Attitudes and beliefs

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An approach to the development of the Intercultural Competence through Literature in an EFL classroom of Secondary Education

An approach to the development of the Intercultural Competence through Literature in an EFL classroom of Secondary Education

follow Byram’s savoirs to develop the skills, attitudes and beliefs as well as the emotions and feelings, which are relevant for the students to express how are they feeling and how are they experiencing the ‘cultural shock’. This expression of feelings removes the constraints that may appear while the students are abroad and promote the self-awareness. With this, the authors allude the introduction of the Intercultural Communicative Competence in a set curriculum. They assert that within the themes arranged in textbooks, the teachers can take advantage of those by treating them through different perspectives, either by gender, age, region, religion, etc., being these perspective a starting point to encourage learners in researching by themselves about other ways to treat the ICC and promoting the critical thinking. For instance, they can search on the Internet for different materials set in a real context and thus, examine critically those materials that they have found, evaluating the type of information that it contains. Similar to this approach, Lázár (2007) proposed his own guidelines for the teaching of the intercultural communicative competence (ICC), focusing in the distinction of culture and the importance of the communicative discourse within the intercultural competence.

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Primary teachers` beliefs about teaching English to young learners

Primary teachers` beliefs about teaching English to young learners

Teachers’ beliefs, or teacher cognition, is a term used to refer to the complex system of beliefs, knowledge and attitudes which teachers possess and which potentially influence their classroom practice (Borg, 2003). However, the relationship between beliefs and prac- tices is a complex one, as beliefs can influence practices, but practices can also influence beliefs (Buehl & Beck, 2015). Whether or not beliefs are translated into classroom practice depends on contextual factors such as school policies and curriculum mandates, but also on internal factors such as teachers’ knowledge and self-awareness (Borg, 2003; Buehl & Beck, 2015). It has also been shown that beliefs about planned aspects of teaching tend to correspond better to teaching practice than beliefs about unplanned aspects such as error correction (Basturkmen, 2012). Teachers’ attitudes have been found to be shaped by a combination of factors, such as practical experience, but also the teachers’ own experience as language learners (Borg, 2003). The study of teachers’ beliefs can help researchers gain insight in the decisions teachers take in the classroom and it is also vital that teacher training programmes take teacher cognition into account.

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ATURE ANDO PERATION OFA

ATURE ANDO PERATION OFA

Another concern regarding the expectancy-value model is that the assumed be- lief × evaluation interaction may misrepresent the cognitive processes involved in attitude formation. Thus, it has been proposed that beliefs and values may relate independently to overall attitudes in a process termed double denial (Sjoeberg & Montgomery 1999). To illustrate, a person with a strong negative attitude toward drinking alcohol may deny (rate as highly unlikely) that drinking makes you happy, yet at the same time assign a negative evaluation to “being happy.” When mul- tiplied in accordance with the expectancy-value model, the product term implies a relatively favorable attitude toward drinking alcohol, or at least a less negative attitude than if the likelihood rating had been high. Sjoeberg & Montgomery (1999) obtained data in support of this phenomenon, in an apparent contradic- tion of the expectancy-value model. However, according to the expectancy-value model, when attributes come to be linked to an object in the process of belief formation, the pre-existing attribute evaluations are associated with the object, producing an overall positive or negative attitude. It is thus important to assess attribute evaluations independent of their link to the attitude object. In the above example, a person who rates “being happy” as negative most likely does so in the context of drinking alcohol, i.e. the person asserts that being happy as a result of drinking alcohol is undesirable, not that being happy is bad in general.

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				Parenting in West Indian Families: Relationship to their Literacy Beliefs and Practices

← Return to Article Details Parenting in West Indian Families: Relationship to their Literacy Beliefs and Practices

The implications of the beliefs and practices of VI parents for children’s outcomes warrant further inves- tigation. As research has demonstrated (Stipek, Feiler, Daniels & Milburn, 1995; Sonnenschein, Brody, & Munsterman, 1996), a skills-based approach and direct reading instruction may not be optimal for language and literacy development. Perhaps then the prevalence of this traditional style is indeed contributing in some negative way to literacy outcomes in young VI children. On the other hand, our findings do not paint as bleak a picture as might be expected given that the amount of book reading is also strongly related to language and literacy development (Hood, Conlon, & Andrews, 2008; Sénéchal, Pagan, Lever, & Ouellettee, 2008; Wal- lace, Roberts, & Lodder, 1998; Zimmerman, Gilkerson, Richards, Christakis, Xu, Gray & Yapanel, 2009). The frequency of book reading was not correlated with high adult control. Thus, it remains an empirical question then as to whether such attitudes and prac- tices necessarily lead to worse literacy outcomes for children in the VI.

