13. Public agriculturalresearchand innovation has been historically signi- cant in stimulating agricultural progress and was necessary for the Green Revolution. It has slowed down — in funding, rate of discovery, direction of research to yield expansion — before large parts of the poor have gained. This needs to be addressed, if poverty reduction, now slowed, is to revert to 1975–1985 rates. Yet the global bias of technical progress, driven by the needs and scarcities of the better-off with higher effective demand for it, is labour saving. A major effort is required to expand applied and basic agro-science in the international public sector and to introduce imaginative changes in incentives and institutions to enhance the private sector’s scientic contribution to improving poor people’s capabilities. The central conclusion is to leave space in farm research systems for basic science. To point it, via incentives and institutions and civil-society pressures, to human development goals seldom fully expressed in either market or state values. And, to reward both success in researchand discovery, and selection of topics and processes, that speed up adoption, spread, and impact on human development.
Over the last decades, Brazil has become one of the global leaders in agriculture production. Factors contributing to such results include natural resources availability, favorable climate conditions, agriculturalresearch, farmers and agroindustry entrepreneurship and governmental policies towards the agricultural sector. Currently, several public organizations provide data and alphanumeric information on Brazilian agriculture. Critical to understand the content of information, data visualization is an indispensable tool to examine, scrutinize, and validate analysis and upholds people making decisions. Data visualization is the action, delivered often by digital tools, of clarifying the information within a collection of data through different graphic shapes. The Strategic Intelligence System (Agropensa) of Brazilian AgriculturalResearch Corporation (Embrapa) aims at supporting the general public to construct their own strategic view on the agricultural sector by means of developed business intelligence (BI) and dashboards based on Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) data. Embrapa incorporated the use of BI and data visualization for agriculture, enabling analytical gains in its strategic intelligence (IE) actions; enabling more effective planning in research, developmentand innovation (PD&I).
evolutionary economics and systems theory (Speilman, 2005; cited by Agwu, Dimelu, & Madukwe, 2008). Conceptualization of Innovation Systems is also valid for agricultural production because and the context of agricultural innovation systems (AIS) requires an understanding of how individual and collective capacities are strengthened and how these capabilities are applied to agriculture, suggesting the need to focus less on the provision of information (such as research organizations, universities) and more on systemic practices and behaviors that affect organizational learning and change (Spielman, Ekboir, & Davis, 2009). Agricultural innovation adoption is considered as a significant and necessary component in agriculturaldevelopment activities (Jamsari et al., 2012). Agricultural extension, from the innovation systems approach, is more related to a process of interaction where knowledge does not only go in one direction but is bidirectional. Agricultural extension is best conceptualized as the generation and exchange of knowledge as such (rethink and reflect in an interactive process); the purpose and process are relevant and should be emphasized (Bonye, Alfred, & Seidu, 2012). This has proven to be much more effective in the learning process of farmers who, as adults, have a journey and an experience to value. Based on current trends, the concept of innovation includes several aspects, among which, innovation occurs when there is a continuous learning and the opportunity to learn is a function of the intensity of the interactions between agents (Agwu, Dimelu & Madukwe, 2008). Advancing agricultural innovation means building institutionally sustainable innovation systems which can be gauged by growing interrelations between the participants in the innovation system, an intensive communication between all stakeholders and a strong ‘social embedding’ (Anandajayasekeram et al, 2008; cited by Zhou, 2010). It is important to note
in order to identify the characteristics of the main target crops, the microorganisms used, and the beneficial effects on agriculture. In this work, 34 articles were identified: 24 (71 %) were research on bio-fertilizer developmentand 10 (29 %) on bio- pesticides. Articles mainly focused on the study of Gram-negative bacilli affecting the area (77 %), while others focused on issues and topics surrounding vegetables (30 %).The analysis of co-occurrence of keywords identified: i. several genera of microorganisms (e.g. Azotobacter sp., Bradyrhizobium sp.) and sustainable agriculture as issues that have a leading role in this scientific field, ii. plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as an emerging issue, iii. biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as a subject which has risen in a complementary manner and iv. endophytic bacteria and biodiversity as issues in growth. This study showed that research in Colombia could be targeted on issues such as endophytic bacteria, diversity and productivity. Keywords: Bioinoculants, scientometrics, microbial inoculants, sustainable development.
Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, was singled out as the great global area of “female farming systems” in which women using traditional hoe technology assumed a substantial responsibility for food production. Moreover, Boserup posited a positive correlation between the role women played in agricultural production and their status vis-à-vis men. As we argue elsewhere (Razavi and Miller 1995), one reason why Boserup’s research was picked up so enthusiastically by WID advocates was that it helped reject the narrow view of women’s roles as mothers and wives, which underpinned much of earlier development policy vis-à-vis women. In general, a great effort was made to distinguish WID from women’s programmes that were carried out under the rubric of health or social welfare. Instead of characterizing women as needy beneficiaries, WID arguments represented women as productive members of society. On the positive side, by highlighting women’s participation in production, these researchers provided a timely challenge both to the definition of work (and “active labour”) and to the methods of data collection used for generating official statistics. Their overall aim was to make visible areas of unvalorized or non-market production that tend to be disproportionately allocated to women. An important component of this endeavour was the attempt to deal with the much-debated category of generally unpaid “family labour”.
coordination between firms and its suppliers, actors, and consumers within network, due to high number of small and medium industries, which creates low consistency along with low awareness (Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, 2004). However, Bonney et al (2007) have suggested that continuous improvement is required in ResearchandDevelopment (R&D) and New Product Development (NPD) of firm, but it’s very difficult for small scale food industries where food cost is already very low, to install the traceability system because of high installation costs of data server, RFID tags, barcodes and readers; a similar conclusion was reached when estimated cost for Indian traceability system was calculated and analyzed in table 3.2 in section 3.4 of this study. Similarly, others have also shown that high upfront cost of investment into traceability, and difficulty of assessing its long term financial benefits especially for small scale industry that minimizes the potential acceptance of traceability system (Gotel & Mäder, 2012; Ingram & Riddle, 2013; Karlsen & Olsen, 2016; Regattieri, Gamberi, & Manzini, 2007).This result of this study is also consistent with other recent studies of traceability costing and its benefits, along with these previous study have suggested that a simple, low cost, limited sets of data and effective methods improve the transparency in traceability, and are always beneficial and easy to implement the traceability system in food industry (Gotel & Mäder, 2012; Karlsen & Olsen, 2016; Regattieri et al., 2007). However published evidence also pointed to likely impact of improved management and tracking of the items within company using technologies like barcode and RFID tagging which are less expensive (Badia-Melis, Mishra, & Ruiz-García, 2015; Mc Inerney, Corkery, Ayalew, Ward, & Mc Donnell, 2010; Ruiz-Garcia & Lunadei, 2011). However, it largely depends on the food operators to change and adopt new practices and facilitate innovative ways to capture and scale up business by incorporating and acquiring more cost-effective practices and equipment.
G. Donoso, O. Melo, and E. Negrete. 2010. Participation determinants and impact assessment of the Institute of AgriculturalDevelopment (INDAP) credit program. Cien. Inv. Agr. 37(2): 87-99. This research estimates the impact of INDAP’s Credit Program on the per hectare agricultural income of small agricultural producers. To accomplish this, a Treatment Effects Model (TEM) is employed to simultaneously estimate producer incomes and program participation functions, correcting for the potential presence of selectivity bias through the correlation between the errors of both functions. The results indicate that farmers of greater age present a higher disposition to participate in the program, but their interest decreases as their age increases. Additionally, producers who are acquainted with and evaluate the financial cost of credits as well as those producers whose income comes mainly from their land, who are landowners, present a greater family size and work greater land surfaces, present a greater disposition to participate. The results also indicate the existence of selection bias due to the nonrandom participation of farmers in the program. A negative correlation between the error terms of the per hectare agricultural income and participation function is observed. This implies that Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) underestimates the true effect of the program, because it omits the different initial situations between the treated and control group, situation corrected by the TEM estimation. In addition, the results indicate that there exists a positive and significant difference in the per hectare agricultural income between both groups in favor of the participants of the Credit Programs of INDAP, thus the Credit Program presents a positive impact on producer income levels.
