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MODULO IV: ASEO URBANO:

SERVICIO DE TRATAMIENTO Y DISPOSICIÓN FINAL DE

RESIDUOS

UNIDAD I: APROVECHAMIENTO Y TRATAMIENTO DE RESIDUOS

SÓLIDOS

POR: ING. SERGIO NAVA

ORELLANA

(2)

CONTENIDO TEMATICO

  Aprovechamiento de  residuos sólidos.       

              

Objetivo dfel aprovechamiento

Aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos implementando recolección diferenciada

Aprovechamiento de residuos orgánicos

Tratamiento de  residuos sólidos

Tratamiento termico

Tipos de plantas en el mercado aplkicables a nuestro medio

*La Unidad se limita en su desarrollo académico en: la instalación de recuperación de materiales reciclable, componentes de las plantas de recuperación, operación de la planta de

recuperación de materiales

(3)

APROVECHAMIENTO

El aprovechamiento es el conjunto de

actividades dirigidas a efectuar la

recolección, transporte y separación de

residuos sólidos, que seran sometidos a procesos de reciclaje compostaje,

lombricultora, biodigestión,

aprovechamiento energético u otro.

Aprovechamiento  de residuos 

sólidos 

Reciclables Recuperación de material

reciclable

Orgánicos

Compostaje y lombricultura

Indigestión Aprovechamiento

energético

(4)

OBJETIVO DEL APROVECHAMIENTO

 Racionalizar el uso y consumo de las materias primas provenientes de los recursos naturales no renovables.

 Recuperar valores económicos y energéticos utilizados en los diferentes procesos productivos.

 Reducir residuos sólidos que van a disposición final.

 Disminuir los impactos ambientales, tanto por demanda y uso de materias primas como por los procesos de disposición final.

 Garantizar la participación de los recuperadores de oficio, en las actividades de recuperación, aprovechamiento y

valorización.

(5)

Aprovechamiento de Residuos Sólidos

Implementando Recolección Diferenciada

Recolecció n

diferenciad a

Puede ser realizada mediante:

• Acuerdos del municipio con organizaciones recuperadores.

• Los medios de la entidad prestadora del SAU.

• Formulas mixtas

Los modelos de

separación en origen y recolección

diferenciada dependen de las caracteristicas locales del

municipio.

Para la separación puede implementar la clasificación:

• En 2 fracciones (orgánico y el resto de residuos)

• En 3 (orgánico, reciclables y resto no aprovechable) Para la separación puede implementar la clasificación:

• En 2 fracciones (orgánico y el resto de residuos)

• En 3 (orgánico, reciclables y resto no aprovechable)

(6)

Aprovechamiento de Residuos Sólidos

Implementando Recolección Diferenciada

Las campañas de

comunicación social deben ser muy

intensas para que estos

centros tengan éxito.

Esta iniciativa, la cual la denominaremos

“centros de acopio municipales”, necesita procesos de

concientización y vigilancia.

Esta iniciativa, la cual la denominaremos

“centros de acopio municipales”, necesita procesos de

concientización y vigilancia.

Centros de Acopio  Municipales

A nivel nacional, las personas que operan estos centros de acopio (acopiadores), son un

grupo de microempresas formales e informales y

personas naturales.

A nivel de manejo municipal, como ejemplo Cochabamba

se emplean los “puntos verdes” en diferentes barrios.

Son lugares donde reunir productos, desechados o

descartados por el consumidor al final de su vida

útil.

(7)

DESVENTAJAS:

- En los hogares se requieren varios

recipientes, que demanda mayor disposición de la población

- Exige constante limpieza en los centros - Los costos son elevados cuando el municipio realiza la recolección.

VENTAJAS:

- Costos menores de recolección - Los productos recolectados ahí son llevados directamente a la planta de aprovechamiento

- Pueden estar en un solo lugar en los municipios pequeños o distribuidos

estratégicamente en los municipios grandes

(8)

Requisitos para que los Residuos Sólidos sean Aprovechados

Óptimamente

Para la reutilización y reciclaje, los residuos sólidos deben estar limpios y debidamente seleccionados por tipo de material y característica físicas.

Para el compostaje y lombricultura no deben estar

contaminados con residuos peligrosos, metales pesados.

