The structural equation model proposed in accordance with the type of school analysed reveals a good fit over all the indices of evaluation. The Chi-square offers a significant value for p (χ2 = 322,572; DF= 34; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, this index does not allow for interpretation in a standardised manner, plus the additional problem that is posed as a result of its sensitivity to sample size (Marsh, 2007, p.785). Thus, other standardised fit indices are used that are less susceptible to sample size. The Comparative Fit Index (CFI) gives a value of 0.907 that is acceptable. The Normalised Fit Index (NFI) offers a value of 0.901 and the Increase Fit Index (IFI) is 0.907, both of which are acceptable. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) gives an acceptable value of .066. In Figure 2 and Table 1, the calculated values of the parameters of the structural model are given for teenagers who study in bilingual schools. Said values must be of an adequate magnitude and their effects significantly different from zero. Likewise there should be no improper values such as negative variances.
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In this narrative, Charlie constructs the identity of High Towers’ as «special» due to the signed educational agreement with the British Council (see section 3.1.2). He evaluates High Towers’ as being an exception in the local public school market: the integrated British/Spanish curriculum is special, the methodology is good, the students who choose the British bilingual program are good, and the families who choose this program are satisfied with the level of exposure to the English language. This moral stance conveys nonetheless emerging processes of social categorization based on a hierarchy of value attributed to students who do not follow this program and attend the regular curriculum. As Charlie points out in lines 23-27, he becomes a «magical person» when teaching non-bilingual students, who are morally evaluated as being «so bad» and «really bad». The moral meanings associated to non-bilingual students in bilingual schools have resulted in a hierarchization of students based on academic performance, socioeconomic status and social behavior (Relaño Pastor, 2018b). Charlie reinforces this idea in the interview: «the problem is that (.) bilingual students are good so if you’re not bilingual (.) by definition is that you’re gonna be bad (.5) not only bad but difficult background». In fact, one of the main methodological challenges teachers in general agreed on, had to do with having both groups of students (those labelled «bilingual» and «non-bilingual») in the same classroom when they reach the first year of their baccalaureate degree, where the bilingual program is no longer in place. In fact, schools in LMC have to comply with the regional administration and can only offer CLIL classes during the stage of compulsory secondary education.
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As figure 10 shows, only 10% of respondents commented about the role of the bilingual school, for them this school does not have a purpose because teachers do not have enough knowledge and information to teach Nahuatl. The same percentage of people also knows the importance of government support for this as Figure 5 shows above. But this help is completely negligible, even though the government is aware that there are indigenous bilingual schools, they are still doing nothing to get better language teaching experts. This clearly causes mistrust and especially great concern for the future of these schools. On the other hand the 45% commented that it is good to keep the traditions in the community, and another 45% said that the education system and teachers should improve.
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For teachers in Castile and León to be involved in CLIL programmes a CEFR B2 language accreditation has been required since 2012 (Resolution 7 November 2013), even if when they were first launched a B1 level was sufficient, while in the neighbouring community of Madrid only teachers with an accredited C1 level of English can teach in bilingual schools. And whereas in Madrid teachers were required to complete a three-month training to participate in the project (Fernández and Halbach, 2011), teachers in Castile and León were offered several training options on a voluntary basis. The main programmes were delivered by the four public universities of Castile and León and comprised 60-hour courses on communicative linguistic competence for non-specialists bilingual teachers and two postgraduate courses, namely, a 300-hour specialisation in bilingual or CLIL teaching in English, and a 60-ECTS Master in Bilingualism (Durán and Beltrán, 2013), in addition to a continuing education plan designed by the community of Castile and León educational authority for CLIL teachers both in their schools and during intensive two-week summer courses in the United Kingdom.
