ABSTRACT: The relationship between self-concept and performance in education is a complex one and results from research on this matter are, at times, contradictory. The aim of this study is to analyse differences in perceptions between male and female students in terms of their academic self-concept and their actual performance in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). A total of 110 upper secondary students in Granada, Spain, provided per- sonal perspectives into their perceived strengths and weaknesses in discrete communica- tive language skills in English and reported on their academic performance in this subject. Results show differences between boys’ andgirls’ perceptions, whereby female participants in the study have relatively higher levels of motivation but also increased levels of anxiety; in addition, females expressed a poorer view on their academic performance in the differ- ent language skills in comparison to males, despite the fact that girls’ actual performance in assessments was slightly better. The study tentatively concludes that the analysis of student perceptions on their own mastery of skills, as well as their affective attachment towards the language, may provide useful information for teachers.
The most relevant finding of this study was the similarity related to bone mass between active peripubertal in different sports activities have higher BMD for both sexes then the control group. The basketball subgroup present higher values overall, with a with a slight advance on the girls, with the possibility of being explained by the maturational advance (Malina, Bouchard & Oded Bar-Or, 2004). If we consider the height they are around to the Portuguese national median (163cm), while boys are still below the national average for men (172,9 cm) because had not reached Peak Height Velocity and therefore, it can be said that the bone mass (density and mineral content) will increase further more (at the moment lower than girls) (Greene, Courteix, & Baxter-Jones, 2017). Size and quantity of bone tissue are strongly affected by biological maturation that causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia in different human tissues (Rizzoli, Bonjour, & Ferrari, 2001; Loud & Gordon, 2006).
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the influence of maturation in anthropometry and physical valences of young volleyball players, assessing the correlation between maturational state and other variables. The sample was composed of 149 children between 8 and 14 years. Chronological age and bone age as maturational predictor with the method of Grave-Brown (1976) were selected to assess the maturation state. As anthropometrics weight, height, ponderal index, biacromial diameter and bi-iliocristal diameter, perimeter of arm and leg, and perimeter of leg fixed were measured. In addition, it was also assessed the physical agility tests, coordination and explosive force of lower and upper limbs. All but ponderal index presents significant correlation with maturational state in girls. For boys, all correlations were significant except the ponderal index, agility and coordination. In both genders, the height and biacromial and bi-iliocristal diameter presented strong associations, allowing us to complete a correlation in maturational stage with the variable strength and anthropometric variables, as well as allows us to confirm the importance of evaluation from different variables when working with guidance and promotion of talent in the sport.
This thesis explores the correlation between school factors and the differentiated results on sexual behaviour between boysandgirls in Bogota. A school stratified propensity score matching was performed to match each boy of the sample with the most similar girls in individual, household and school characteristics. A regression analysis was performed to estimate the correlation between the five school factors evaluated with four main outcomes: have had sexual intercourse, condom use in the last sexual intercourse, incidence of teenage childbearing and age at first intercourse. Boys - in relation to girls - begin earlier their sexual life, more of them reported have used condom in their last sexual intercourse and have a lower incidence of teenage childbearing. These differences are correlated with have reported the school as main source of knowledge about reproductive health and contraceptive methods, a larger proportion of teachers with a graduate or postgraduate degree, a larger proportion of teachers with a related pedagogy degree and to the average age of teachers in the school. The results suggest that the content of the message about sex that is delivered to girls at school is not complete or accurate and that the competences of the school teachers in charge of this task should be improved to reach equally boysandgirls.
