Biological/social

Top PDF Biological/social:

Two classes of bipartite networks: nested biological and social systems

Two classes of bipartite networks: nested biological and social systems

Bipartite graphs have received some attention in the study of social networks and of biological mutualistic systems. A generalization of a previous model is presented, that evolves the topology of the graph in order to optimally account for a given Contact Preference Rule between the two guilds of the network. As a result, social and biological graphs are classified as belonging to two clearly different classes. Projected graphs, linking the agents of only one guild, are obtained from the original bipartite graph. The corresponding evolution of its statistical properties is also studied. An example of a biological mutualistic network is analyzed in detail, and it is found that the model provides a very good fitting of all the main statistical features. The model also provides a proper qualitative description of the same features observed in social webs, suggesting the possible reasons underlying the difference in the organization of these two kinds of bipartite networks.
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11 Lee mas

CHARACTERISATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR OF THE SPOUT SURIA IN VILLAVICENCIO, A SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL VISION

CHARACTERISATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR OF THE SPOUT SURIA IN VILLAVICENCIO, A SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL VISION

The neoclassic orientation of the Environmental Economy has some limitations in order to do social and environmental valuations, because it limits only to represent monetary impacts caused, but not try to minimize on the source. It means that kind of valuation has not instruments for to allow driving the theory to create sensibility the participant agents. That is why this part of the economic science asks for help to other tools, like microeconomic theories. For example consumer surplus or substitution theories, that transforms the economics argumentation in a furtive allegation. This paper is a project to value, intelligible and overall, viable, through a first exercise for characterization of a biological corridor, in order to understand the social and environmental problem.
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11 Lee mas

Berkmam, LF et al. 2000. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med, 51: 843-57.

Berkmam, LF et al. 2000. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med, 51: 843-57.

An examination of the pathways linking social net- works to health outcomes yields a rich and complex lattice work of interlinking mechanisms Ð biological, psychological and biophysiological Ð that cascades from the macro to the micro, from upstream to down- stream (and potentially back upstream again) to gener- ate potentially powerful in¯uences on health and well- being across the life-course. One of the robust ®ndings in the literature on networks and health is the broad impact network integration has on all-cause mortality. While this may be related to the numerous pathways which more proximately impact disease onset or pro- gression, it is also possible that some more general phenomenon is at work. Our inability to address this question in a serious way has been the result in part on the lack of a larger theoretical model such as the one proposed here. By specifying a chain of inter- related pathways that range from the macro to the micro, we can expand the scope of our investigation and identify domains of in¯uence that have previously remained unexplored. Below, we describe several promising areas where such expansion might pro®tably take place.
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15 Lee mas

Pueden los marcadores biolgicos explicar parcialmente la relacin entre el entorno social y la salud oral?

Pueden los marcadores biolgicos explicar parcialmente la relacin entre el entorno social y la salud oral?

These few studies add some evidence to the hypothesis of a plausible biological underlying mechanism between the social environment and later oral health, via stress response systems, by modifying local and systemic inflammatory and immune responses. Underlying biological mechanisms are plausible, and they can be captured using different measures. AL intent to be an overall measure that can capture the biological effects of stress responses in the body, that could be also used to characterize oral health. Being an objective measure, AL offers the possibility of comparing results from different contexts and to replicate the studies. This may allow to observe how the physiological responses due to chronic stress can affect oral health in different cultural contexts and population subgroups (by sex, age and ethnicity). However more studies are needed to continue to investigate these hypotheses. In that sense, cohort studies containing biological markers and reliable oral health variables are extremely valuable.
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6 Lee mas

Biological Sampling Design and Related Topics

Biological Sampling Design and Related Topics

things (e.g., artisanal fi shing boats, trees, sampling for bodysize in polychaete worms, capture–recapture of fi sh) to save time and resources. This technique would be useful in surveying the fi sh catch of artisanal fi sheries along a coast for social and economic information (see Manly, 1986). Cluster sampling is exempli- fi ed by having fi ve clusters (groups) of coastal fi shing boats. Select from each cluster of boats three boats from a table of random numbers and determine the fi sh catch per boat in each selected cluster (Fig. 1-17). Cluster sampling is often car- ried out for reasons of convenience or practicality rather than to obtain the lowest variance for a given number of units observed (Thompson, 2002). The advantage of cluster sampling is that it is usually less costly to sample a collection of units in a cluster than to sample an equal number of units selected at random from the population. Adaptive cluster sampling can be used when organisms are rare and highly clustered (i.e., aggregated). Additional quadrats are sampled near the site of the fi rst occurrence of the species of interest. See p. 25 and Thompson (2002). Conners and Schwager (2002) found that adaptive cluster sampling for spatially patchy and/or rare species gave better results than traditional cluster sampling techniques.
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61 Lee mas

