En su reciente libro, The Art of Post-Dictatorship. Ethics andAesthetics in Transitional Argentina (“El Arte de la Post-Dictadura. Ética y Estética en la Argentina de la Transición”), Vikki Bell (Senior Lecturer en Goldsmiths College, University of London) ofrece un recuento necesariamente selectivo pero suficientemente panorámico acerca de la producción artística y cultural argentina reciente, referida a los temas de memoria y reparación que emergieran luego del oscuro periodo de la dictadura militar. Este foco en la represión dictatorial y sus consecuencias, sin embargo, es trasladado por la autora hasta el presente; en este sentido, el trabajo de Bell ofrece algunas hipótesis acerca de la actualidad de aquellas memorias y sus marcas, actualidad que se ha visto materializada en los trabajos artísticos que son leídos críticamente en el libro. Conforme a la mejor tradición de los estudios culturales británicos, que va desde Raymond Williams a Stuart Hall, Bell aborda el proceso que se inicia con la dictadura militar y continúa en la época transicional, desde una perspectiva que despliega el problema de la justicia en sus claves ético- morales y estéticas.
notions, leaving artworks without recognizable features; the artworld without universally recognized institutions; the category of art without a ‘discrete sphere’; and the production of art disseminated to any individual or community in any culture, as long as it fit certain ex- tremely loose ‘family resemblances.’ For many laypeople, the concept had not been completely purified of the sedimented meaning accumulated up to that point in time. As art historians tell us, the European art tradi- tion has its roots in practices going back at least to the Ancient Greeks. These kinds of practices, however, are not unique to European peoples, since the creation of perceptually attractive items, be they stories, paintings, sculpture, music, or architectural constructions, is a com- monplace that can be found in all societies around the world stretching back indefinitely in time, as Dissayanake (1982) has argued and others have amply documented (for example, Coote & Shelton 1992).
, the production of music and early evidence from Asia and Australia. Thus, the archaeological record tells the story of a slow and gradual accumulation of behaviors related to artandaesthetics. The capacities to create and appreciate art emerged together with new and complex forms of social, technological and environmental cognition that characterize our species. Although some of these aesthetic or artistic behaviors have their roots in the behavior of earlier hominins, nothing like the pervasiveness of ornaments, pigment use, engraving and musical instruments is associated with any other prior or contemporary hominin species. Since the earliest artistic or aesthetic manifest- ations, humans have expressed this capacity in many different ways, creating traditions that appeared, disappeared and reappeared. These patterns of artistic ﬂourishing and withering, including the Upper Palaeolithic creative explosion in Europe, seem to be the result of geographic, climatic and demographic factors (Mellars, 2009), rather than biological adaptations.
consecuentemente de su contenido de verdad) y la cuestión de su fi nalidad o propósito, los usos a los que apunta y los efectos que genera» (The Politics of Aesthetics, 20). El fi n de esta caracterización de la particularidad de las imágenes consiste en establecer cómo se relacionan y qué efectos tienen respecto al ethos de una comunidad. Así pues, habrá imágenes verdaderas y provechosas, pero también las habrá falsas y perjudiciales para los órdenes sociales establecidos (y nunca podría concebirse una confusión entre ellas o una transformación de una en otra, pues se trata de tipos específi cos de entidades). Ran- cière propone como paradigma de esta forma institucional del arte la teoría de Platón sobre las artes imitativas y de aquella clase especial de imitaciones que se aleja más de la verdad esencial, generando desviaciones en la estructura social. En las formas insti- tucionales éticas, podríamos concluir, el arte no tiene un papel por sí mismo, sino sólo como imagen del ethos comunitario. Allí sólo existe el arte de una manera subsidiaria en la medida en que sirve a los propósitos de la cohesión social y la afi rmación de un orden determinado del mundo.