showed that gender differences in achievement can be attributed to a range of factors from socialization by parents in early childhood through to gender-biased messages in society as a whole, and also to the fact that boysandgirls were treated differently in the classroom. Another potentially fruitful area for research and action connects schools with the wider question of social and sexual role-models: the gender balance of teachers. A key strategy in sub-Saharan Africa to make schools more attrac- tive and appropriate for girls is to increase the proportion of women teachers in a region in which the profession is dominated by men. The reverse may be true in industrialized countries and in Latin America and the Caribbean where, particularly at primary level, women teachers form the vast majority, leaving a potential absence of positive role models for young boys. Some researchers argue that one reason boys underperform so markedly in language and lit- erature is that these are seen as ‘girls’ territory’ and that reading is too often seen as ‘unmanly’. As one seven-year-old British boy said when interviewed for television, “You are not a real boy if you like reading.” 81
Previous studies on foot morphology have worked with large samples of children (Rao and Joseph 1992; Cheng et al. 1997; Kouchi 1998; Garcı´a-Rodrı´guez et al. 1999; Echarri and Forriol 2003; Leung, Cheng, and Mak 2005; Pridalova´ and Riegerova´ 2005; Revenga-Giertych and Bulo-Concello´n 2005; Stavlas et al. 2005; El et al. 2006; Mauch et al. 2009; Morrison et al. 2009; Bosch, Gerss, and Rosenbaum 2010; Chang et al. 2010; Cetin et al. 2011; Mu¨ller et al. 2012; Wozniacka et al. 2013). However, the majority of this research only provides an analysis of footprint evolution or of simply the type of foot and how age, sex and the use of footwear could influence the prevalence of flatfoot and may therefore be considered to be of limited practical use for the industry and design of footwear. Considering the studies that have used 3D scanning in their methodology (Pfeiffer et al. 2006; Krauss et al. 2008; Mauch et al. 2008a, 2008b, 2009; Chen, Chung, and Wang 2009; Chang et al. 2012), only three have described and analysed reduced morphological measurements of the foot (Krauss et al. 2008; Mauch et al. 2008b; Chen, Chung, and Wang 2009). Complete data-sets on each foot were not provided, nor were the differences that exist between boys’ andgirls’ feet or when these differences begin to appear (Krauss et al. 2008; Mauch et al. 2008b). In addition, previous studies have worked with population samples (German, Australian and Taiwanese) that could be significantly different from a Spanish population sample (Kouchi 1998; Mauch et al. 2009). For instance, in the study conducted by Chen, Chung, and Wang (2009), foot morphology was analysed in a sample of more than 1000 children between the ages of 5 and 13 years using a 3D system, showing differences in foot dimensions between boysandgirls as well as between each foot (right – left); however, this study was performed in Taiwan, and therefore, it is not possible to extrapolate these results to a European sample.
Children were selected randomly from various classrooms using the lists of boysandgirls provided by teachers. The parents of the children selected were then contacted and interviewed. Children with no history of failing grades and no parental reports of a history of neurological or psychiatric disorders were chosen. The sample included 231 boysand 295 girls: 488 right-handed, 27 left-handed and 1 with mixed-hand laterality. Gender distribution by age groups is presented in Table 1. The mean educational level of the children’s parents was 12.43 years (SD = 3.5). No significant differences in the parents’ level of education were observed between the two age groups, F(1, 525) = 0.00, p = .95, or between genders, F(1, 525) = 0.10, p = .74. All children voluntarily agreed to participate after obtaining permission from their parents or legal guardians and all were assessed individually at their schools. Each child received a small gift (e.g., a box of crayons, candy) after participating. Though no formal testing was done to rule out mental retardation or learning disabilities, we screened for grade retention to ascertain that no chronological- age/grade-level disparity was present and that school records showed that their perfor- mance in reading and math to be consistent with their chronological-grade levels.
We find little support for our hypotheses. Boysandgirls in Colombia are equally competitive in all four tasks using both competitiveness measures. This is not the case in Sweden. Girls in Sweden increase their performance more than boys do when forced to compete in math, a traditionally male task, but there is also some indication of girls in Sweden being more competitive than boys in skipping rope, a traditionally female task. There is however no gender difference in reaction to competition in running or word search. Meanwhile, boys in Sweden choose to compete more than girls do when given the possibility. Boysandgirls are thus consistently equally competitive in Colombia, whereas in Sweden boys are consistently more competitive in terms of choice andgirls in terms of performance change. Our results suggest that tasks are only important for the gender gap in competitiveness in Sweden, but not in a uniform way. Risk taking, on the other hand, show results in line with our expectations; the gender gap is larger in Colombia than in Sweden. With this little support for our hypotheses, however, we are agnostic to the specific variables that might drive our results.