Emotion analysis through biological signal processing

Emotion analysis through biological signal processing

Por su parte, hemos de recordar que la Ley 2/1996 de 24 de junio atribuye al IMMF, las competencias que corresponden a la Comunidad de Madrid en materia de protección de menores y por lo tanto, según la misma, le corresponde a este organismo, la dirección y coordinación de la citada Red (preámbulo del Decreto 88/1998, de 21 de mayo, del Consejo de Gobierno, por el que se aprueba el Estatuto de las Residencias de Atención a la Infancia y Adolescencia), por Decreto 72/2015, de 7 de julio, por el que se modifica la estructura orgánica de las Consejerías de la Comunidad de Madrid, desaparece el Instituto Madrileño del Menor y la Familia, y sus funciones pasan a ser asumidas por la Dirección General de la familia y el menor, salvo por lo que respecta a la gestión de los centros de acogimiento residencial que es asignada a la Agencia Madrileña de Atención Social (antes Servicio Regional de Bienestar Social) por lo que en la materia que nos ocupa, la máxima autoridad de la Comunidad de Madrid, será esta Agencia si bien su funcionamiento se ajusta a la que hasta ese momento, venía desempeñando el IMMF, sin que haya habido modificaciones sustanciales en la configuración del acogimiento residencial y que será explicado a continuación.
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438 Lee mas

Cultural ”nature” and biological conservation

Cultural ”nature” and biological conservation

soldier. There is a distinct institution, the Ancient Tree Forum ( ATF ), a distinct economic analysis (e.g., new guidance on how to conduct safety risk assessments), and a novel category that is different from the previous concepts of old trees such as the functional term ‘over-mature tree’ in forestry. As Tsouvalis (2000) puts it, “Such trees [i.e., veteran trees] have now been baptized so as to give them a proper place in the social cosmos of the present day.” They have now, to press the metaphor, a name (‘veteran tree’), Godparents (the ATF ), and even christening presents (lots of management care and attention). The veteran tree movement has a system of belief that old trees are valuable (a belief that is a sine qua none of ATF membership) and ways of thought (inculcated in training provided by the ATF and its followers). This movement has gone so far as to conceive an ‘ideal’ veteran tree as illustrated in the Veteran Tree Handbook (Read 2000). This is the foundation of programs of action as tree managers around Britain will be influenced by this ideal/ideological tree to instigate treatments for the somatic trees in their care so that they come to conform more and more to this ideological tree.
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18 Lee mas

99% (Biological) Inspiration …

99% (Biological) Inspiration …

The idea that swarms can be used to solve complex problems has been taken up in several areas of computer science. These include the use of analogies to the pheromone trails used by ants (to leave trails for the colony to follow to stores of food) in software to solve the traveling salesman problem, allowing the software to “find” the shortest route by following the route with the most “digital pheromone”, meaning it is the shortest (as on longer routes the concentration of pheromone would be lower due to being spread over a greater distance) [17, 21]. The approach is an example of Ant Colony Optimization, a very interesting approach that is inspired by the social behavior of ants, and uses their behavior patterns as models for solving difficult combinational optimization problems [22].
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14 Lee mas