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180 students. The percentage found in BEDA regarding these meetings was of 92 percent, while for charter schools it was of 80 percent. In these two last institutions, the meetings are also held weekly. The final research question concerning head teachers inquired about their L2 level. All of them said to feel comfortable teaching in English/ French (a few respondents work in bilingual schools teaching French). Nevertheless, some of these teachers still need to be trained in order to improve their proficiency, we encountered some teachers with pronunciation problems /beri/ instead of saying /very/, for instance; with literal translation “Do you want to shut up?”, in place of “Please, be quiet” and spelling errors were also detected when teachers filled in our questionnaires. We also discovered that only about five percent rely on their students’ weaknesses and strengths to prepare their classes. This is a clear signal that these teachers are not aware of MI and its benefits to the class and that MI is still in its infancy in Spain and it should be included in future trainings so that these teachers have more tools to deal with their students’ learning skills. Although teachers sometimes rely on music and dance in their classes, the reason is merely to motivate students rather than knowledge about MI Theory. When teachers were explicitly asked if they used MI in the classroom, only three teachers out of 150 said to partly use it as it motivates students. With regard to assessment, all teachers agreed that assessments are important and only one percent of the teachers would change something in the assessment. This data is strongly linked to teachers’ values and beliefs. In order to make use of MI Theory which values much more the process than a single fragment of the term which is called exam, educators would need to detach a bit from these values and reflect upon the importance of the learning process.
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The design of the present study was a sectional type. Sample was selected for convenience, depending on the students and schools that could be accessed. A total of 350 students (n=350) have participated in this study. According to age, there were 120 students aged 10, 160 aged 11 and 70 aged 12, with an age mean of 10, 85. As regards gender, the sample is made up of 190 male students and 160 female students. The students belonged to Primary Education 5 th and 6 th grades of bilingual schools in Toledo (Spain). In the academic year 2017-2018, all schools followed a schedule in BPE-CLIL following a 4Cs template in Physical Education (Coyle et al., 2010; García-Calvo, 2018). At the end of the school year and after developing this schedule the test was applied. Descriptive results of the sample indicate that there are no lost values as is shown in table 1
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Regarding the history of St. Teo ’ s bilingual programme, in 2007 the school started for the ﬁ rst time to undertake di ﬀ erent bilingual projects in both primary and secondary education. A year later, the bilingual programme became unique and distinctive from the ones implemented in other bilingual schools in the local area with the hiring of two British teachers, who would dramati- cally transform the school ’ s social order and stakeholders ’ conceptualisation of what bilingualism and bilingual education meant up to that moment. The roles assigned to these native teachers have changed over the years, from being language assistants to having full control of teaching prac- tices in CLIL subjects. Nowadays, these native teachers, as the narratives will show, have become fun- damental for the sustainability of prestige and elitism in the local school market. As compared to other bilingual schools in LMC, St. Teo ’ s is the only one who charges parents an additional fee of 39 euros per month to hire native teachers (the school fee reaches up to 65 euros per month), while in the rest of schools these teachers work as language assistants without any extra charge for the families. In addition, native teachers and content subject specialists are expected to co- teach in the bilingual curricular subjects. In primary education, the content subjects taught in Eng- lish, apart from English classes, are natural and social sciences, as well as arts and crafts, whereas in secondary education the selection of content subjects included in the bilingual curriculum may vary year after year (e.g. biology, technology, arts and crafts, religion, ethics, philosophy or social sciences). All students are expected to participate in the bilingual programme, although they have the curricular choice of following a non-bilingual track. Very few students choose this option, but those who do have the right to be instructed by the subject specialists, who must be present at all times along with the native teacher, thus providing them with extra academic support in Spanish. In addition, St. Teo ’ s keeps its elite reputation as the best bilingual school in town by means of other commodi ﬁ ed educational resources, such as the Cambridge National Schools Project 4 and the International Baccalaureate programme (academic year 2016 – 2017), which o ﬀ ers a Dual High School Diploma (U.S.A and Spain).
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Students can choose among thirty six degrees (Arts and Humanities, Social and Legal Sciences and Engineering and Architecture) two of which may be taken in English and fourteen may be either bilingual, in Spanish, or in English. Those degrees which are only available in English are: Aerospace Engineering and Biomedical Engineering. Bilingual ones are: Electric Engineering, Industrial Electronic and Automatic Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Audiovisual System Engineering, Communication Systems Engineering, Industrial Technology Engineering, Telematics Engineering, Business Administration, Audiovisual Communication, Economics, Accounting and Finance and Jour- nalism. Out of all the degrees which can be taken at Charles III University, 5.5% is taught in English, and 38.8% are bilingual, which implies that almost half of the offered studies are taught in a foreign language.