Bourriaud’s exclusion of new media from relational art is most likely motivated by the presupposition that these practices can limit the dynamic character of social relations spontaneously formed between art participants. The curator suggests that the relational art practices from the 1990s were devised as a strategic counter- response to the proliferation of human interaction with technology: “[…] while interactive technologies developed at an exponential rate, artists were exploring the arcane mysteries of sociability and interaction. The theoretical and practical horizon of that decade’s art was largely grounded in the realm of inter-human relations” (Bourriaud, 2002, p. 70). Relational aesthetics is human-centered and does not allow for the merger of human networks with non-human networks (eg, ecosystems, information systems) as did Burnham’s theories of systems aesthetics from the late 1960s (Burnham, 1967, 1969). In quite an antiquated manner, Bourriaud is intent on restricting the space of intersubjective relations to groups of people, situated in close proximity to one another. About thirty years earlier, Burnham announced that technology opened up new possibilities for creating encounters between participants. He suggested that gradually artists “will deal less and less with artifacts contrived for formal value, and increasingly with men enmeshed with and within responsive systems” (Burnham, 1968, 363). Thus, he implied that a system of information
This paper describes the pedagogical approach to José Martí´s aesthetical ideas from current axiological and pedagogical perspective, It takes into account that aesthetical guidance is always present in all interrelation between an individual and its peers, an individual and nature and society. The topic is relevant as far as it offers the necessary keys for the aesthetic education in primary teaching, according the principles of Cuban social project based on Martian’s principles of the usefulness of virtue, world’s balance and the culture of doing politics. The paper derives from the results of scientific research Pedagogical model for Primary Teaching in the Vocational School of Art “Luis Casas Romero” of Camagüey province, which has proved to be valid in educational practice.
In this sense, this paper explores Dewey’s proposal from a comparative approach, because the rejection of art-centred discourse to the rich aesthetic dimensions of ordinary is not common in all cultural traditions. Western conceptions of art, supposing as they do a chasm between artand nature raw, cannot be adequate to different aesthetic practices. I begin defining the deweyan notion of rhythm in contrast to the vital energy ( 气) of Taoist aesthetics. Both Dewey and Taoists postulate that Human beings are affected and participate in nature’s rhythms and the reality is a continually changing balance. Secondly, I would like to consider a specific classic Chinese work of aesthetics, ellaborated by Shí T ā o ( 石涛 ) in the seventeenth century, which was developed fundamental aspects of rhythm in capturing the spirit resonance of the world and revealed its immensity through the method of the one-stroke. Through this paper’s presentation, I wish to show the importance of the rhythm in the creative process,
En la panadería llamada La fournée d’Agoustine en la rue Raymond Losserand los azulejos que revisten el interior son de cerámica de Desvres –en el departamento del Pas-de-Calais- donde se producían piezas que imitaban las de Delft, Rouen o Moustiers, pero sobre todo azulejos. En este caso fueron realizados por la manufactura de Charles Fourmaintraux, entonces asociado con Henri Gand. Charles pertenecía a la cuarta generación de esta dinastía de ceramistas instalados en Desvres cuyos miembros poseían diversas fábricas que funcionaron simultáneamente. La sociedad, convertida en Fourmaintraux y Delassus tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, abandonó progresivamente la producción de cerámica artística para dedicarse exclusivamente a los azulejos para revestimientos murales. En esta panadería, instalada entre los años 1912 y 1915, tiempo que duró la sociedad Fourmaintraux-Gand, la decoración de los azulejos dista mucho del estilo de las grandes manufacturas del norte de Francia. Los festones de vinca y los ramos de lirios acercan el conjunto al Art Nouveau, prueba de que la producción industrial de Fourmaintraux se adaptaba al arte moderno. (Fig. 7)
