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Stocktaking 10 years of “Women in Science”

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The authors believe that this report - a stocktaking of 10 years of activities on "women in science" - will help the European Commission to make decisions on future policy due to the perspective provided by the process of "taking stock". In this "inventory document" the history of the first ten years of activities on "women in science" has been collected, described and also analyzed.

Introduction

History of “Women and/in Science” policy in the EU

5 European Commission "Women and Science - Proceedings of the Conference" - 1998, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 31 European Commission, "Benchmarking policy measures for gender equality in science" – 2008, Luxembourg: European Commission Office for Official Publications.

Knowing the situation of “Women in Science” in Europe

  • EU data collection (She Figures)
  • She Figures 2003: Indicators
  • She Figures 2006: Raw data (EU Member States and Associated Countries)
  • She Figures 2006: Indicators
  • She Figures 2009: Raw data (EU Member States and Associated Countries)
    • Policy forum: the Helsinki Group on Women and Science

Statistics on the number of women in the European Commission (commissioners and civil servants) and those elected as members of the European Parliament are included. The rest is collected through Statistical Correspondents of the Helsinki Group on Women in Science. 94 European Commission" Helsinki Group on Women and Science - National Policies for Women in Science in Europe" - 2002, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Table 1: National policies to promote gender equality in science (2004) EU-Member States (25)
Table 1: National policies to promote gender equality in science (2004) EU-Member States (25)

GENDER AND RESEARCH BEYOND 2009

Importance of top-level support for change

According to its terms of reference, "The Gender Equality Institute will work as closely as possible with all Community programs and agencies".

Structural – and cultural – change is possible

Women and men – and institutions – benefit from a balanced life

School science education has an important role

  • What the European Commission has done internally to improve the

The Helsinki Group also calls on the new European Commission to continue to mobilize staff and resources to make the European RTR human resources framework attractive and inclusive. The Helsinki Group calls on the European Commission to consider the feasibility of a communication on gender and research after 2009. This chapter deals with the second set of policy objectives identified in the analysis of recommendations to the European Commission from all involved stakeholders over the last ten years.

This chapter will therefore look at what has been done to improve the numbers and role of women in science. The activities have been divided into three groups: 1) what the European Commission has done internally to improve women's career opportunities (especially in research); What the European Commission has done internally to improve has done internally to improve the career prospects of women (researchers).

The European Commission monitors the gender balance in panels and groups related to the functioning of the Research Framework Programs (FP), as well as the proportion of female and male researchers in FP co-funded projects. European Commission staff are also regularly audited to encourage better gender balance at all levels of seniority.

Recruiting, promoting and retaining more women in science careers

  • Activities by Member States to improve career prospects for women
  • How the European Commission has encouraged Member States to improve
  • Pedagogical approaches
  • How to foster the interest of girls in science and technology subjects and
  • Mentoring and role models
  • Extra-school efforts against stereotyping science and scientists

The data in the report were collected partly through IT applications used by the European Commission, and partly manually by the Unit "Scientific Culture and Gender Issues" (the new name given in 2007 to the unit "Women and Science") in collaboration. of the various Directorates of DG Research. 147 European Commission" Helsinki Group on Women and Science - National Policies for Women in Science in Europe" - 2002, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. In 2006, another regional network was created, called BASNET – Baltic States Women in Science Network – which was one of the results of a 6th Framework Program project.

Gender and Excellence in the Making” – 2004, European Commission, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 159 J.O. 171 European Commission" Helsinki Group on Women and Science - National Policies for Women in Science in Europe" - 2002, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Talapessy, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 168 “Under-representation of women in science and.

187 European Commission, “The Gender Challenge in Research Funding – Assessing the European national scenes” – 2009, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. In the 2006 Work Program – the first of the Seventh Framework Program – the Commission promoted context-based and research-based science education. 217 European Commission, “The Helsinki Group on Women and Science – National policies on women and science in Europe” – 2002, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

222 European Commission, "Women in Science and Technology: A Business Perspective" - ​​2006, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Changing research landscapes to make the most of human potential

The 2010 work program calls on research organizations and universities to develop and implement tailored multi-year action plans that identify steps towards real change in gender governance. In the 2009 Science in Society work program for FP7, the requirement was to identify, discuss and implement best practices on gender balance in research and higher education institutions. The result would be their commitment to improve the current situation in terms of gender balance.

To raise awareness of the need for gender-sensitive management of human resources in research institutions, the Commission organized a conference in 2009:.