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bilingualism process since they will be less constrained to produce in the target language. Furthermore, the early childhood teachers also mentioned how when they had the available language, they responded to their Spanish elicitations in English. “Les preguntábamos los colores y ellos nos los respondían en inglés sin ni siquiera preguntarles que fuera en inglés”. “Los colores que trabajamos también los decían en inglés”. Additionally, they highlight the fact that children were doing the same at home as reported by their parents. “como en la casa lo hacían de la misma forma entonces fue algo muy bueno.” “Y en sus casas también los dijeron (los colores en inglés) porque muchos padres lo manifestaron”. As it was revealed in the above statements, the emergent bilinguals were trying out all the words they knew in English within different contexts. During the implementation children learned to translanguage as a way to show proficiency and evidence their bilingual capabilities. This was supported by García et al. (2011). The author indicates how children by means of translanguaging constantly experiment with the new language acquired in different domains given that they do not recognize both languages as separate linguistic codes, but languages that are in synergy instead. Additionally, García and Wei (2014) emphasize how children take charge of their bilingual process by translanguaging at will. After being exposed to English, children started translanguaging as a resource to enrich and regulate their own bilingualism process.
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In this context, very little research on CLIL programs in Spain has turned its attention to students’ discourses and perceptions about bilingualism and bilingual education (cf. Lasagabaster and Sierra, 2009; Oxbrow, 2018). Neoliberalism is a project that rests on the (re)construction of particular types of subjects and subjectivities (Foucault, 1988; Harvey, 2007; Heller and McElhinny, 2017; Holborow, 2015); thus, examining how students are situated within these discourses, how students incorporate ideas about bilingualism or English into their repertories and worldviews and how participating in bilingual education programs shapes students’ linguistic and social identities would seem central research questions in the examination of the implementation and extension of «bilingual education» in Spain and elsewhere. This article begins to address this gap by focusing on students’ beliefs and discourses on what it means to be bilingual, the affordances of bilingualism and English in their lives and the role they attribute to competence in additional languages in their future life trajectories. These beliefs are understood as language ideologies [e.g. Kroskrity (2004, 2010); Makoe and McKinney (2014)], as culturally- shaped systems of ideas connecting language and the social, including moral and political interests, that potentially play a mediating role in the structuration of social life (Irvine, 1989). Further, as Kroskrity (2004) points out, language ideologies are not necessarily fully articulated and internally coherent discourses, but, rather, multiple and fragmented systems that vary along different socio-cultural groups – which are, in turn, internally diverse –, are enacted by speakers with different degrees of awareness, and are brought to bear in particular ways in the production of social identities (Holborow, 2007). From this perspective, the data I examine in this paper can provide a particular powerful window to variability in students’ discourses as it allows to trace cross-sectionally how student ideologies around bilingualism and English as an additional language change between the last year of Primary Education (6th Grade in the Spanish educational system) and university studies. Perhaps, more importantly, it allows for a comparison between the discourses of students enrolled in public state-run schools and semi-private charter schools, a distinction believed to index socio-economic differences among students as well as differences in the socio-educational projects of state (public) and private schools.