Con base en estudios de mercado y el potencial de comercialización, se deben definir los procesos de adecuación y transformación que van a ser llevados a cabo

(9)

Aprovechamiento de Residuos Orgánicos

Proceso termofílico, de degradación anaerobia (sin oxígeno) de la materia orgánica con la obtención final de una mezcla gaseosa conocida como biogás

consiste en la utilización de lombrices para la obtención de humus que es un abono

natural a partir de restos de materia orgánica Descomposición biológica aerobia de los

constituyentes orgánicos de los residuos sólidos.

Compostaj e Compostaj

e

Biodigestió n (Aprovecha

miento Energético) Biodigestió

n (Aprovecha

miento Energético)

Lombricultu ra Lombricultu

ra

(10)

TRATAMIENTO DE RESIDUOS

SÓLIDOS

Conjunto de operaciones

encaminadas a la

transformación física,

química, térmica o biológica

de los residuos sólidos

para el aprovechamiento de

los recursos contenidos en

ellos o para reducir la

peligrosidad de los mismos.

(11)

Tratamiento térmico para toda la fracción de los

residuos sólidos

Proceso térmico de residuos en ausencia total de oxígeno utiliza una fuente de combustible externa para conducir las reacciones en un ambiente libre de

oxígeno Procesamiento

térmico sin oxígeno en la cámara de reacción, transforman residuos en gas de síntesis.

Proceso de

reducción de los residuos sólidos a material inerte y a productos

oxidados mediante la combustión

Incineració n Incineració

n

Pirolisis/

termólisis Pirolisis/

termólisis Gasificaci ón Gasificaci

ón

(12)

$8,0931

Big numbers catch your audience’s

attention

(13)

—SOMEONE FAMOUS

“This is a quote, words full of wisdom that someone important said and can make the reader get

inspired”

APROVECHAMIENTO DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS

IMPLEMENTANDO RECOLECCIÓN DIFERENCIADA

(14)

STEPS WEE

K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1

0 1

1 12

1. Kick-of

2. Business insights 3. Mission and vision 4. Key strategic objectives

5. Strategy map

6. Balanced scorecard 7. Strategic objectives 8. First report

STRATEGIC PLANNING PROJECT

Workshop #1

Workshop #2

(15)

STRATEGIC MAP & BALANCED SCORECARD

PERSPECTIVES STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

FINANCIAL F1 - Insert your own

text

F2 - Insert

your own text F3 - Insert your own text

CUSTOMER C1 - Insert

your own text

C2 - Insert your own text

C3 - Insert your own text

INTERNAL PROCESS I1 - Insert your own

text

I2 - Insert

your own text I3 - Insert your own text

LEARNING & GROWTH L1 - Insert your own

text

L2 - Insert your own text

L3 - Insert your own text

(16)

Product development

strategy Diversification

strategy

Market penetration strategy

Market development

strategy

STRATEGIC OPTIONS: RISKS

Use a diferent color for the strategic option you recommend the company to choose

PRODUCTS

Curre

nt New

M A R K E T

C u rr e n t N e w

(17)

IMPACT OF THE RISKS

Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one here.

For more info, click here

SATURN

Saturn is a gas giant and has several rings

JUPITER

Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all

20%

MARS

Despite being red, Mars is a cold place

10%

VENUS

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

30%

40%

(18)

CORPORATE STRATEGIES

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY COST-EFFECTIVENESS

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest in the Solar System

Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun. It’s terribly hot!

Despite being red, Mars is actually a cold place. This planet is full of iron oxide dust

(19)

KEY DRIVERS OF THE PROFIT

DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE

THE

SITUATION

You need to provide a neutral description with facts that you know your audience will agree

on

Our company has been selling its products in the US for 10

years, with an annual profit growth above 10%

THE COMPLICATI ON

The complication is a desired change of the current situation

With a market share already above 40%, profit growth will

be limited in the US

THE

QUESTION

The question that implicitly

results from the complication Should we enter the European market?

