Biodiesel Production

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Biodiesel production from crude palm oil using sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured catalysts

Biodiesel production from crude palm oil using sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured catalysts

in this catalytic system. A methanol to oil molar ratio of ca. 20 and a temperature of 140ºC seems to be the optimal values to achieve a high yield of FAME without damaging the catalyst. Upper values of these parameters are detrimental in terms of FAME production and catalyst reusability. However, ongoing work is being carried out over this catalyst using response surface methodology to understand the simultaneous influence of critical reaction parameters (temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio) on the activity and stability of the catalyst. These sulfonic acid-based mesostructured catalysts have shown potential for biodiesel production from low quality feedstocks containing high free fatty acids. Stability of acid sites and the control of surface properties to favour the diffusion of oily feedstock and to promote the expelling off of the polar compounds (glycerol and water, etc.) are important challenges to be further studied in the future.

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Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts

Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts

renewable fuel that is almost compatible with commercial diesel engines and has clear environmental benefits relative to diesel fuel. Biodiesel consists of a mixture of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) obtained from renewable resources, such as vegetable oils and animal fats, by transesterification with methanol or ethanol in the presence of an acid or basic catalyst (Freedman et al., 1984). It can be synthesized from a variety of feedstocks, but refined vegetable oils (such as soybean, rapeseed, palm and others) are currently the primary industrial feedstock. The relatively high and unstable prices of these food-grade raw materials, which are linked to the transfer of land from food to energy crops, and also doubts as to whether biofuels are as environmentally friendly as originally thought, constitute a great obstacle for biodiesel production and

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Transesterificación de aceite vegetal para la producción de biodiesel mediante catálisis enzimática con lipasas de Bacillus sppTransesterification of vegetable oil for the biodiesel production by enzymatic catalysis with Bacillus Lipases 

Transesterificación de aceite vegetal para la producción de biodiesel mediante catálisis enzimática con lipasas de Bacillus sppTransesterification of vegetable oil for the biodiesel production by enzymatic catalysis with Bacillus Lipases 

The objective of this work was to carry out the transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and methanol, in order to produce biodiesel trough out enzymatic catalysis using lipases from Bacillus genus, likewise to compare the percentage of triglycerides conversion to methyl ester between chemical and enzymatic catalysis. Therefore, we identified and selected 4 strains of Bacillus genus as lipases producers (strains S, T, 36 y 1R) of 52 tested strains, the synthesized lipases were extracted and immobilized in chitosan showing stability in their activity and were tested as catalysts for the enzymatic transesterificación of corn oil and methanol for the biodiesel elaboration. The transesterification reaction was complete by chemical catalysis with sodium hydroxide at 45 °C, and by enzymatic catalysis with lipases of the strain 1R of Bacillus at 30 °C and with 20% methanol (v/v oils - alcohol); and we observed by HPLC analysis, a higher percentage of conversion to methyl esters (biodiesel) in the chemical reaction (from 92.8%) compared to the enzymatic reaction (from 25.2%). The physical-chemical characteristics of the obtained biodiesel were measured and compared with the standards as pointed out by the norm EN14214 implanted by the European Committee of Normalization, corroborating that the density, viscosity and point of glide of the biodiesel generated in the laboratory, for both, chemical and enzymatic catalysis, showed the established standards of quality. It was also evaluated the growth rate of four microalgaes strains belonging to the genus Dunaliella (feasibility for generate lipidic biomass as potential sources of feedstock for the biodiesel production), and the CBO and DUT2 strains were selected which showed the higher growth rates. These results confirm that it was possible to find a strain of Bacillus (1R) with the synthesizer lipases capacity and useful as catalysts in biodiesel production, as well as the biomass generation from two strains of microalgae (CBO and DUT2).