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Media Exposure and Attitudes towards Immigrants

Media Exposure and Attitudes towards Immigrants

hiring, etc.) and higher agreement with the belief that immigration lowers the quality of life of natives. Simultaneously, they offer a more protectionist vision of maintaining the Spanish culture when faced with the possibi- lity of immigrants introducing their customs or religious beliefs. They believe, on the other hand, that the treatment and co-existence with immigrants has improved, logical since they also believe that immigrants tend to re- ceive preferential treatment as compared to Spaniards. These individuals tend to be poli- tically more conservative (as well as more religious). They have few relations with immi- grants and have had a larger number of ne- gative experiences, which may serve to jus- tify their increased tendency to reject immigration. However, taking into account the tenets of the theory of cognitive disso- nance (Festinger, 1957), we should assume that these individuals having more reluctant attitudes will be more likely to see the nega- tive side of the object or phenomenon consi- dered to be negative, so as to avoid contra- dicting their cognitive scheme.

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TítuloMyths, legends and beliefs on granite caves

TítuloMyths, legends and beliefs on granite caves

es and very big oak trunks. And in the entrance of the cave they fastened long ropes with sticks. People were well armed. When they were going into the cave they discov- ered very big birds that blow them strongly on their faces. They walked until they arrived at a large river, and on the other side of the river they saw strange beautiful and very well dressed people who were playing instru- ments and looking at big treasures. But they were so afraid of the river that they did not dare to go across it. So, they were all in agreement to return, but the friar said: “Go on, go on, there is no trouble”. And they did not want to believe it. Then, the wind blew so hard that the torches were put out. And when they managed to go out, they breathed poi- soned air so they did not live more than one year, and afterwards the friar lost his sight” (Aponte, Vasco de ([ca. 1530-1535] 1986).

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Residents´ perceptions of tourism development in Benalmádena (Spain)

Residents´ perceptions of tourism development in Benalmádena (Spain)

The term impact of tourism has gained importance in the tourism literature. This impact can be assessed through a review of residents. In recent years, numerous studies have examined residents’ attitudes towards and perceptions of the impact of tourism development in their communities. The main reason for the growing interest in this type of study is an awareness that tourism development has positive and negative effects at the local level (Ko & Stewart, 2002; Lankford & Howard, 1994). On the positive side, tourism can generate new employment opportunities for local residents (Andereck & Nyaupane, 2011; Belisle & Hoy, 1980; Bujosa & Roselló, 2005; Diedrich & García, 2009; Haralambopoulos & Pizam, 1996; Lindberg & Johnson, 1997), strengthen towns’ business networks, increase residents’ quality of life, help preserve monuments and archaeological sites (Andereck, Valentine, Knopf & Vogt, 2005; Akis Peristianis & Warne, 1996; Liu, Sheldon & Var, 1987; Korca, 1996; Oviedo, Castellanos & Martin, 2008; Yoon, Gursoy, & Chen 2001), and preserve residents’ identity and the cultural pride (Andereck et al., 2005; Besculides, Lee & McCormick, 2002; Yoon et al., 2001). However, tourism can also cause friction and have negative environmental, economic and socio-cultural effects – with seasonality being one of the most relevant negative consequences. During the high tourism season, public and leisure infrastructures become saturated, and traffic congestion and parking problems occur (Lindberg & Johnson, 1997; Sheldon & Abenoja, 2001), which often cause inconvenience to local residents (Liu & Var, 1986; Sheldon & Var, 1984). Tourism can also increase the standard of living (Liu & Var, 1986; McGehee & Andereck, 2004) as well as drug and alcohol problems (Diedrich & García, 2009; Haralambopoulos & Pizam 1996; King Pizam & Milman, 1993; Milman & Pizam 1988); serious environmental damage and significant increases in waste and pollution can also occur (Andereck et al., 2005; Brunt & Courtney, 1999; Lankford, 1994; Liu et al., 1987; McGehee & Andereck, 2004; Snaith & Haley, 1999). This tourism-related inconvenience and collateral damage could cause the local population to form and perpetuate negative attitudes towards tourism.