The “disconnect” we have already mentioned between the two agencies seems to be less severe. The Ministry of Agriculture has begun to explicitly intervene in competition matters in the sector. Moreover, there has been increased coordination between the Ministry and the SIT. The apparent reason is the push by organizations and their members in the food system regarding potential and actual anti-competitive practices in this sector. There is an international element to this concern regarding international cartels.. As a function of improved inter-governmental concern in this area, the Colombian government, particularly the Ministry of Agriculture, has started to intervene for correcting alleged anti-competitive practices in several subsectors. An additional factor pushing greater competition has been proposed free trade agreement with the United States. These factors, led private agricultural organizations to propose that the Ministry of Agriculture propose competition norms for the sector. Though this effort ultimately failed, it exemplifies a shift in orientation on competition in agriculture in Colombia. Partly as a consequence of this effort, in 2005 the SIT and the Ministry of Agriculture started an ambitious program related to the establishment of an agriculture competition group inside the SIT: the Interinstitutional Agricultural Follow Up Group. The intent is to have a specialized technical group to study mergers and acquisitions, and restrictive business practices investigations in this sector. The Ministry of Agriculture funds the agricultural competition group of the SIT. It consists of seven staff, most of them with two bachelor degrees. 7
Figure 53. Vibration tests (a) on asphalt, (b) Plowed maize, and (c) Rocky fallow. ...................... - 64 - Figure 54. Dust particles affecting the LiDAR detections. ............................................................. - 64 - Figure 55. (a) Concept of a parallel safety loop ensuring the possibility to stop the vehicle using safety certified modules in case of failure. Blue: non safety module. Yellow: safety module. From Waldkirch, 2014. (b) Overview of all systems connected to the safety controller. ...................... - 65 - Figure 56. (a) Reference line for activating the emergency stopping button. In the nearest part, the evaluation area on asphalt, and in the farthest on field ground. (b) Remote controller. (c) On-board emergency button. ........................................................................................................................ - 67 - Figure 57. Mission Supervisor and LiDAR detection area of the GMU (Conesa-Muñoz, 2015). ... - 68 - Figure 58. Distance traveled and speed during the physical weed implement braking distance tests. ....................................................................................................................................................... - 69 - Figure 59. (a) Dynamic protection field length for 1 m and 0.5 m at different speeds. (b) Free distance to obstacle related with the protection field length obtained at different speeds with the two protections field configurations. ............................................................................................ - 70 - Figure 60. Front view of the sample board during the static test for: (a) Asphalt; (b) Plowed maize; and (c) Rocky Fallow. ..................................................................................................................... - 71 - Figure 61. (a) Height precision range represented by solid line limits that contain 95% of the data; and (b
Employers look for professionals able to work in a team, able to approach problems, with the capacity to analyze and resolve problems, under the constant renewal of knowledge and competencies. In this paper, a group of University teachers from different areas of knowledge presents an experience to introduce key employability skills in the higher education students’ curricula. This work has been developed under the action research scope. The first goal was to make an analysis of terms referred to key skills, generating an integrated denomination for each competency. The elaboration of general templates for key skills is proposed here as a useful tool that provides information about development, assessment and marking of each skill. Different types of rubrics and assessment templates, used during this experience, are presented.
Taking as reference some thoughts on the learning, teaching text explores possibilities of research from the student lead to the recognition of yourself, of others and what others in a process of understanding of the complex realities of everyday life . It is essential to learn to think and teach from thinking about issues that addresses the same investigation. The hotbeds of research they go from being forced into working meetings of researchers who discuss topics ontological, epistemological and methodological referring to a specific problem. To be valid and re signified under the fieldwork of specific investigations.
Abstract. The article analyses the problems associated with the development of research statement and with the evaluation of development competency and its transcendental impact on a positivist research. Problem statements derived from three main scientific paradigms: Positivist, interpretative and constructive approaches are presented with their implications in scientific research. Characteristics, positioning and functions of a problem statement are also studied. A detailed methodology for problem statement characterization is included as well as a procedure (guideline) and a method for its competency development evaluation.