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Genetic Improvement of Jatropha for Biodiesel Production

Genetic Improvement of Jatropha for Biodiesel Production

Abstract. Jatropha curcas L. is a perennial oilseed crop belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family, whose oil content in seeds varies from 33 to 38%, giving a yield potential of over 1200 kg of oil per hectare. However, it is a non-domesticated species and research is required for commercial exploration of this species for biodiesel production. The strategies of Embrapa’s jatropha breeding program aim at developing cultivars with high yield and oil content, non-toxic (absence of phorbol esters), resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses and adapted to the main producing regions of Brazil. The program activities started with the enrichment and characterization of the germplasm bank, currently with over 200 accessions from different regions of Brazil. Depending on the specific objectives of the program, different selection and breeding methods are employed. In order to understand the genetic control of specific traits and to generate segregating populations, experimental designs such as diallel crosses, which allow the estimation of heterosis, general combining ability and specific combining ability among genotypes, have been adopted. In addition, molecular markers such as SSR and SNPs are being developed and may help in early selection for characters such as the absence of toxicity in the grains. The program also includes the study on genotype × environment interaction with the evaluation of the progenies/improved clones in different regions of Brazil, which is essential for recommending cultivars for specific or broad climatic conditions. In conclusion, considering that J. curcas is a perennial species and still not domesticated, approximately 5-7 years will be required to obtain improved cultivars and evidence-based information on crop production systems to support commercial cultivation.

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Estudio de la inclusión de la glicerina procedente de la elaboración de biodiesel en la alimentación de la especie porcina =Study of the inclusion of crude glycerin from biodiesel production in pig diets

Estudio de la inclusión de la glicerina procedente de la elaboración de biodiesel en la alimentación de la especie porcina =Study of the inclusion of crude glycerin from biodiesel production in pig diets

Biodiesel production from renewable sources has increased steadily over the past decade in the European Union (USDA-FAS, 2013), due to energy and environmental concerns and policies. The main byproduct of the biodiesel industry is crude glycerin, which represents about 10% (w/w) of the biodiesel produced (Thompson and He, 2006). Traditionally, glycerin has been refined and used to manufacture many value-added products, including drugs, foods and cosmetics. However, the quantity of glycerin produced nowadays may exceed the level of demand by traditional users. Moreover, given continued growth in biofuel production, refining all the crude glycerin will simply become non-viable, especially for smaller producers, who will not be able to assume the high costs of purification. This has led to a search for alternative ways of using this byproduct, including an evaluation of its nutritive value for animal feeding. However, the use of crude glycerin in feeds is limited by the glycerol content, which is usually higher than 80%.

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Zr-SBA-15 Acid Catalyst: Optimization of the Synthesis and Reaction Conditions for Biodiesel Production from Low-grade Oils and Fats

Zr-SBA-15 Acid Catalyst: Optimization of the Synthesis and Reaction Conditions for Biodiesel Production from Low-grade Oils and Fats

The catalytic behaviour of the optimized Zr-SBA-15 material was also explored in the production of biodiesel, under the optimal reaction conditions, from low-grade vegetable oils and fats as alternative feedstocks. For this purpose, waste cooking oil (WCO), category-1 fat, pig lard and an animal fats mixture (chicken, pig and beef fats) were assayed. Crude palm oil, previously employed as substrate in the already described optimization studies, was used as reference for comparison purposes. Figure 6 displays the FAME yield achieved from the catalytic experiments carried out for the different feedstocks after 6 hours of reaction. It is noteworthy the outstanding catalytic activity (over 90 mol% in every case) displayed by the Zr-SBA-15 material for every raw material, regardless of its origin or the level of any of the evaluated impurities. Importantly, the catalyst gave again the same FAME yield for every feedstock after 3 hours of reaction, ca. 80 mol% in this case, which demonstrates that the kinetics is not significantly influenced by the presence of the analyzed impurities.

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OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING ASPEN PLUS

OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING ASPEN PLUS

to oil molar proportion, 65 o C and utilize 0.3% to 1.5% of sodium hydroxide. Free unsaturated fats respond with a base catalyst and structure cleanser and water, in this manner, it focus must be kept underneath 1% so as to keep the cleanser and water impacts. The reactor outlet is sent to the decanter for stage division in the middle of glycerol and biodiesel. Both stages contain liquor, hence, an evaporator or a flash unit is utilized to expel liquor from both the glycerol and ester. Water is utilized to kill and wash the glycerol stream. Water is additionally used to wash and kill the ester stream to evacuate salts and lingering methanol. A dryer unit is utilized to expel water from biodiesel.