Three Biological Heresies

Three Biological Heresies

Abstraet: A science, like a religion, develops an orthodoxy, and those whose thought diverges from it become heretics. Although in the present age they are not likely to be bumt at the stake or forced by torture to recant, they can be penalized in various ways. Editors of scientific journals may reject their contributions; reviewers censure their books; universities are reluctant to give them professorships. Nevertheless, lhe scientific heretics of one age may become the revered pioneers of a laler age. Among the biological heresies of our day are anthropomorphism, teleolo­ gy, and intergroup selection. Anthropomorphism makes unproved assumptions about the psychic life of animals. Teleology, the doctrine that nature strives toward predetermined ends or goals, is rejected because mutations are ran­ dom and the agents of selection, chiefly predation, disea�e, starvation, and climatic extremes, care not at al1 for the welfare of a species. Intergroup selection is in disfavor because individuals, rather than families or groups, are primari­ ly screened by natural selection. This essay presents three arguments on the aboye subjects. Current evolutionary theo­ ry is consistent with the idea that animals may have minds with varying degrees of similarity with the human mind. Careful anthropocentric interpretations of biological observations should not be rejected a priori. We should keep an open mind towards the possible existence of unconscious programmation towards an end, as known to exist in nucleic acid codification: much opposition to teleology is based on the inappropriate use of "purpose" and "end" as synonyms. Finally, the rejection of intergroup selection and the sole acceptance of individual selection in organic evolution is an oversimplification lhat neglects importan! phenomena such as coevolution and social interactions.
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11 Lee mas

Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others’ mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evi- dence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory, and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main deter- minant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmaco- logical and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients.The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their under- lying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes.Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.
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12 Lee mas

TítuloIntegration of fishers’ ecological knowledge in fisheries biology and
management : a proposal for the case of the artisanal coastal fisheries of Galicia
(NW Spain)

TítuloIntegration of fishers’ ecological knowledge in fisheries biology and management : a proposal for the case of the artisanal coastal fisheries of Galicia (NW Spain)

In view of this situation, we must seek out alternative ways to acquire information applicable to fisheries management. So, first of all, we must find new sources of knowledge that will be able to supplement or broaden our scientific knowledge (this aspect is the central topic of this paper, which will be discussed in detail in subsequent chapters). Secondly, we believe that the species and ecosystems exploited by the Galician artisanal fleet (and by artisanal coastal fleets in general) have a number of similarities, which should be used, as far as possible, to make generalisations based on the fragmentary information available. In order to meet this goal, it will be necessary to develop research lines that will carry out an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms that regulate the population dynamics of the species of interest, in terms of their fishery value as well as their value as biological models. Secondly, using the available data for all the ecosystems and stocks, they must be classified according to their affinities with the model systems for which detailed information is available. This process will allow strategies for adequate management to be designed (a topic which will not be discussed in full in this paper).
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15 Lee mas

TítuloBioprocesses for the removal of nitrogen oxides from polluted air

TítuloBioprocesses for the removal of nitrogen oxides from polluted air

Denitrifiers are typically facultative organotrophs, which utilize organic carbon as an energy source.50 Some authors have observed denitrification in compost-biofilters.51– 55 At low NO concentrations, the quantity of compost used in these studies provided adequate carbon and energy sources for removal and degradation. However, at higher NO concentrations, the amount of available carbon substrates became limited and the addition of an exogenous carbon source was required to maintain efficient NO reduction. As high as 90% removal efficiency was observed for a 500 ppm NO gas stream at an EBRT of 1.3 min when treated in the presence of a phosphate buffer containing either lactate or dextrose compared with 20% removal in a non- supplemented biofilter.53, 56–58 Lactate, glucose, dextrose and molasses, as well as labile organic material inherent in compost, have all been used as carbon sources in NO denitrifying systems. Several volatile organic compounds can also be used as carbon and energy sources, and denitrification activity has been observed in a superficially aerobic toluene-treating biofilter.59 In such a system, the presence of a thick biofilm creating anaerobic underlayers allowed denitrification to nitrogen gas. Removal efficiencies of 75% of 60 ppm NO streams were reported for an EBRT of 6 min. Also, the removal of NO from a simulated wet-scrubbed combustion gas was investigated with different packing materials (compost, perlite and biofoam). The results showed that all three packing materials performed well, reaching more than 85% NO removal at EBRT of 70–80 s. The compost performed better than the other packings at shorter EBRT of 13–45 s. However, inert carrier materials such as perlite and biofoam are known to offer long term stability and reduced back-pressure compared with organic filter beds as compost.60 The experimental data suggest that the compost, perlite and biofoam systems, subject to further optimization, offer potential for the biological removal of NOx from gas streams.61
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22 Lee mas