This paper deals with the importance of research competence in university students studying some engineering and a proposal for their development. The methodology used was developed in three phases, the first phase consisted of identifying the problem of lack of research in the countries of Latin America, for this purpose, research rankings, rankings of research centers and ranking of universities were analyzed, because they are the spaces where research should be developed in each country. The second phase consisted of making the state of the art about the efforts made in each country to achieve research competence. The third phase was the description of the proposal of research seedbeds for the development of said competence.
to produce a conceptual cartography (Tobón, 2004) that provides deeper information about this sector. Electronic databases such as Science Direct, Web of Science and CONRICYT were used to obtain 35 articles related to this topic between 2004 and 2019. The categories considered for this analysis were: notion, categorization, characterization, differentiation, classification, correlation, methodology and exemplification. Results show that these concepts have clear differences among them, so they cannot be treated as a sole concept; they are part of e-learning; their use is mainly informal, asynchronous and synchronous, and collaborative; they differ from Learning Management Systems; They integrate sociocultural theories such as Vigotsky´s, and qualitative approach is important in order to collect data. Integration work in technology insertion and use of social media and networks is suggested.
Efficiency, equity and simplicity find their support in different places of the modern public finance literature. The theory of optimal taxation lays down criteria for efficient taxation. Taxes should be levied where they get the most revenue while changing the decisions of economic man the least. 15 As a by-product, the theory also analyzes the determinants of tax incidence: taxes are paid mainly by those who change their decisions the least in the face of them –the relatively inelastic side of the market. This makes it theoretically possible for the policymaker to take into account redistributive concerns. The theory mostly assumes that no informational problems, administrative costs or frictions exist and thus remains silent on the matters of simplicity and enforceability. 16
Action research aids teachers as researchers and students as receivers of the change resulting from the findings of an action research, a lot in their efforts to improve. Engaging in action research is a way to grow professionally from pre service training to career end. We showed that through action research we achieved positive changes in the learning environment; teachers become lifelong learners because they learn constantly through action researchand students experience success in learning because teachers reflect students’ needs in their teaching. Thus, we would recommend action research to be widely used in teachers’ teaching practices as well as it inclusion in Teacher Education Programs as a practice which leads to professional development of teachers by developing new methods of learning, improving their teaching skills, increasing their abilities of analysis and increasing their self-awareness. And as Stephen Corey states: “We are convinced that the disposition to study…the consequences of our teaching is more likely to change and improve practices than is reading about what someone else has discovered of his teaching.” 15
education and infrastructure improvements to reduce poverty. However, macroeconomic policies that would promote fixed investment, productivity growth and employment creation continued to be neglected. Similar to structural adjustment programmes, reforms undertaken in the poorer developing countries in connection with Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) starting in 1999 continued to focus on price stabilization (Khan, 2006; Muq- tada, 2003; UNCTAD, 2002), while emphasizing the need for reallocation of public expendi- ture to areas such as primary health care and education. Such measures were destined to fail in their attempt to achieve sustained poverty reduction in the absence of accelerated structural change and sufficient capital accumulation, which could have boosted growth and created productive employment (World Bank, 2005). Since the end of the hyperinflation phase in the second half of the 1980s and the early 1990s, most countries in Latin America and Africa adopted a “sound” monetary policy that sought to prevent inflation by keeping real interest rates consistently higher than growth rates, with the result that output growth remained subdued (chart 5.2). Consequently, the development gap widened and the catching up of these two regions lagged behind East and South-East Asian countries that had started industrializing from similar or even lower levels of development. It was only by drawing lessons from the experience of the Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s and the Argen- tinean debt crisis in 2001–2002 that the majority of Latin American countries adopted more accommoda- tive and even expansionary monetary policies which led to stronger overall growth. A notable exception was Brazil, where monetary policy continued to resemble the orthodox approach, but the negative impact of high interest rates on developmentand structural change in that country was at least partly compensated by interest subsidies for loans from the national development bank for financing fixed capital formation.