Traditionally, adolescence is a stage of many physical, psychological, and social changes. In this phase, usually the problems are highlighted, and the skills and principles that must be promoted at this age are overlooked (Cerqueira- Santos, Mello Filho, & Koller, 2014; Schoen-Ferreira, Aznar-Farias, & Silvares, 2010). Positive self-efficacy is associated with academic skills and reduced emotional or behavioral problems. Thus, empowering healthy positive skills in adolescence can help boysandgirls to develop properly in early adulthood (Franco & Rodrigues, 2018; Oliva, Ríos, Antolín, Parra, Hernando, & Pertegal, 2010). Individuals with different self-efficacy beliefs show distinct levels of cognitive, social and emotional skills, which contribute to better self-perceptions and help achieve desired outcomes (Bong & Skaalvik, 2003). Positive self- efficacy beliefs can help in professional decision making, on the other way, negative beliefs can lead individuals to avoid certain activities because they do not feel capable (Bzuneck, 2009; Nunes, 2008). Besides, self-efficacy may influence students' motivation to learn, and strategies and methods of learning (Bzuneck, 2009).
In this work, we report the cognitive benefits of playing chess for school-aged children. The most benefitted areas appear to be math and reading. To validate these results, a diversity of scientific studies are described, in which brain activation is demonstrated through magnetic resonance imaging when novice, intermediate, and advance chess players play the game. Given this evidence, it is suggested that chess be used as a tool to improve academic performance in boysandgirls. In addition, it is concluded that studying the use of chess could lead to new lines of research that could validate the neural mechanisms that occur when boysandgirls play chess.
Functional connectivity is in its infancy and still many of the findings yielded by this technique are difficult to interpret, and even harder to correlate with physiological and pathological data. Our results are not the first to prove gender differences utilizing functional connectivity. A recent publication shows nodes differences in a connectivity study contrasting males and females. Although the authors utilized a graph theory approach, their methods are limited to a comparison of vectorized patterns derived from adjacency matrices built from a specific anatomical brain segmentation . Tian., et al.  utilized resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and graph theoretical approaches to investigate the hemisphere- and gender-related differences in the adult brain functional networks. The authors main finding was that males lean towards being more locally efficient in their right hemispheric networks, whereas females tended to be more locally efficient in their left hemispheric networks. To our knowledge no previous studies have used our markers to contrast differences between genders. Our study may have an important shortcoming. The interaction between gender and global IQ confounds the results. Indeed, the boys group had significant high global IQ scores than girls. Therefore the gender differences on network architecture as revealed by the graph theory measures may be ascribed not to the language differences but to a global effect of intelligence. We sought to disambiguate these effects regressing the global and verbal IQ scores as the independent variable and the three significant scores as the dependent variables. The highest correlation was found between Global IQ scores and right BA37 Local Efficiency (R = 0.32; Std Er = 0.26; Anova F = 3.88, p = 0.06). The remaining correlations have lower values. Therefore, although a trend may be accepted, in right BA37-Local Efficiency, these findings show no statistical significant effect of Global or Verbal IQ on the connectivity scores.
In contexts so strongly conditioned, such as those surged parting from violence derived from armed conflict in Colombia, it is necessary to recognize that there is a human group of a high vulnerability, specially in psychical and social development; and it is a population remains non- visibilized before consequent product of a senseless war. In this case, early childhood boysandgirls, who, lacking of an argumental speech understandable for adults, assimilate experiences by configuring the image of a world that is unable to ressolve itself from languages, other than violence, but who from their hopes, propose other cohabitation scenaries. Arts understood as an aesthetic intention, allows boysandgirls to recreate themselves in a dynamic game of symbols and graphics, in which, from an aesthetic joy, they create curing processes, catartic, which allow them to overcome adverse conditions and adapt to new spaces in a dialogic relationship of their experience, in front of what surroundings offer them, in function of contextualize and communicate them.
