built environment

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TítuloGeoscience of the Built Environment: Pollutants and Materials Surfaces

TítuloGeoscience of the Built Environment: Pollutants and Materials Surfaces

Another aspect related to alteration of building materials is the release of pollutants. Building materials can act as pollution sources affecting the surrounding environment (in relation to cementitious materials see [56]; regarding metallic materials several examples can be found in [57]). The release of substances from building materials can also affect those materials or other nearby materials. Pollutants from building materials can arise from the pore content such as soluble salts on natural rocks [21,58,59] and in the case of cements in the initial stages of setting (for the main chemical characteristics of the pore solutions in initial stages of setting of cements see [60] and references therein). In the case of artificial materials prepared with water (such as mortars and pavements) the water that is used is also a potential source of pollutants [61]. In the context of epidemiological studies of materials decay, one needs to study the release of pollutants due to the alteration of the constituents of materials, as mentioned in relation to the weathering of constituents of natural stone, specially calcite [62-68] but also dolomite [69], silicates [70,71], iron sulfides [72-75] or oxides [76-79] and organic components ([80]; see also several references in [81]), constituents of set mortars [80,82,83] and metals corrosion [3]. These aspects could be considered in relation to the formulation of materials (and the control of chemical composition of different constituents) but also regarding the way they are applied on the built environment (architectural options).
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18 Lee mas

Urban Bus Demand Forecast at Stop Level: Space Syntax and Other Built Environment Factors. Evidence from Madrid

Urban Bus Demand Forecast at Stop Level: Space Syntax and Other Built Environment Factors. Evidence from Madrid

This study empirically examines the potential of possible ‘attraction’ descriptors, such as spatial integration (as described by the Space Syntax methodology) and other urban environment factors in order to estimate urban buses ridership by a direct forecast model based on multiple linear regression. Common explanatory factors found in the literature include population and employment in the vicinity area, as well as transport system service and performance. Some authors have claimed the predictive power of built environment variables (summarized by Cervero and Kockelman’s three Ds: Density, Diversity and Design), which are supposed to describe pedestrian accessibility and attractiveness. This paper proposes that spatial-configurational measures (e.g. Space Syntax) could play an important role, given that these factors have proved themselves synthetic proxies for many urban processes and in order to describe spatial-configurational hierarchy and consequent attraction power.
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10 Lee mas

TítuloRock features and alteration of stone materials used for the built environment: a review of recent publications on ageing tests

TítuloRock features and alteration of stone materials used for the built environment: a review of recent publications on ageing tests

Abstract: This work presents a review of recent publications, with publication date between 2017 and 2019, with information on the relation between rock characteristics and the effects of diverse agents associated with alteration of stone materials in the built environment. It considers information obtained from ageing tests performed under laboratory conditions and by exposure to outdoor agents. Several lithological groups were considered, with sedimentary carbonate rocks being the most frequently studied lithotypes and silicate metamorphic rocks being the group with scarcer information. In terms of ageing tests, salt weathering was the most frequent one while there was a noticeable lesser amount of information from tests with biological colonization. The collected data showed the influence of diverse features, from specific minerals to whole-rock properties and the presence of heterogeneities. These information are discussed in the context of formulating a general framework for stone decay.
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13 Lee mas

Effects of built environment on walking at the neighbourhood scale. A new role for street networks by modelling their configurational accessibility?

Effects of built environment on walking at the neighbourhood scale. A new role for street networks by modelling their configurational accessibility?

By controlling built environment factors, urban mobility and land use policies can be focused on reducing distances between home and other activities such as shops and work, or on managing particular design features relevant to pedestri- ans. However, these kinds of factors explain only partially trip generation in cities. They are what Ma and Banister (2006) call the physical dimension of the job-housing imbalance but, also according to these authors, the imbalance also has a major personal component, namely the characteristics of the individual or family (age, gender, race, income, motorisation rate, etc.), which are determinant for mobility. Moreover, Manaugh and El-Geneidy (2013) highlights the importance of a par- ticular subset of these personal characteristics, what they call personal values, preferences and motivations of the individual. They show how values, preferences and motivations mediate amongst the object and subject characteristics and provide powerful arguments to understand how individuals take modal choices. This kind of approach is also related to a long-stand- ing problem in the field, ‘‘self-selection’’ i.e., it is not the built environment that changes travel behaviour, but values and attitudes of the people living in them. However, recent studies such as Aditjandra et al. (2012) add evidence to discard self-selection, confirming the influence of the built environment on mobility, particularly neighbourhood mobility.
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16 Lee mas

The Influence of Lifestyle and Built Environment Factors on Transport CO2 Emissions: The Case Study of Autonomous University of Barcelona

The Influence of Lifestyle and Built Environment Factors on Transport CO2 Emissions: The Case Study of Autonomous University of Barcelona

Under the assumption “planning more to travel less” (Banister, 1999; Bertolini et al., 2008), scholars have come to realize that integrated built environment and transport planning at the city level can deliver a significant contribution to meeting sustainable planning goals (Banister, 2008; Silva and Pinho, 2011; Soria-Lara et al., 2015; Switzer et al., 2013). This view is also reflects a long-standing body of theory on the relationship between the built environment and the transport sector (Cervero and Kockelman, 1997; Ewing and Cervero, 2010). Specifically, Banister (2005) identified six groups of key factors that interconnect the built environment and transport: settlement size (Hickman and Banister, 2007; Naess, 2009); urban density (Oakes et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2014; Soria-Lara and Valenzuela-Montes, 2014); land use diversity (Pitombo et al., 2010; Song and Knaap, 2004; Soria-Lara et al., 2014); urban design; local accessibility (Cervero et al., 2009); and finally the provision of parking (Albert and Mahalel, 2006). Supported by the abovementioned issues, there has been a proliferation of studies based on correlating transport CO 2 emissions and built environment factors as an initial step to
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19 Lee mas