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These Spanish data show that the distribution of null and overt subjects in Spanish is the same for the bilingual children and the monolingual child, and they also show that the three children ’ s output patterns with their respective adult input. Therefore, we conclude that in the case of Simon and Leo, there is no actual overproduction of subject pronouns but a higher number of subject pronouns, which is also present in the case of the adults. Thus, while it could be argued that hypothesis 1 is confirmed just on the basis of that higher production, we would like to argue that a higher percentage of overt subjects does not necessarily speak of actual overproduction because it is the case that many native speakers of Spanish from varieties other than the Caribbean varieties where production of subject pronouns is comparatively extremely high (i. e. Martínez 2011, among many others) produce high percentages of overt pro- nouns. This is why, we argue that Holmberg ’ s (2005) and Sheehan ’ s (2006) proposal according to which Spanish has weak overt pronouns is on the right track because it explains why native speakers from all varieties of Spanish alternate between null and weak overt subjects in contexts where there is no switch of reference, contrast or ambiguity. Furthermore, in anaphora resolution, native speakers of Spanish treat overt and null subjects similarly in anaphora resolution with ambiguous sentences such as (28),
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1 ..........................................................schools. 2 ...................................... a capital city in Spain. 3 ................................an airport near Barcelona. 4 ............................................... any CD players. 5 .................................any fast food restaurants. 6 ...................................... explorers and writers.
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These findings, which demonstrate the contribution CLIL has made to the significant development of cognitive and learning strategies, are in keeping with previous research in which it is stated that CLIL students use cognitive and metacognitive strategies more than their non-bilingual peers (Grisaleña et al., 2009) and that they successfully develop, accor- ding to the opinion of their teachers, lower and higher thinking strategies (Méndez, 2014). Additionally, according to Reilly and Medrano (2009: 63), bilingual projects entail development of cognitive and social benefits which can be considered to be “by-products” of the CLIL methodology beyond its purely linguistic benefits. Following the authors, these “by-products” are not clearly observable until secondary school education, which is the context of our study. Among these “by-products”, Reilly and Medrano (2009: 64) cite, development of “higher-order cognitive skills like questioning, summarising, predicting, hypothesising” and “independent learning and study skills”. In the same vein, Marsh (2002: 201), labels the extra benefits inherent in this approach, as being the added value of CLIL, and particularly, “the enhanced development of learning strategies and skills, which are related to broader cognitive applications”. These findings are in line with the results of this study which show that CLIL students displayed significant proficiency in the learning to learn skills and stra- tegies when compared to their non-bilingual peers.
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Moreover, thanks to the search and investigation about reading, I have realised about the great importance of it in the teaching-learning process, especially in bilingual schools, since it is an essential tool to acquire knowledge, language and culture. This proposal also allows me to reflect on some elements, as the school library, I have not thought before. In this way, I have experienced personal and professional enrichment. The analysis of the school state, recently dipped in a bilingualism program, has shown me that becoming a bilingual school is not easy. It supposes many organizational changes as well as the review and modification of many school documents. This, despite the efforts made by teachers, is going to take time. To facilitate the transition and the better and faster adaptation to the new bilingual reality, it would be interesting that schools will be able to count on more studies and regulations that give them clear directions and a specific proposal.
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Abstract In this paper, a system for the automatic creation of parallel bilingual electronic books is presented. The system allows creating e-books, where source sentences are linked with the corresponding target sentences. Users can read in the original, and clicking on a given sentence, the corresponding sentence in the target language is shown. Then she or he can continue reading the translation and coming back to the original version clicking in a target language sentence. The source language book is automatically aligned at the sentence level with the target language translation of the book. This system is not using a machine translation system, but instead, it shows the published translation of the original work in the given target language. We have created several bilingual e-books using classic novels and its translations in the public domain, but the same system can be used for any book, provided you have the rights for the original and the translation. The system is aimed to people willing to read in the original, having a mid-high level of the source language. We also present the process of creation of bilingual dictionaries from free lexical resources. Both resources, the bilingual e-book and the bilingual dictionary can be of great help for readers willing to read books in the original version.
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Ramos & Mead (submitted for publication) examined a bilingual Portuguese/English child with a severe speech sound disorder. The child received therapy in 3 blocks of 2 months each: (1) English and Portuguese, with different sounds being target in each language; (2) English and Portuguese with the same sounds targeted in both languages, and (3) English therapy only. The child was tested in both languages at the end of each block. The authors found that even though some transference occurred between languages in both directions (L1 to L2 and L2 to L1), bilingual intervention was the most effective (same sounds targeted in both languages), with the most improvement seen under this condition. Providing intervention in English only was effective in promoting English improvement, so monolingual English intervention might seem adequate for a bilingual child whose dominant language is English. However, as is often the case with bilingual children, this child needed to be intelligible in her native Portuguese to communicate with her family and very little improvement was seen in Portuguese when only English was treated.