(20)

JUPITER MARS VENUS

Jupiter is a gas giant and the biggest planet of them all

Despite being red, Mars is actually a very cold place

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

MERCURY

It’s the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest of them all

STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES

(21)

AWESOME

WORDS

(22)

STRONG BUSINESS PLAN

PESTLE L E

T P

E S

POLITICAL

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest

ECONOMICAL

Venus has a beautiful name, but also high temperatures

SOCIAL

Despite being red, Mars is actually a very cold place

TECHNOLOGICA L

Jupiter is a gas giant and the biggest planet of them all

LEGAL

Saturn is composed of hydrogen and helium

ENVIRONMENTA

Neptune is the farthest

L

planet from the Sun

(23)

RESOURCES STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT

INTANGIBLE BENEFITS

CHANGE IMPACT CASH FLOW (US $ MILLIONS)

STRONG BUSINESS CASE

PROJECT COSTS $4M TANGIBLE

BENEFIT $14M NET PRES. VALUE $10M

MANAGER Manager name SPONSOR Sponsor name

2012 2014 2017 2019 2022

Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one

here. For more info, click here

Low Medium High

Insert here your own text

Insert here your own text Insert here your own text

(24)

FINANCIAL MODEL

HIST. RESULTS FORECAST PERIOD INC MODEL

2015 2016 2017 2019 2020 2021 2022

Cash xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Accounts xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Inventory xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Current Assets xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Property xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Total xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

BALANCE SHEET

ASSETS

(25)

FINANCIAL MODEL

Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one here.

For more info, click here

VENUS

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

MARS

Despite being red, Mars is a cold place

60%

40%

VENUS

(26)

LEADING ADVANCE

STANDARD D BASIC

PRICING STRATEGY

Level

1 2 3 4

Percentag

e

20% 70% 9% 1%

Descriptio n

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

● Insert your description here

(27)

CONSULTING PROPOSAL

You can enter a subtitle here in case you need it

02

(28)

CONSULTING PROPOSAL

SERVICES

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun

FEES

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

INVOICES

Mars is actually a very cold place

EXPENSES

Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all

MATERIALS

Saturn is a gas giant and has several rings

TERMS

Neptune is very far away from Earth

(29)

A PICTURE IS WORTH A

THOUSAND WORDS

(30)

AN IMAGE

REINFORCES THE CONCEPT

Images reveal large amounts of data, so remember: use an image instead of a long text.

Your audience will appreciate it

cc

(31)

Negotiate supplier contracts/choose options Evaluate cost of potential

alternative suppliers Select and review current

supplier costs

Adopt best practices based on benchmarks Compare current process

to best-in-class benchmarks

Design current processes

Choose one partner for each function

Select non-core functions

ANSWER AND SUPPORTING ARGUMENTS

Outsource non-core functions to save $3

million

Simplify core functions processes

to save $1 million

Review supplier cost to save $1 million

Reduce costs by $5 million through operational improvements

Evaluate cost and service level of potential partners

(32)

VENTAJAS DESVENTAJAS

• Menor necesidad de suelo que en los rellenos sanitarios.

• Nula influencia de las

condiciones meteorológicas en su funcionamiento.

• Posibilidad de alimentación o carga de residuos variables.

• Ingresos por la venta de energía que compensan parcialmente los costos de funcionamiento.

• Fácil localización cerca de los centros de producción con una reducción de espacio y menores costes de transporte de los residuos sólidos urbanos a su punto final.

● Importante inversión de capital.

● Costos de funcionamiento elevados.

● Eliminación parcial de los residuos, por la presencia final de las escorias y cenizas, que deben

eliminarse en celdas de seguridad especiales (no en rellenos sanitarios).

● Alto costo en la operación y en el uso de filtros para gases

● Es necesario que el flujo de R.S.U. diario a estas plantas sea constante en el tiempo y con

cantidades elevadas para que sea rentable

● Altamente costosa en la operación y mantenimiento.

● Residuos con alto poder calorífico.

● Requieren una gran cantidad de energía para

operar y muchas veces consumen más energía para operar que la que producen.

● Requieren un alto poder calorífico de los residuos sólidos (residuos sólidos de los países europeos representan un poder calorífico de 4.200 Kcal/Kg, en comparación con los 1.000 Kcal/Kg que

representan los residuos sólidos de américa latina)

(33)

PRIORITIZATION MATRIX

INITIATIVE IMPACT EFFORT

1

List all your potential initiatives Very high

2

List all your potential initiatives High

3

List all your potential initiatives Low

4

List all your potential initiatives High

5

List all your potential initiatives Very high

6

List all your potential initiatives High

(34)

CHANGE

MANAGEMENT

You can enter a subtitle here in case you need it

03

(35)

ANSOFF GROWTH MATRIX

Do you know what helps you make your point clear? Lists like this one:

● They’re simple

● You can organize your ideas clearly

● You’ll never forget to buy milk!