In Space, Time, Architecture, Siegfried Giedion gives plenty of examples for the transfer of such ideas into other fields of art. Many more could be mentioned, in particular amongst photographers, who like Albert Renger-Patzsch regarded their medium as a constructive one (Janzen 2001), and the Constructivists, who like Naum Gabo thoroughly discussed room-space relations in joined, almost immaterial sculptures (Fig. 8). The preconditions for this transfer of engineering methods and their constructive character into the arts were to a great extend of a visionary kind. With a view to scientific improvements as well as the tremendous develop- ment of new technologies the issue of a new world and a better future had become a matter of emphatic concern to modern artists. In this context, the engineer was held up as a shining example (Fig. 5). Jan Tschichold, co-founder of the so-called New Typography, for instance regarded the engineer as a new type of human being, who unquestionably called for a new design:
appearance. Therefore, the historical development of the imitation of life by technological means corresponds more to the traditional definition of nature as natura naturans (meaning nature as an activity, as a power of functioning and creation) than to natura naturata (meaning a passive conception of nature, i.e. nature as products and things). The relationship between artand life has been one of the main topics of aesthetics from ancient times to now, from the theory of mimesis that governed artistic creations during centuries, to the negotiations of boundaries between artand life in the twentieth century. Artificial life (which is basically a computer-based discipline) suggests a division between the logic of life and that of organic matter, i.e. it separates the laws which govern life from its material reality. Therefore, artificial life can be considered to be perfectly in line with the aesthetics of dematerialization associated with digital technologies. Artificial life intends to shift the material logic of life and transfer it to the logic of computers. It is in such terms that Langton explained the difference between experimental biology, which deals with 'life- as-we-know-it', and artificial life, which deals with 'life-as-it-could-be' (Langton, 1989: 1). There are two approaches to the ontological consideration of products derived from the implementation of artificial life technologies: the radical position (represented by Langton), which suggests that artificial life is capable of producing entities that are truly alive; and a much weaker position, which considers that artificial life produces simulations of life, but not life itself. As Edward Shanken states, the radical artificial life position is based on a fallacy, given that the entities are considered to be alive by the mere fact of sharing some qualities that are also found in life 'as-we-know-it' (Shanken, 1998). Some of the characteristics associated with life in its material form are indeed shared by artificial life. For example, artificial life creates digital organisms, which can self-reproduce and react to its environment.
The combination of this type of AJS with an Evolutionary Art tool has also been explored. In their seminal work Baluja et al.  used an ANN trained with a set of images generated by user- guided evolution to assign fitness.  used Self Organizing Maps to evolve novel images. Machado et al. [13,14] study the development of AAs able to perform style changes over the course of several runs. To attain this goal they employ a FE, ANNs trained to distinguish between internal and external imagery, and an expression-based EC engine, promoting an arms-race between the EC engine and the ANNs. In a related work, Li et al.  investigate aesthetic features to mode l human preferences. The aesthetic model is built by learning both phenotype and genotype features, which are extracted from internal evolutionary images and external real world paintings.
Figure 1 shows the relationship between landscape science, ecology andaesthetics. The application of landscape science, ecology andaesthetics to the landscape design of public gardens constitutes ecological landscape science. The landscape design of public gardens follows the principles of ecology, regionalization, integration and human culture, giving priority to human and natural ecology (Young, Reid, & Meehan, 2015). The landscape design of public gardens should follow the static scale and behavior pattern of human body, consider the space form of human psychological demand, and meet the spiritual hierarchy of human in landscape. However, there are great differences among different people in the laws of beauty of different forms and aesthetic concept, and the visual sense organs of people have diversity and unity (Ujma-Wasowicz & Fross, 2017). The public garden landscape design needs to comprehensively consider various elements such as science, art, function andaesthetics, and pay attention to the relationship between the whole and the details in the landscape design, as well as the relationship between the individual elements and the whole (Trull, Penn, & Hu, 2018).