MEM Manual de Gestión Social del Subsector Minero

MEM Manual de Gestión Social del Subsector Minero

La aplicación de prácticas estandarizadas de gestión social de parte de las autoridades competentes del subsector minero (MEM y DREM) es necesaria. Estas prácticas deben responder a las estrategias definidas en el plan estratégico elaborado por OGGS. A su vez estas estrategias han requerido el desarrollo de políticas encaminadas a lograr el bienestar de la población que se encuentra asentada en las zonas donde se desarrolla la actividad minera. Dichas políticas que abarcan temas como la inclusión, la lucha contra la pobreza y el compromiso de los titulares con el desarrollo local sostenible se han plasmado en la promulgación de normas como el reglamento y normas de Participación Ciudadana, la Declaración Jurada Anual sobre el compromiso previo de los titulares mineros (Anexo IV de la DAC), o la creación de una comisión sectorial para realizar el seguimiento del Programa Minero de Solidaridad con el Pueblo, entre otros.
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138 Lee mas

PCM programa gestion conflictos modulo 1

PCM programa gestion conflictos modulo 1

El definir el problema del conflicto es una tarea delicada que muchas veces implica un proceso de intervención en sí mismo: cómo cada parte o actor del conflicto define, percibe o nombra el problema del conflicto. Las partes o actores en un conflicto social difícilmente puedan llegar solos a un acuerdo sobre los aspectos del problema, una definición común o compartir el entendimiento sobre el problema que está generando el conflicto social y que los afecta. Es más, las partes o actores fácilmente pueden identificar las causas que, según su propia experiencia y vivencia, son generadoras del conflicto social. El desafío en el aná- lisis del conflicto está precisamente en incorporar las distintas “verdades” que manejan las partes o actores sobre el problema que está generando el conflicto social, e ir más allá, para identificar esa situación o condición en el tiempo y en el sistema social sobre el cual las distintas partes o actores se están confrontando.
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118 Lee mas

CAF Politicas Sociales y Cohesion Social

CAF Politicas Sociales y Cohesion Social

A partir del nuevo siglo, América Latina se encuentra en una nueva coyuntura, difícil de caracterizar bajo un deno- minador único. A pesar de las diferencias que se observan entre los países, se puede afirmar que se mantienen la de- mocracia y la mayor disciplina macroeconómica como ele- mentos centrales, especialmente en materia fiscal, el compromiso de mantener bajos niveles de inflación y sis- temas financieros nacionales sanos. No obstante, con- viene tomar en cuenta que existe un debilitamiento de los partidos tradicionales, y proliferan diversas formas alterna- tivas de representación que buscan contrarrestar el des- crédito del anterior sistema de partidos tradicionales, lo que se extiende también hacia el parlamento en cuanto primer foro de la deliberación democrática. En algunos paí- ses se evidencian, además, cambios políticos más pro- fundos, que responden a demandas en materia tanto de representación como de modelo económico y social. En materia económica, a su vez, los avances en diversas ma- nifestaciones de estabilidad macroeconómica no se han traducido en la misma medida en crecimiento económico dinámico y sostenido y de reducción de la vulnerabilidad ante los choques externos, positivos y negativos. Hay clara evidencia, además, que en los últimos años se ha acentuado en la región la diferenciación de los países
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64 Lee mas

Evaluación de las diferencias de género en las estrategias de afrontamiento del dolor lumbar

Evaluación de las diferencias de género en las estrategias de afrontamiento del dolor lumbar

World Health Organization Life Quality Assessment - WHOQOL-Bref. This is an important instrument for clinical use, widely applied internationally and adapted to Brazil. The psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-bref meet all the criteria of internal consistency, discriminant validity, concurrent validity, content validity and test-retest relia- bility (Fleck et al., 2000; Skevington, & McCrate, 2012). This instrument consists of 26 questions in Likert scale format, presenting two questions of general quality of life and the remaining 24 representing four domains: physical, psychological, social relationships and environmental. The scores of quality of life of the WHOQOL-Bref have a value from zero to 100, where the highest value for each domain represents better quality of life. The physical domain refers to pain and discomfort, energy, fatigue, sleep and rest. The psychological domain refers to positive feelings, negative feelings, thinking, learning, memory, concentration, self- esteem and appearance (body image). The social domain indicates personal relationships, social support and sexual activity. The environmental domain refers to physical security, home environment, financial situation, health care and opportunities for acquiring new knowledge and skills, recreation and leisure activities, and adequacy of physical environment and transportation facilities (Cruz, Polanczyk, Camey, Hoffmann, & Fleck, 2011; Fleck et al., 2000; Skevington, & McCrate, 2012).
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11 Lee mas