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TítuloEvolution over time of the determinants of preferences for redistribution and the support for the welfare state

TítuloEvolution over time of the determinants of preferences for redistribution and the support for the welfare state

in 1995 and V237 in 2007. VAR12: ‘Age group 25–34’. The variable corresponds in the EVS for Spain to x003 in 1990, V216 in 1995 and V237 in 2007. VAR13: ‘Age group 35–44’. The variable corresponds in the EVS for Spain to x003 in 1990, V216 in 1995 and V237 in 2007. VAR14: ‘Age group 45–54’. The variable corresponds in the EVS for Spain to x003 in 1990, V216 in 1995 and V237 in 2007. VAR15: ‘Age group 55–64’. The variable corresponds in the EVS for Spain to x003 in 1990, V216 in 1995 and V237 in 2007. We incorporate a new variable that is not included in AA. VAR16: ‘Region where the survey was carried out’ in Spain. This allows to introduce regional-fixed effects (for Spain). The variable corresponds in the EVS for Spain to x048 in 1990, V234 in 1995 and V257 in 2007. We name: VAR16i with AN, AR, AS, B, CAT, CANA, CANT, CASLE, CASLA, E, G, R, MA, MU, NA, PVAS, PVAL to denote the fixed effects corresponding to Andalucía, Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Cataluña, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-León, Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura, Galicia, Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, País Vasco and País Valenciano. We choose País Valenciano as our reference group. These regional–fixed effects allow to support the hypothesis if some regions in Spain were more left–or right-wing and if we find statistical evidence of that.

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Omani school supervisor perspectives of contextual factors impacting upon students’ limited English proficiency: an exploratory study

Omani school supervisor perspectives of contextual factors impacting upon students’ limited English proficiency: an exploratory study

Participants were asked to respond to the question within a 2-week data collection period and were reminded that their responses could be as extensive or as short as they desired. Once the data collection period was finished and the on-line form closed, all responses were collected in a series of text documents and analysed with NVivo through the application of a theoretical framework formed by the literature related to the contextual factors offered above. Thirteen supervisor participants volunteered to take part in the current research. Of these, eight were male and 5 were female. The vast majority of participants (n = 10) came from the governorate of Batinah South, while one participant each was drawn from Batinah North, Musandam, and Al Dhahera. Eleven participants were regional supervisors, one was an English supervisor and one was an acting supervisor. Nine participants held bachelor’s degrees, while the remaining four had master’s level degrees. Most participants (n = 5) had between 16 and 20 years of experience, while one had between 0 and 5 years, two had between 6 and 10 years, two had between 11 and 15 years, and three participants had between 21 and 25 years of experience. The vast majority of participants had received their highest level qualifications either between 2001 and 2005 (n = 5) or between 2006 and 2010 (n = 6). One participant each received their highest level degree between 1995 and 2000 and between 2011 and 2015. Although 13 participants agreed to take part in this part of the research and completed their demographic details accordingly, only 8 provided a complete response to the open-ended question. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data, with particular attention paid to emerging themes and areas of overlap and divergence between participant responses.