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Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use

Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use

Biodiesel production for waste cooking oil has been previously studied. Kulkarni and Dalai [7] published an excellent review of biodiesel production processes from waste cooking oils. A number of authors have studied the alkali- catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oils [6, 8-13]. The basic catalysts, such as sodium and potassium hydroxide and sodium methoxide, are well- known for the transesterification reaction of common vegetable oils or animal fats [1]. However, their utilisation in vegetable oil transesterification produces soaps by neutralising the free fatty acid in the waste cooking oil [12]. The percentage of free fatty acids has been found to rise due to the hydrolysis reaction of triglycerides during the food frying [14, 15]. The soap formation is an undesirable side-reaction, because it partially consumes the catalyst, decreases the biodiesel yield and complicates the separation and purification steps [3]. For this reason, the methanolysis of waste cooking oils using an acid catalyst like sulfuric, hydrochloric or sulfonic acid has also been reported since soap

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DT 17/15 - An examination of the relationship between biodiesel and soybean oil prices using an asset pricing model

DT 17/15 - An examination of the relationship between biodiesel and soybean oil prices using an asset pricing model

This work utilized a discrete time return model of finance to analyze whether prices changes of soybean oil, the main feedstock for biodiesel production in the US affect the prices of biodiesel. Empirical models of asset pricing attempt to extract information about latent state variables and structural parameters from observed prices. These models, which often involve high dimension latent state variables, can be conveniently estimated using Bayesian methods. Results from this study indicate the price of soybean oil does not have a strong direct impact on the price of biodiesel in the short run, or in a daily basis.

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Life Cycle Analysis of Biodiesel Blends for Aviation

Life Cycle Analysis of Biodiesel Blends for Aviation

In Colombia, 87 % of biodiesel production is made using African palm. Biodiesel has also been obtained from fig seeds and other raw materials such as sunflower, soy and rapeseed oils, and animal fats [10]. Despite the waste problem generating acids that are more difficult to treat in the transesterification stage (Sajid & Khan, 2016), Colombia ranks 13th worldwide and 3rd in South America with a production of 8500 barrels per day. Even though the study of other energy sources in various systems has been the focus of many studies [11, 12, 13, 14, 15], the use of biomass remains attractive.

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Producción de Biodiesel

Producción de Biodiesel

Los objetivos general de esta investigacion fue llevar a cabo la Síntesis de biodiesel a partir de aceite de palma para realizar dicha sintesis actividades son necesarias. Estas son realizadas a través de Obetivos específicos, que son 1) derivatización del aceite de palma, 2) purificación del biodiesel, 3) prueba del biodiesel en un máquina diesel, 4) valoración de emisiones, 5) derivatización del glicerol, 6) prueba del biodiesel más eter en una máquina diesel, 7) valoración de emisiones y 8) reporte de resultados

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Estudio de la obtención de biodiesel a partir de aceite de piñón (Jatropha curcas) con acetona como co solvente a condiciones subcríticas

Estudio de la obtención de biodiesel a partir de aceite de piñón (Jatropha curcas) con acetona como co solvente a condiciones subcríticas

En la actualidad existen varios estudios sobre transesterificación a elevada presión y temperatura. Cao, Han y Zhan (2005) obtuvieron biodiesel de soya en condiciones de presión y temperatura de 100 MPa y 723,15 K respectivamente, utilizando co-solventes, a pesar de haber logrado rendimientos de alrededor del 98 %, el consumo energético fue muy elevado (p.347). En los últimos años se han buscado alternativas para bajar la presión y temperatura, Encinar, Martínez, González y Sánchez (2015) obtuvieron biodiesel de aceite de castor en condiciones subcríticas con exceso de metanol, a una temperatura de 493,15 K obteniendo rendimientos del 70 % (p. 96).