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Ethnography (CSE, hereafter) (Copland & Creese, 2015; Heller, 2006, 2011; Heller & Martin-Jones, 2001; Martin-Jones, 2007; Martín Rojo, 2010; Patiño-Santos, 2012, 2016; Pérez-Milans, 2013; Rampton, 2006; Poveda, Relaño-Pastor, this issue). This research was carried out in two secondary schools which hold traditional prestige in the local area, thus interpreting multilingual classroom practices as situated interactional events. Drawing on Heller (2007), a critical social perspective on the concept of bilingualism understood as ideology and practice under the conditions of the political economy governing the globe serves as the frame for this investigation. Building upon this idea, the paper reflects on the pedagogical transformation of traditional core areas, such as science, and on the ideologies circulating among teachers in CLIL contexts regarding the way the teaching and learning of science is done through English, and the value that belonging to a bilingual «science community» has in the current society. In addition, Heller (2011) explains that ethnography allows us to «discover how language works as situated social practice» (p. 10). On the one hand, «a political economy perspective» provides the lens to understand «how material conditions constrain how we make sense of things» (p.10). On the other hand, engaging in «critique» means «describing, understanding, and explaining the relations of social difference and social inequality that shape our world» (p. 34). Even though this study is not deeply focused on social organisation and categorisation processes, it brings to the fore what other processes of negotiation, participation frameworks and knowledge construction take place in the CLIL classroom, as well as the social implications of this type of bilingual education in these particular educational sites. Beyond CSE, this study also draws on conversation analysis from an interactionist perspective to examine classroom interactions at a micro level (Goffman, 1981; Gumperz, 1982; Rymes, 2009). This perspective serves to identify recurrent patterns of action in order to better understand how these CLIL-type bilingual programmes are being implemented, as well as the consequences within the classroom dynamics, and the social and institutional order under the current socio-linguistic, political and economic circumstances.
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As bilingualism aims to be achieved through bilingual education in this present study, there is a need for including research results about how the use of two languages in the classroom as a goal has been explored. In her study, Koki (2010) explored interactions among students in a Two Way Immersion (TWI) program; it aimed at giving a voice to students by highlighting their points of view regarding the system. This was done by conducting classroom ethnography, collecting descriptive data on the following topics: interactions among students that contribute to nurturing bilingualism in the program, the challenges faced by the TWI teachers in nurturing and developing bilingual proficiency, and what actions teachers can take to overcome such challenges. The researcher collected data through observations and interviews of the principal, three teachers, and ten of their students over the period of an academic year. The research took place at a school which implements a 90/10 model; starting with 82% Spanish and 18% English in Kindergarten, with these levels changing accordingly until reaching a 50/50 balance by the 5th grade.
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What do you think of bilingualism in the Spanish educational system? (Just, if you know about it). My opinion refers to bilingualism in the Community of Madrid, which is what I know. It is a car with a body very showy, but without motor. Much publicity is given to the "wonders" of bilingual project, but when the truth is teachers in High Noon, because just few of human and material resources are allocated to the proper development of the project. Having to teach Science in English, yes or yes, is of no benefit to students, since they learn things about their social and natural environment in a language that is not their own and, therefore, they are completely unaware of that same environment in Spanish.
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Interviews and written reflections. The third aspect of the study was to interview key stakeholders to capture first person, narrative voices in the context of additive bilingualism. Teachers and administrators were interviewed to gain insights into their attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. An interview protocol was designed to assure consistency of questions. Secondary students who had participated in a bilingual primary school program were asked to respond in writing to a set of six reflective questions that focused on their perceptions of the benefits or advantages of being bilingual in the future, successes and challenges of having participated in bilingual programs, what they liked and disliked about being in a bilingual program, the role and perceived usefulness and effectiveness of language assistants, and future benefits of their participation in a bilingual program .
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