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TítuloTeachers and trainee teachers’ beliefs about family school relationships

TítuloTeachers and trainee teachers’ beliefs about family school relationships

is an adequate and established way to explore what people think (Schraw & Olafson, 2015). In this study, the Beliefs about Family-School Relationships questionnaire (Vázquez-Huertas & López-Larrosa, 2014) was used to measure teachers’ and trainee teachers’ beliefs about family-school relationships and their perceived ability to relate with families (self-efficacy). Three subscales of this questionnaire were used to identify participants’ beliefs about family-school relationships: Collaboration, Subordination and Delegation. The Collaboration sub-scale has 9 items, which refer to beliefs about professionals and families supporting each other (for instance: “it is a teacher’s goal to listen to what parents do when trying to work out how to solve a child’ misbehavior”). The Subordination sub-scale has 10 items. This sub-scale resembles the Remediation model by Amatea (2009) or the School to Home model (Moorman et al., 2012). Items refer to beliefs about parents complying with teachers’ commands and comments (for instance, “it is crucial that parents do as the teacher says when a child is not doing well at school” or “it is a good strategy that the parents identify what they themselves are doing wrong”). The Delegation sub-scale, which resembles Amatea’s Separation paradigm and the School or Home model (Amatea, 2009; Moorman et al., 2012), has two items. A factor with two items is exceptionally accepted when a questionnaire or scale has other factors (Raubenheimer, 2004), as it happens in this study. This factor refers to beliefs that parents leave education in teachers’ hands (for instance, “many parents expect that it is the school that educates their children“). In order to measure the perceived confidence to relate with families, the instrument has one question that explores “I feel capable to have a good relationship with the families of my students”. The 22 questions are answered using a Likert scale with anchors 1 (strongly disagree) and 5 (strongly agree). To calculate the score in each sub-scale, values are summed up and divided by the number of items each sub-scale has.

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Ontological Beliefs and their Impact on Teaching Elementary Geometry

Ontological Beliefs and their Impact on Teaching Elementary Geometry

The ontological background of a theory can be described as the answer to the fol- lowing questions: To what kind of objects does the theory refer and what are the basic assumptions the theory claims upon these objects? Insofar, ontology is split into a referential and a theoretical aspect. This idea can be specified on the base of a particular kind of philosophy of science which is called the structuralist the- ory of science, primarily established by Sneed (1979) and elaborated by Stegmül- ler (1985). To establish our classification of ontological beliefs, we will combine this approach with an investigation of Struve (1990), who adopted this theory to mathematics education to analyse the influence of textbooks. As a further source, the concept of geometrical working spaces is used, which was developed to clas- sify students’ handling of geometrical problems (Houdement & Kuzniak, 2001).

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Public and private school student's beliefs about effective instruction

Public and private school student's beliefs about effective instruction

The participants emphasized that the teacher is the one who plays the main role in the learning process. Students pointed out that in order to receive effective instruction it is necessary to have respectful and committed teachers. Having teachers who bring extra material to facilitate learning, and address the students in a polite form will help students not only to enjoy what they are learning but also to promote students´ engagement to study the L2. However, the results also showed that students from different backgrounds have some beliefs about the target language that are opposite and influence their engagement. Students´ beliefs differed when it came to the importance of learning a foreign language. For some of them, it was extremely important while for the others it was unnecessary as their learning context would not allow them to make use of the target language. Moreover, the results also provided insights into students´ opinions about the characteristics of “good” teachers and they brought into question the importance of having knowledgeable teachers against teachers´ abilities to transmit knowledge.

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Protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales: Spanish translation and validation

Protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales: Spanish translation and validation

Briscoe et al. (2006) developed protean and boundaryless career scales to operationalize the concept of protean (Hall, 1976, 2002) and boundaryless (Arthur, 1994) career. A boundaryless career highlights an independent, individually driven and subjectively addressed career concept (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996). The boundaryless career focuses on career enactment (Weick, 1996) and has been defined as “a sequence of job opportunities that goes beyond the boundaries of a single employment setting” (DeFillippi & Arthur, 1994: p307), capturing career moves crossing physical and psychological dimensions (Briscoe et al., 2006; Sullivan & Arthur, 2006). Arthur and Rousseau (1996) identified six different meanings of the boundaryless career, arguing that it is a complex concept that, apart from emphasizing inter and intra-organizational mobility, encompasses careers that can be extrapolated to employees’ perceptions of the desirability or instrumentality of increased mobility (Feldman & Ng, 2007). Whereas some authors have approached boundaryless careers uniquely considering physical changes in work arrangements (Jones, 1996; Saxenian, 1996), Sullivan and Arthur (2006) emphasize the need of viewing mobility as measured along two continua (physical and psychological), in order to bring greater precision to research endeavours. In an extensive review of the empirical research conducted on the changing nature of careers, Sullivan (1999) asserted that “only sixteen studies examined mobility across physical boundaries, whereas only three studies focused on the relationships across these boundaries” (Sullivan & Arthur, 2006). Recognizing that a boundaryless career attitude is primarily psychological, Briscoe et al. (2006) provided empirical evidence, supporting for the development of two boundaryless career attitudes: boundaryless mindset and organizational mobility preference.