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Determinación de la factibilidad del aumento del poder calorífico de un biocombustible mediante la adición de nanopartículas de alofán

Determinación de la factibilidad del aumento del poder calorífico de un biocombustible mediante la adición de nanopartículas de alofán

This degree work main aim was to determine the factibility from a rise on the Calorific Value of a biodiesel through allophane nanoparticles addition , from used cooking oil in an available prototype at the ESPOCH within Mechanical and Industrial Engineering School. For the research performance, a biodiesel production was carried out by transesterification and synthesis of allophane nanoparticles by controlled precipitation method. The Calorific Value test was performed under ASTM D-240 Standard obtaining 37.9543 [MJ / kg] in B100, 38.979 [MJ / kg] for B100 / 50ppm and 38.7077 [MJ / kg] for B100 / 100ppm. The emission of polluting gases was quantified using the Testo 340 equipment showing the amount of CO of 80 ppm in Premium Diesel, 20 ppm in B100 and 28 ppm in B30 / 50ppm, and the amount of NOx of 3.2 ppm in Premium Diesel, 2.1 in B100 and 1.6 ppm in B30 / 50ppm. In addition, it was determined that the appropriate mixture to use is B30 / 50ppm, since it is a light fuel (35 ° API), is 2% safer, and reduces CO emissions by 65% and NOx emissions by 50% to the atmosphere compared to Premium Diesel. For future biodiesel productions, in this prototype is recommended to consider the appropriate quantity (liters) and speed (rpm) parameters to obtain better results in the transesterification process.

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Uso de agua en la purificación de biodiesel: optimización mediante el control de propiedades eléctricas de efluentes

Uso de agua en la purificación de biodiesel: optimización mediante el control de propiedades eléctricas de efluentes

hasta los niveles aceptables por las normas. En particular, la concentración de metanol debe ser inferior al 0.2% (p/p). La purificación de los productos de la reacción de transesterificación incluye varias etapas de lavado con agua a fin de remover los remanentes de catalizador y metanol presentes en el FAME. En la primera etapa se neutraliza la mezcla de metil-ésteres, mientras que en las etapas siguientes se tiende a completar la remoción de los contaminantes. Los efluentes del proceso de producción de biodiesel consisten principalmente en el agua de lavado, que contiene cantidades variables de alcohol y catalizador (Romano & Sorichetti, 2010). Cabe destacar que la utilización de agua en las etapas de lavado es elevado si no se adoptan técnicas de recuperación. En las plantas productoras de escala pequeña y mediana, donde por razones técnicas y económicas no es viable la utilización de dichas técnicas, la relación entre el volumen de agua empleado respecto al volumen de FAME a purificar puede alcanzar valores del orden del 100% al 150%. Por el contrario, en las plantas de gran escala se recupera la mayor parte del agua utilizada mediante el uso de técnicas apropiadas y el volumen de agua consumido es menor al 35% del FAME purificado. Este contraste indica claramente que a fin de lograr una producción sustentable de biodiesel elaborado en plantas de escala pequeña y mediana, es necesario optimizar el consumo de agua a través del correcto diseño del proceso de lavado y el control del proceso de lavado durante la producción.

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Construcción de una planta de biodiesel

Construcción de una planta de biodiesel

Las materias primas necesarias para la producción de biodiesel junto con sus características fueron expuestas en la sección de ingeniería. Las mismas son: aceite de soja, metanol, resina, ácido clorhídrico y soda caustica. Para poder hacer un análisis detallado de la evolución de materias primas en stock, es necesario asumir que las ventas anuales se van a distribuir uniformemente mes a mes, que el volumen de venta que se le asigne a la planta va a ser estable y que el volumen de producción va a estar fijado en 50.000 toneladas por año. A su vez se deben considerar las políticas de stocks de seguridad para cada materia prima. Para determinar el stock de seguridad de cada materia prima, se consultó con un especialista en la industria, quien aseguró que se trabaja con 10 días de stock para todas las materias primas, a excepción de la resina, de la cual se tienen 7 días de producción en stock. Con esta información, se puede calcular la cantidad de materia prima a tener en stock y en consecuencia el valor de la misma para cada año utilizando la siguiente fórmula.