The discoveries of our research regarding educative stage indicate that the students from Primary Education show higher punctuations in all dimensions of the physical self-concept than the Secondary Education students, regarding boysandgirls, and also that between students from Primary Education there are no statistical significative differences in any dimension of the physical self-concept, as it shows the study made by Navarro et al. (2016). The obtained results show that, as the school grade increases, students go from one educative stage to another or the age increases, the students have a lower perception about their physical condition, appearance, strength, self-esteem and competence, maybe due to the fact that as the age increases, we are more critic and aware of our own corporal truth (Fraile and Catalina, 2013). On the other hand, this results also could be due to the method used by the PE teacher, because, generally, during PE classes, a climate of competition and efficiency is created, which promotes, even more in male students, a higher competence (Granero-Gallegos and Baena-Extremera, 2014) or maybe it’s due to the fact that activities preferred by the female students such as dance, are not carried out (Amado, et al., 2014; O’Neill, Pate and Liese, 2011).
My doctoral thesis is a collection of three essays that study various aspects of eco- nomic development, with a special emphasis on Latin America. The first two chap- ters analyze some of the determinants of human capital investments and other family decisions in developing countries. In the first chapter, I study the impact of violence on the educational gender gap. In the last few decades, Latin America has experienced a substantial increase in violence related to gang/organized crime, fueled by the expansion of narcotraffic. This paper analyzes the impact of this type of violence on human capital investment decisions. I focus on the relationship between the male versus female homicide rate differential and the gender gap in education. Using data from Colombia and exploiting the temporal and spatial variation in violence between 1985 and 2005, I find that boys are less likely to be enrolled at secondary school age relative to girls when male-biased violence is high. An increase of one standard deviation in violence leads to a 1.1 percentage point enlargement of the gender gap in enrolment, in disfavor of boys. This effect is important since the gender gap in enrolment in secondary school in Colombia is estimated to be 8 percentage points, in favor of girls. I find a similar effect on years of school completed. Estimates are larger in families with lower levels of education and robust to the inclusion of municipality-year fixed effects and household fixed effects. In addition, results are not driven by migration or coca production. The evidence in this paper suggests that violence has an impact on investments in education through two main chan-nels: changes in the opportunity cost of schooling, and changes in life expectancy and perceived safety.
Despite the aforementioned reports and numerous publications in the same direction, gender differences in language abilities re- main a controversial topic, as there are also judicious studies questioning the presumed higher verbal abilities in women. Hyde and Linn , for example, conducted a meta-analysis of 165 language studies involving both children and adults and including a broad range of language tests (vocabulary, analogies, anagrams, reading comprehension, speaking or other verbal communication, essay writing, the Scholastic Aptitude Test –SAT--Verbal, and general verbal ability tests). Results were mixed: forty-four (27%) of the studies reported that females outperformed males, 109 (66%) found no significant gender differences, and 12 (7%) found males outperforming females. The authors concluded that “the magnitude of the sex difference in verbal ability is currently so small that it can effectively be consid- ered to be zero” . Still the main effect size was found for speech production (d = 0.33), giving some advantage to females. Wallentin  performed an extensive review of gender differences in language among children, which reached the conclusion that, “A small but consistent female advantage is found in early language development, but this gender difference seems to disappear during childhood. In adults, sex differences in verbal abilities and in language related brain structure are not readily identified. If they exist, they are not easily picked up with the research methods used today” (p. 181). Other studies have found gender differences but in opposite direction. Boys has been found to outperform girls in language skills. For example, Ardila, Rosselli, Matute and Inozemtseva  analyzed gender differ- ences in cognitive test performance among a large sample of Latin-American children from continuous age groups (5 to 16 years). Boys outperformed girls in oral language (language expression and language comprehension). However, gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1% - 3%).