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The Emergence of the "Conscious Consumer": An Analysis of Political Participation through Purchasing Decisions

The Emergence of the "Conscious Consumer": An Analysis of Political Participation through Purchasing Decisions

Various studies have pointed to the impor- tance of broad contextual factors, such as globalization, the economy, political institu- tions and culture for explaining this new form of political action (Beck, 2001; Micheletti and Stolle, 2005; Neilson and Paxton, 2010; Koss, 2012). The social changes produced by the change from an industrial society to a post- industrial one, the expansion of new educa- tional opportunities, the growth of the middle class and advances in communications tech- nologies, have all favoured the rise of new forms of political expression outside the arena of electoral politics (Copeland, 2014a: 263). Thus, concern, for example, about the envi- ronment, equality, the inclusion of minorities, respect for human rights and sustainable de- velopment, have all encouraged segments of the public to make demands based on new post-materialist values, leading to the rise of new contexts for political action (Inglehart, 1997). There is no doubt that consumption raises a moral debate affecting such impor- tant issues as distributive justice and the sound management of common resources (Wilk, 2001).

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La emergencia del "consumidor consciente": un anlisis de la participacin poltica a travs de las decisiones de compra

La emergencia del "consumidor consciente": un anlisis de la participacin poltica a travs de las decisiones de compra

Various studies have pointed to the impor- tance of broad contextual factors, such as globalization, the economy, political institu- tions and culture for explaining this new form of political action (Beck, 2001; Micheletti and Stolle, 2005; Neilson and Paxton, 2010; Koss, 2012). The social changes produced by the change from an industrial society to a post- industrial one, the expansion of new educa- tional opportunities, the growth of the middle class and advances in communications tech- nologies, have all favoured the rise of new forms of political expression outside the arena of electoral politics (Copeland, 2014a: 263). Thus, concern, for example, about the envi- ronment, equality, the inclusion of minorities, respect for human rights and sustainable de- velopment, have all encouraged segments of the public to make demands based on new post-materialist values, leading to the rise of new contexts for political action (Inglehart, 1997). There is no doubt that consumption raises a moral debate affecting such impor- tant issues as distributive justice and the sound management of common resources (Wilk, 2001).

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Reshaping Attitudes and Perceptions Towards ELL in Ninth Graders  by Including Subcultures in the Classroom

Reshaping Attitudes and Perceptions Towards ELL in Ninth Graders by Including Subcultures in the Classroom

perspective. While CA explores the manner in which national conceptions of culture frame intercultural communication, ICA focuses on the inter or trans cultural dimensions where there is no clear language- culture- nation correlation, particularly in global uses of English. This also involves a move away from cross-cultural comparisons, where cultures are treated as discrete entities that can be compared with each other, e.g. ‘in British culture people do . . . but in Italian culture people do . . . ’. In contrast, an intercultural approach examines communication where cultural differences, at a range of levels, may be relevant to understanding but does not make a priori assumptions about cultural difference. As with CA, awareness in ICA is expanded beyond its everyday usage to include knowledge, skills and attitudes and used as a more holistic

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Patroneando un barco a la deriva: Mejorando la preparación de los maestros de los colegios católicos durante el primer año a través de la autorreflexión

Patroneando un barco a la deriva: Mejorando la preparación de los maestros de los colegios católicos durante el primer año a través de la autorreflexión