Biological resources

Biological resources

• Definition of species. The foremost difficulty is the lack of agreement as to precisely what constitutes a species. In major part this results because species can to a large extent be regarded as hypotheses, opinions or concepts, as much as real robust entities. There are at least seven major species concepts, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, from either theoretical or practical perspectives. The application of these different concepts can lead to the recognition of different numbers of species. For example, populations of seemingly coherent morphospecies (species separated on the basis of distinct discontinuities in one or more heritable characteristics, such as morphological features) may actually exhibit levels of genetic divergence typical of different species identified on this alternative basis, and thus constitute so-called cryptic species. Likewise, using a biological species concept, 40– 42 species of birds-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae) have been distinguished in Australasia, but using a phylogenetic species concept pushes this figure up to 90 . In practice, such problems are, however, commonly not as severe as this might seem to imply. As the vast majority of groups of organisms have been, and are still being, described based on collections of preserved specimens using differences in morphological characteristics, references to species richness more often than not concern ‘morphological’ species richness or are very close to estimates based on such a species concept (with some particular level of morphological difference being regarded as sufficient to confer species status). Fortunately, this method of defining a species continues to be relatively effective for most needs (although it may be woefully inadequate for groups such as prokaryotes). There is general consensus amongst appropriate specialists as to the overall numbers of species in a reasonably well- studied group occurring in an area or globally, and radical shifts in the number of species recognized do not tend to occur.
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102 Lee mas

Cancer and Aging: A Complex Biological Association

Cancer and Aging: A Complex Biological Association

In conclusion, aging and cancer have an incredibly complex relationship, not only from the biological point of view, but also because of the ways in which aging can influence the outcome of both cancer and its treatments. In the future, translational and clinical researchers should take into account this complex relationship when designing clinical trials across the whole spectrum of cancer treatment. Including bio- markers of aging into clinical studies could poten- tially improve our understanding of the effect of both cancer and its treatment on the senescence of normal cells. Additionally, the inclusion of these translational endpoints in clinical trials would give us further insight into the long-term toxicity of cancer treatments. Fi- nally, being able to correlate these markers of aging with functional outcomes in patients undergoing treatment would potentially allow us to predict such outcomes and would perhaps open the way for pre- ventive interventions. Without a doubt, research into the aging-related changes in cancer is necessary for directing future prevention strategies, understanding the way in which treatment can be tailored for older adults, and improving the outcomes of cancer in this patient population.
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8 Lee mas

Caracterización y control de la caída foliar en pinos de Puebla

Caracterización y control de la caída foliar en pinos de Puebla

Since 2014, different species of pines of Sierra Norte de Puebla have shown important defoliations. In the present study, causal agents were characterized and the effectiveness of chemical and biological products for the control of foliar shedding in the pines of Puebla was assessed. Three experimental sites were established in the Tetela de Ocampo (1) and Zautla municipalities (2). An experimental design was applied as random blocks with seven treatments (T): 1) Propiconazole, 2) Trichoderma sp., 3) potassium bicarbonate, 4) biological enhancer, 5) Chlorothalonil, 6) Control treatment and 7) Propiconazole + biological improver. The assessed variables were the percentage of damage to the crown and the affected surface of the leaf. Foliar shedding of pines is associated with different agents, among which fungi genera Pestalotiopsis and Lophodermium and insect Ocoaxo aff. fowleri stand out; however, in the study sites, these agents were not constantly found. The pines with T4, T3 and T7 presented a lower percentage of affectation in the foliage by fall. Results indicate that the use of biological products offers a viable alternative for the control of the agent of foliar shedding of pine, since in addition, it is environment friendly.
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21 Lee mas

Full PDF

Full PDF

Abstract: Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec’s isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological con- trol in Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1007-1016. Epub 2011 September 01.
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10 Lee mas

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