The proposal of naturalistic or physiological background recovers the continuity of aesthetic experience or aesthetic process with normal processes of living. Western tradition has sharply distinguishes art from real life and remit it to a separate realm such as museums, galleries, theatres or concert halls; in contrast, this naturalism or physiology has been addressed from a different starting point. Both authors, Dewey and Nietzsche, root aesthetics in our biological nature and emphasize how this is crucial to develop aesthetic experiences. However, they present differences in their elaborations due to their different aims: Dewey’s task was “to restore the continuity between the refined and intensified forms of experience that are works of artand the everyday events, doings and sufferings that are universally recognized to constitute experience” 4 ; whereas Nietzsche aim was to seek a way of thinking different from the logical terms and idealistic categories, and he found it in the physiology of art. For Nietzsche, aesthetics is applied physiology, “every art, every philosophy may be viewed as a remedy and an aid in the service of growing and struggling life; they always presuppose suffering and sufferers” 5 .
In order to start the experiment, we consider style as a system of shapes with signiﬁcant qualities and expression through which the artist’s personality becomes visible, as well as the perspective of a group framed in time. A given style consists mainly of a series of elements of form and motives interconnected by the so called “artist’s expression”. Nevertheless, the very creator of works of art is submitted to a huge subjective and contextual criterion which makes their work vary through time. Thus, although their characteristics remain constant, their works may be framed within several periods, touching upon diﬀerent styles. This can be seen, for example, in the diﬀerent works by Van Gogh, from the cool hues and realism of “The Potato Eaters” from 1885 to, for instance, the famous and well known “Starry Night” from 1889 (Figure 1). Those people who are not experts in art may well identify both works as belonging to two diﬀerent authors, showing the great relevance of a well trained CAA for these types of problems.
Parkinson recorded it as growing in “Lancashire, neare the border of Yorkshire, in a wood or place called the Helkes, which is three miles from Inglborough, the higest Hill in England, and not farre from Ingleton, as I am informed by a courteous Gentlewoman, called Mistris Thomasin Turnstall, who dwelleth at Bull- banke, near Hornby Castle...(she) hathe often sent mee up the rootes to London which have faire flowers in my Garden”. The Lady’s Slipper survived in that area until into the present century and Parkinson’s only mistake is his suggestion that Ingleborough is the highest hill in England. Parkinson was indeed an astute observer and noted that the seed of C. calceolus “is very small, very like unto the seede of the Orchides or Satyrions, and contained in such like long pods, but bigger.” As far as I can determine he was the first to connect Cypripedium with the orchids and to note their tiny seeds. Michel Adanson (1763) was the first botanist to formally include slipper orchids in the orchid family. The earliest known colour illustration of C. calceolus is that by Conrad Gesner (or Gessner) dating from 1541, a watercolour of a plant from Mt. Saleu in the Swiss Jura near Geneva (Fig. 6). It is an accomplished likeness, far superior to the later woodcuts in the L’Obel, Dodoens and Clusius herbals, while in botanical accuracy and detail of the rhizome, fruit and column it was not matched for another two hundred or more years. Gesner died from plague before he was able to publish his botanical illustrations. Schmiedel (1754-1759) published part of Gesner’s botanical work for the first time as Opera Botanica and included the coloured illustration and account of C. calceolus as “Calceolus Mariae”. They F igure 5. Cypripedium calceolus from Dodoens’ herbal
All those groups assembled in venues and clubs, although not every place could bear the violent punk chords. Likewise, many others would not allow them in as they questioned the authority and most places rather preferred conventionalism to trouble. The Sex Pistols as the pioneers of punk were also the firsts to share their music with British youths. Their first concert was at Saint Martin’s School of Art in November 1975. It ended up when the pub rock band they were playing with, Bazooka Joe unplugged their equipment, after seeing how the Sex Pistols wrecked it (Blake 30). They continued playing in colleges until April of 1976, when they played the first night of a residency at El Paradiso, a club in Soho, although it was effortless for the manager to obtain the license to play as it was a strip-tease club, nevertheless it still attracted many youths and helped punk music to inspire more disheartened British youths. The number of places where punk gigs occurred was increasing as the number of groups rose. Some of the most recognized venues or clubs in London were The 100 Club, the Marquee, the Vortex, the Roxy, Nashville Rooms, and the Rainbow (Blake 31). This situation was not unique for London; the punk music was wide spreading all over the country. The Sex Pistol’s gig in Lesser Free Trade Hall in Manchester is “one of the most influential gigs of all the time” (“Sex Pistols gig”).