One of the main challenges in educational research is the identification of those individual factors causing the resulting outcomes, due to the possible entanglement of intertwining effects. In the present project, for example, it could be argued that changes in PLACErs’ practices and perceptions of teaching might be the result of their additional months in the classroom rather than their engagement in self-re- flection. If so, this might be considered the main limitation of the study. Yet, it may also be contended that, while PLACErs’ extended stay in the classroom might have undoubtedly help refine their routines and improve their classroom management skills, the bulk of their modifications would not have been possible without the re- flection processes they were forced to engage on a weekly basis during a complete academic semester. Hence, it seems reasonable to assume that PLACErs’ broadened repertoire of techniques and strategies, increased use of student-centered activi- ties, and gained sense of efficacy was a direct consequence of their introspections. By and large, PLACErs acknowledged the powerful impact of self-reflection on their betterment as teachers and their gained commitment to the profession. Having learned to embrace self-reflection as an integral component of their rou- tines (Leather and Popovic, 2008) they felt reassured in the consistency of their in- structional programs. Their statements in this regard revealed the pervasive impact of self-reflection on their lesson preparation and instruction delivery procedures, the provision of more detailed guidelines and modeling in class, the implementa- tion of more participative classroom structures, and a more positive view of the profession. Moreover, PLACErs’ genuine interest in the well-being of their stu- dents resulted in their questioning the adequacy of textbooks and official standards ignoring the needs of those whose lives they touched on a daily basis. In so doing, they appeared to mirror Nieto’s findings when enquiring on teachers’ reasons to re- main in the profession (Nieto, 2003).

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Análisis longitudinal de la relación entre el compromiso con el sindicato y las percepciones de apoyo y de instrumentalidad sindical en una muestra de delegados de la unión general de trabajadores

Análisis longitudinal de la relación entre el compromiso con el sindicato y las percepciones de apoyo y de instrumentalidad sindical en una muestra de delegados de la unión general de trabajadores

The possible spuriousness of these models is reinforced by some research suggesting that union commitment may be a cause rather than a consequence of the perceptions considered as its antecedents. In this line, some studies dealing with the theory of attitudes provided evidence supporting that attitudes can influence perceptions. In what concerns union related variables, it is also acknowledged that favorable union attitudes may be able to create a belief-bias. In this context, our study aims to clarify the relationship between union commitment and the variables of perceived union instrumentality and perceived union support. In addition, according to previous research, we also included the attitudes of organizational satisfaction and commitment in our analyses. To test the causality between the variables considered in the model, a two-wave study was conducted and cross-lagged analyses were computed. Following the theoretical review, our study contrasts two main hypotheses that correspond to two alternative models. The first model assumes that perceived union support and perceived union instrumentality will cause changes in union commitment. Consequently, a significant time-lagged effect from the two perceptions toward union commitment is hypothesized (H1). On the contrary, the second model suggests that union commitment will cause changes in perceived union instrumentality and perceived union support. In this line, a significant time lagged effect from union commitment toward the two perceptions is hypothesized (H2).

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LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO

LA TRANSVERSALIDAD EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO

The Internet TESL Journal's extensive and regularly maintained site organizes and links many aspects of ESL such as: •Professional Life: Associations, Conferences, Journals, Newsgroups, Teacher Training, Web-Based Discussions & Bulletin Boards •Teaching English: Bilingual Education, CALL, English for Science & Technology, Literacy •Articles, Lessons, Linguistics, Phonetics & Pronunciation, Reference Materials •Raw Materials for Lessons: Culture, Reading Materials, Poetry & Song Lyrics, Travel, Vocabulary •Teachers'

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Contribucin de la investigacin formativa para el diseo de un programa para la prevencin de obesidad en escuelas de la Ciudad de Mxico

Contribucin de la investigacin formativa para el diseo de un programa para la prevencin de obesidad en escuelas de la Ciudad de Mxico

Public primary schools in the south of Mexico City were included in the study and randomly chosen from a list of all schools that met the following criteria: 1) morning schedule (8:00am to 12:30pm), 2) located in the south of Mexico City, 3) classified by the Ministry of Education (MOE) as low socioeconomic status, 4) received the na- tional school breakfast program (SBP) 5) at least one school yard facility for PA and the standard sport equipment provided by Secretary of Public Education, and 6) Over 300 students and two or more classrooms per grade. In the southern area of the city there were four districts with a total of 274 schools, of which, 83 met all inclusion criteria. From these 83 schools, 12 were randomly selected.

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