f f 17 17, f 100 16,50,84, f 16,44 44.

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