In addition to supplanting humans in the Earth’s global ecology, Inklings and Octarians have evolved unique morphological and behavioral characteristics to fill the ecological niche left behind by their primate kin. In a brief text blurb, the game describes Inklings as follows: “The Terrifying Biology of the Inkling! Strength: Can leap up to 5 feet. Brain: Simple and predatory. Bones: None! Eyes: Can spot prey from 100 yds. away. Defense: High-pressure, high-capacity ink sack” (Splatoon). The Inklings and Octarians’ cartoonish appearances, however, confound these descriptors, largely because the game’s aesthetics are designed for younger audiences. The most apparent quality of both these cephalopod creatures, however, is their ability to shapeshift into both a cephalopod and a humanoid form. While shapeshifting avatars are not particularly new to video games, Inklings offer nuance to the trope as well as to the ways avatars make kin as discussed earlier in this essay. For example, like werewolves and other mythical figures appearing in horror and fantasy games, Inkling shapeshifting forges a kinship between different species through the hybrid animal body. In their humanoid form, Inklings have physiques like prepubescent human boys and girls. As squids, they appear wholly cartoonish with large round eyes, no mouth, and small, soft bodies. Uniting these forms in a hybrid body uniquely bridges the divide separating phyla and classes that are traditionally demarcated, both taxonomically and biologically, as evolutionarily distant from one another. Conceptually, Inkling shapeshifting reaches beyond the typical associations forged between human bodies and other mammals or vertebrates—those made based on physiological and psychological congruence—to identify cephalopods as “persons.” The transforming bodies in Splatoon are notably nonhuman in origin, which serves to decenter the human as the primary locus for forging new personhoods, building towards the Chthulucene.
Although in her classic essay “Characteristics of Negro Expression” Zora Neale Hurston sarcastically claimed that “(t)he Negro is not a Christian really” (1997: 56), her third novel, Moses, Man of the Mountain (1939), stands in the tradition of a long history of African American use of the biblical musings that aims to relativize and yet uphold a new version of the sacred story under the gaze of a black woman that manipulates and admonishes the characters of the gospel to offer a feminist side of the Bible. The novel is densely interwoven and richly textured with literary and cultural allusions. It has been analyzed as a meditation on the nature of the authoritarian state and of absolute political power especially when these ideas apply to the reality of black people in the US. Published in 1939 it is no wonder that, as Deborah E. McDowell highlights, “Hurston’s Moses can be read as an intervention in the discourses about race ranging throughout the 1920s and 1930s, but also discourses used to justify...the utter extinction of Jews under Nazi Germany” (1991: 17) since 1939 was the year Hitler ordered the attack on Poland which led Germany into a World War. But if, as Judylyn S. Ryan explains (2005: 29), “cultural identity and spiritual identity are coterminous”, Hurston’s Moses, Man of the Mountain can also be read as an exercise that foregrounds the status and future direction of African American liberation discourses, in which black women priestesses play a central role. In this vein, and following black historian Albert Raboteau, Afro-Christianity “could become a double-edged sword” (1978: 290) for it can be used to foster black liberation theology and to engender a black feminist aesthetics akin to a sacred femininity embodied by a black priestess.
Abstract: Hildegard of Bingen’s epistolary gathers, in its almost four hundred letters, a very rich biographic material with XII century historic and cultural data. It also presents a particular style, closed related to her visionary gift. Inside the exploration of this mundus imaginalis, a real aesthetic experience takes place: the symbols constellations that appear in these texts (mainly from nature) correspond with similar images from other languages used by Hildegard such as pictorial and musical ones. By means of some examples, this article inquires to what extent and in which way this perspective broadens the hermeneutic horizon in the epistolary texts.