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Caracterización y aprovechamiento del aceite residual de frituras para la obtención de un combustible (Biodiesel)

Caracterización y aprovechamiento del aceite residual de frituras para la obtención de un combustible (Biodiesel)

el aceite que desechan de sus cocinas para luego pasar a buscarlo para enviarlo a la planta productora que se levanta en una escuela de la localidad bonaerense de Tres Arroyos. Como primer paso del proyecto la Fundación preguntará quienes son los comerciantes que están dispuestos a participar. Constituido el listado, distribuirá bidones para que depositen en ellos el aceite que hayan utilizado para preparar sus comidas y que ya no pueden volver a usar. Esos bidones serán recogidos por miembros de la institución que luego depositarán el aceite en un tanque de mayor volumen. Una vez lleno, será llevado a la planta de elaboración de biodiesel que posee la escuela agrotécnica de la localidad bonaerense de Tres Arroyos. El biodiesel obtenido será utilizado como aditivo del combustible diesel en los vehículos de transporte publico recudiendo así las emisiones de los vehículos y dando una muy buena disposición a los aceites residuales que podrían ir a parar a las fuentes hídricas.

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Evaluación de los efectos del uso de biodiesel en un vehículo

Evaluación de los efectos del uso de biodiesel en un vehículo

Valores promedio de la potencia normal, potencia del motor, potencia a las ruedas, potencia de arrastre y del torque normal desde las 1.500 hasta las 3.800 r.p.m. se indican en los gráficos 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 y 5.6 para cada uno de los combustibles anteriormente señalados. Todos los ensayos del desempeño mecánico del motor del vehículo de pruebas se exponen en detalle en el anexo E. Los gráficos mencionados señalan que a medida que aumenta la concentración de biodiesel, las curvas del desempeño del motor se desplazan paralelamente hacia el cero en el eje de las ordenadas originando una disminución de la potencia y par normales del motor, y que sus valores límites se alcancen a más altas revoluciones; estos hechos se explican debido a la menor energía contenida en el biodiesel, por unidad de volumen. Por otro lado, se presenta un caso particular con la potencia de arrastre, ésta disminuye con el uso de biodiesel como combustible; esto se manifiesta por una posible disminución de la fricción entre las partes móviles de los elementos del sistema de combustible, debido a la mayor lubricidad relacionada con el biocarburante.

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Biodiesel, ¿dumping o proteccionismo?

Biodiesel, ¿dumping o proteccionismo?

En octubre de 2013, la misma Comisión decidió suspender la investigación que se había iniciado sobre subsidios a las importaciones de biodiesel originario de la Argentina. Esto ocurrió luego de que la European Biodiesel Board decidiera retirar su reclamación y se generaran dudas respecto de si los diferenciales entre los derechos de exportación aplicados a las ventas al exterior de biodiesel y de aceite crudo de soja en la Argentina podrían ser considerados como subsidios en los términos del Acuerdo sobre Subvenciones y Medidas Compensatorias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio.

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Experimental Analysis and Modeling of NOx Emissions in Compression Ignition Engines Fueled with Blends of Diesel and Palm Oil Biodiesel

Experimental Analysis and Modeling of NOx Emissions in Compression Ignition Engines Fueled with Blends of Diesel and Palm Oil Biodiesel

Nowadays, biodiesel has received considerable attention given its potential use as a substitute for petroleum diesel. In general terms, the current technology is easily adapted for the use of such a fuel, since its implementation does not require significant changes in the control strategy of diesel engines. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that reduces greenhouse emissions, such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons among others (Agudelo et al., 2010) (Sun et al., 2010).

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Production and Viability of Using Biodiesel Derived from Residual Cooking Oil

Production and Viability of Using Biodiesel Derived from Residual Cooking Oil

Debido a la diferencia estadística observada, la obten- ción de biodiesel a partir del aceite reutilizado tanto de soja como de girasol sufrió mayor variación en rendimiento cuan- do comparado con los aceites in natura. Esta variación se debería al grado de utilización de los aceites vegetales ofer- tados por el comercio local. Así, cuando el aceite presenta algún grado de utilización, o sea, permanece en contacto con alimentos en el proceso de fritura, su concentración de residuos contaminantes aumenta. De esta manera, en el proceso de transesterificación, cuando el triglicérido con el alcohol reaccionan junto a un catalizador para formar una mezcla de ésteres de ácidos grasos (biodiesel), la masa total que no presentó reacción (glicerol) será mayor, a con- secuencia del aumento de partículas contaminantes.

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