And the most important thing: the audience won’t miss the point of your presentation VV

(36)

XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX

COMPANY LOGO HERE

COMPANY LOGO HERE

BUSINESS NAME BUSINESS NAME

BUSINESS CASE

1

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun

2

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

3

Mars is actually a very cold place

4

Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all

5

Saturn is a gas giant and has rings

6

Neptune is very far away from Earth

(37)

COMPETITOR COMPARISON

A B C

PRICE

$270 $500 $789

QUALITY

Low Medium High

CUSTOMER

3,200 2,000 4,600

REPUTATIO

N

Average Bad Good

LOCATION

Mercury Venus Mars

(38)

OUR TARGET

NAME:

Jenna Doe

AGE:

30 years old

OCCUPATIO

N:

Digital business

DESCRIPTION

Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun. It’s terribly hot,

even hotter than Mercury, and its atmosphere is extremely poisonous

SALARY $20,152

HOBBIES

WEB TRAVEL ECONOM

Y

(39)

MANAGE PROGRESS

IMPLEMENT, TRACK &

MANAGE PROGRESS

PROGRESS STATUS LINK

Venus 10% www.yourlinkhere.com

Mars 20% www.yourlinkhere.com

Neptune 30% www.yourlinkhere.com

Jupiter 40% www.yourlinkhere.com

Earth 50% www.yourlinkhere.com

Ceres 60% www.yourlinkhere.com

(40)

Extreme Insert name of

the change Insert name of

the change Insert name of the change

High Insert name of

the change

Insert name of the change

Insert name of the change

Medium Insert name of

the change

Moderat e

Low

CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

& PLAN

Complexity of the change Size of the change

1 team

impacted 1 business unit 1 division Half company Extreme

(41)

IMPLEMENTING CHANGES

You can enter a subtitle here in case you need it

04

(42)

SALES STRATEGY

EXTERNAL ANALYSIS SALES PLAN

INTERNAL ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION

SALES & STRATEGY PLAN

1 2

3 4

5

(43)

ABOUT THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT

Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one here.

For more info, click here

VENUS

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

MERCURY

Despite being red, Mars is a very cold place

(44)

$15,000

Venus is the second planet from the Sun

$20,000

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun

$10,000

Despite being red, Mars is a cold place

(45)

MANAGEMENT APPROACH

Venus is the second planet

from the Sun

Jupiter is the biggest planet

in the Solar System

Despite being red, Mars is a very cold place

Saturn is a gas giant and has

several rings

JUL AUG SEP OCT

(46)

STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

VENUS

It has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun

MERCURY

Mercury’s name has nothing to do with the liquid metal

(47)

WRITE YOUR ANSWER WRITE YOUR QUESTION

ANSWER AND ARGUMENTS

MARS

Despite being red, Mars is actually a cold place.

It's full of iron oxide dust, which gives the planet its

reddish cast

MERCURY

Mercury’s name has nothing to do with the liquid metal, since this planet was named after a

Roman god

VENUS

It has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun. It’s terribly hot and its atmosphere is

poisonous

(48)

REQUIREMENTS DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION VERIFICATION

MAINTENANCE

WATERFALL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Venus is the second planet from the Sun Saturn is a gas giant and has several rings Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun

Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all Neptune is the

farthest planet from the Sun

(49)

MATURITY MODEL

STANDARD

Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet

from the Sun

BASIC

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest

ADVANCED

Despite being red, Mars is a very cold place full of iron

oxide dust

80%

40%

20%

(50)

PROBABILITY RATIOS

Return on sales (%)

Return on equity (%)

Return on assets (%)

Return capital (%) Return on funds (%)

Company 1 Company 2 Company 3

BEST PEER WORST PEER

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

(51)

TOP 10 QUESTIONS OF BUSINESS PLAN

1

What is your current situation?

6

What is the requirements?

2

What is your vision?

7

What are the economics?

3

How will you reach your vision?

8

What will be the marketing plan?

4

What do you ofer?

9

How will you diferentiate

yourself?

5

How big is the market you are?

10

Who are the key players?

(52)

SOFTWARE AND APP DEMO

You can replace the image on the screen with your own work. Just right-click on it and select “Replace image”

(53)

OUR TEAM

JENNA DOE

You can speak a bit about this person

here

JOHN JAMES

You can speak a bit about this person

here

(54)

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