10 years of EU activities in Women and Science, and BEYOND Prague 14-15 May 2009

Mainstreaming gender in EU policy (particularly in research)

  • What the Member States have done nationally to mainstream gender
  • What the EU has done to help the Member States to mainstream gender

232 European Commission “Monitoring progress towards gender equality in the 6th Framework Programme”, 2009, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 237 European Commission, "Science Policies in the European Union: Promoting Excellence through Gender Mainstreaming", 2000, ETAN Report on Women and Science, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 238 European Commission, Helsinki Group on Women and Science “National Policies on Women in Science in Europe” – 2002, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

239 European Commission, “Wasting talent: turning private struggles into public issues – Women and Science in Enwise countries” – 2003, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 244 European Commission, “Defining policy measures for gender equality in science” – 2008, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Commission. 262 European Commission, Gender and Excellence in Making” – 2004, European Commission, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

270 European Commission, “Helsinki Group on Women and Science – National Policies on Women in Science in Europe” – 2002, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 277 European Commission "Gender and excellence in the making" - 2004, European Commission, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Table 1: Equality Measures in EU member States, 2004
Table 1: Equality Measures in EU member States, 2004

During the 7th framework program (FP gender is integrated in the legal FP7 decision: "The integration of the gender dimension and equality will be addressed in all research areas." It was with regard to gender mainstreaming – the integration of the gender dimension at all levels of the program – that there were serious shortcomings Citizens and governance in a knowledge-based society” programs found, for example, that 25% of the projects in

There was little reference to gender in the results described or the impact of the projects.”. However, the study found good examples of research projects in which the integration of the gender dimension had clearly promoted scientific excellence. Most of the planned actions related to increasing women's participation, while the gender aspect of the.

Are there differences in the biological needs of women and men that are relevant to the subject of the study? In the first 4 years of the 7th Framework Programme, gender in research received funding of 21.7 million euros.

The target of 40% women in various executive bodies and among evaluators was beginning to have a positive effect on women's participation, but in the call for proposal/project cycle, gender mainstreaming had no role. This of course translates into very little gender inclusion in funding proposals and funded projects. Regarding gender in research content, the GMS found that this important aspect of research was often overlooked by FP6 projects, mainly due to a lack of understanding of the concept, consisting of the inability to identify practical measures to deal with that.

Under the Sixth Framework Programme, funding for women in science was limited to supporting and coordinated actions useful for setting up structures for the European Research Area. Aware of this shortcoming in gender research, but also of the risk of double funding, the Commission started its gender activities under Science in Society in the 7th Framework Program (FP7) by launching a public tender, aimed at creating a European database on gender programs was "Citizens and governance". FP6 therefore marks the start of specific activities for women in science with a specific budget.

288 European Commission, “Monitoring progress towards gender equality in the 6th Framework Program – Summary report by the Center for Strategy and Evaluation Services (CSES)”; May 2009, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. In 2004, the Helsinki Group (see Section 2.3) suggested funding ambassadors for women in science (DIVA, WOMENINNANO, PALLAS-ATHENE projects).

  • Policy development
  • Knowing the situation of women in science

There can be no quality in research if it focuses only on the characteristics, needs and objectives of only half the world's population. The main achievement of these 10 years of activity in "women in science" has been the identification of the problem (very few women choose to work in science and technology and many leave the field at the beginning or in the middle of their career) and the launch of a specific policy to address the problem. As part of the process, Member States' legislation, policies and activities on "women in science" are analyzed and compared.

The European Commission has already funded some projects to this end (GenSET and GENDERA target the scientific community and research decision-makers, while TWIST targets the general public – see Annex V), but is also planning a more extensive communication campaign launched in 2011. A website does exist with the relevant information, but this is clearly not enough, as it presupposes an interest from the public - an interest strong enough to motivate a search. The collection of gender-disaggregated data was essential for the launch of the "Women in Science" policy.

Adequate", obviously means that a further harmonization of indicators is needed, as well as refining others (e.g. the different treatments of academic/researcher levels in Member States). European best practices should be known on the global scene, so that the EU can learn from others and that the rest of the world can also benefit from the result of ten years of EU policy on "women in science".

Figure

Table 1: National policies to promote gender equality in science (2004) EU-Member States (25)
Table 1: National policies to promote gender equality in science (2004) EU-Member States (25)
Table 2 National policies to promote gender equality in science (2008) (EU Member States 27)
Table 1: Equality Measures in EU member States, 2004
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