Height was determined using a mobile anthropometer (Kawe 44444, Asperg, Germany) to the nearest millimetre, with the subject’s head in the Frankfurt plane. Body weight was determined to the nearest 100g using a digital scale (Tefal, sc9210, France). The subjects were weighed in bare feet and light underwear. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured using a non-stretchable measuring tape (Kawe, 43972, France). The subjects were asked to stand erect in a relaxed position with both feet together on a flat surface. WC was measured as the smallest horizontal girth between the costal margins and the iliac crests at minimal respiration. Measurements were made to the nearest 0.1 cm. HC was taken as the greatest circumference at the level of greater trochanters (the widest portion of the hip) on both sides. Measurements were made to the nearest 0.1 cm. Triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were measured at the left side of the using a Holtain skinfold calliper (Tanner/Whitehouse, Crosswell, Crymych, UK), and the mean of three measurements was used. Body fat (BF) was calculated according to the formulas of Slaughter et al. . Height and weight measures were used to calculate body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) and WC and height were used to calculate waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). BMI and BF are generally used as measures of overall obesity, while WHtR is used as a measure of central obesity. The WHtR cut-offs limits for children and adolescents (WHtR<0.46/0.45; WHtR≥0.45/0.46; boys/girls) have been described elsewhere (15) . BF has recently been criticized as inadequately reflecting body-size adjusted adiposity , thus Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m 2 ) was used as measure of body composition in the present study [14,15].
With regards to the aim of this study, that is, epidemiological research of coping strategies, some studies can be taken as a reference: Dávila and Guarino (2001) studied a sample of 28,973 Venezuelan schoolchildren aged between 8 and 16 years (the fi nal sample was composed of 2,121 children, of whom 51.8% were girls) who were moderately stressed both in terms of frequency and intensity. The main sources of stress encountered were those that threatened their well-being or that of their families, together with “getting bad grades”. The most frequently used strategies to deal with specifi c stressors were active coping, showing emotion, acceptance and seeking social support. Further epidemiological studies were conducted with adolescents, unlike the sample of this study, aged 8 to 12 years old. Figueroa, Contini, Lacunza, Levín, and Estévez (2005) found that the most frequently used coping strategies (in descending order) by 150 Argentinean students aged 13 to 18 years old from a middle-class socioeconomic context were as follows: (a) worrying, (b) seeking relaxing diversions, (c) focusing on the positive aspects, (d) seeking to belong, and (e) physical recreation. Girls mostly used: wishful thinking, seeking social support, seeking spiritual support, self-blame, lack of coping and reducing tension; whereas boys mostly used: physical recreation and ignoring the problem. Likewise, the study found that adolescents with low levels of psychological well-being used lack of coping, reducing tension and self-blame to a greater extent than adolescents with high levels of psychological well-being, who used coping strategies aimed at solving the problem.
Background: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5), which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity); and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5) inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms). It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r) a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2). According to gender, 912 (52.7%) students were girls; and 818 (47.3%), boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20); and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10). Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080). Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia.
It was characterized the socializing influence at the Primary School Calixto Garcia Íñiguez". A group of children (4 th grade) participated in the school sports practice; as methodological tool the gender perspective was taken. The methodology developed was the qualitative one, and as procedures the observation and the interview. Among the main results it was corroborated that despite of the reached formal equality, the sexism continues in the socializing processes; starting from a learning that reproduces relative behavioral patterns to masculinity and femininity, which have a strong impact in the girlsandboys participation in the school sports practice; that consequently it determines a smaller incursion of women in certain sports modalities.
Reflecting violent discourses in EFL students’ classroom relationships. This category took into account 659 significant moments that showed aggression and dominance while the EFL class was developed. These instants of violence were displayed orally in swearing, name-calling, threats, finger pointing (Baxter, 2010), the use of nicknames to call a person, the use of high voice tones, and the use of jokes to judge students’ masculinity or femininity, among others (Kimmel, 2011; Maynard, 2004). The category also included physical violent acts enacted by means of the use of force, pushing, hitting, tripping, etc. Additionally, these significant moments reflected instants where violent moments tended to show the domination from one student to another. Within these moments, the acceptance for being dominated and/or the rejection to this domination was also included. The category was analyzed in the light of the queer theory with the concept of hegemonic masculinity and its materialization through discourses of