Adolescents' and young adults' physical activity related to built environment

Adolescents' and young adults' physical activity related to built environment

In fact, the high scores obtained in the built environment characteristics variable by both high school and university students showed that this population consider Granada a proper context to develop outdoors exercise. These results are not congruent with those obtained by the university students regarding daily PA levels. This incongruity is confirmed by the correlational analysis, which did not highlight any relation between PA levels and perceived environmental characteristics in this sample. This can be justified in two ways. Firstly, it could be logical that the characteristics of certain specific contexts are perceived in the same way by the whole sample, regardless of the use that each person makes of them: participants were all living in Granada and were polled almost at the same time. The opportunities for PA that a certain environment provides, as well as its general conditions, could be the same or similar (with some dissimilarities depending on the neighbourhoods) for all individuals. Results could perhaps have been different if we had carried out a longitudinal study, which is characterized by a long-term analysis. In that case, the conditions for outdoors exercising could have changed through the study period. For instance, changes in the built environment such as the construction of new sports facilities or adding sports equipment to the existing one, could have occurred and significantly influenced PA levels (Stratton, Fairclough, & Ridgers, 2008). These eventualities cannot appear using cross-sectional designs, which entail only one session of measurements.
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10 Lee mas

Modelling the Impact of Built Environment,  Geographical Scales and Latent  Constructs On Individual Travel Behaviour

Modelling the Impact of Built Environment, Geographical Scales and Latent Constructs On Individual Travel Behaviour

Travel is a derived demand from the participation in activities located in places different from where we live or where we currently stay. The strong relationship between the land use characteristics of the areas where we move and the way we move is well known. Since 1954 (Mitchell and Rapkin, 1954) many researchers have studied the important and highly complex relationship between travel demand and land use. The relationship has been studied in a number of cases, using several methods - aggregate and disaggregate approaches - and different focuses – trip frequency, automobile use, vehicle miles travelled and so on. One of the major problems discussed in the past literature is the relative importance of urban form characteristics versus socio-economic characteristics in explaining trip frequency. The conclusion from these early studies was that the total number of trips is largely determined by demographic and socio-economic factors but it is not strongly associated with land use characteristics (Hanson, 1982; Kitamura et al., 1997). By contrast, other studies found that land use patterns affect trip frequency (Agyemang-Duah et al., 1995), and that there is a little variation in trip frequency according to population density (ECOTEC 1993). Similarly, the proportion of shopping trips by public transport and the proportion of commuting trips by foot are positively linked with population density (Frank and Pivo, 1994). There are some reasons for these contradictory results: the effect depends on the type of journey studied (work, shopping, all and so on) and on the type of built environment (BE) variables included.
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280 Lee mas

Climas motivacionales, liderazgo y cohesión grupal en contexto deportivo universitario

Climas motivacionales, liderazgo y cohesión grupal en contexto deportivo universitario

The built environment of Granada is perceived as appropriate for carrying out PA in the neighbourhoods, providing individuals with sufficient safety and facilities to enjoy outdoor exercise. However, the outcomes of this study highlight that even if the environmental characteristics are suitable, PA levels are still insufficient in the sample of university students. This confirms the theory that environment represents a promoting factor not directly influencing engagement in PA. Though, environment is still important when we attempt to design interventions for improving healthy habits by means of PA among youths. A context that permits people to be active is the basis which outdoor active behaviours must be built on (Biddle et al., 2012; Ogilive, Egan, Hamilton, & Petticrew, 2004; Sallis, King, Sirard, & Albright, 2007; King, 2008; Rainham, Bates, Blanchard, Dummer, Kirk, & Shearer, 2012), whereas the absence of environmental features favouring PA reduces the opportunities for performing exercise and contributes to sedentarism (Rütten, & Abu-Omar, 2004; Sallis, Owen, Glanz, Rimer, & Lewis, 2003). Using the environment for exercising implies summing important bouts to the total daily PA levels, thus playing an important role in achieving the recommendations on healthy PA. The environment of Granada satisfies most of the requirements for a PA-favouring environment: recently, cycling and running paths have been added (or improved); many public facilities are present in each of the neighbourhood of Granada; they are administered by the Local Sports Administration, which provides citizens with a wide offer of low-cost sports activities. In addition, most of the neighbourhoods of Granada seem to be safe, as confirmed by the statistical reports of the Regional Government of Andalusia. According to this, we could affirm that Granada provides enough opportunities for encouraging an individual to be active.
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10 Lee mas

Vista de Architectural Fusion and Indigenous Ideology in Early Colonial Teposcolula  The Casa de la Cacica: A Building at the Edge of Oblivion
							| Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas

Vista de Architectural Fusion and Indigenous Ideology in Early Colonial Teposcolula The Casa de la Cacica: A Building at the Edge of Oblivion | Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas

This building so carefully portrayed in the documentary record is an out- standing example of the design and construction of a new architecture which had never existed before European and Mesoamerican cultures came into contact. It was conceived and built as an architectural statement implement- ing an indigenous political agenda. The Codex Osuna is a document painstakingly prepared under the direction of the indigenous leadership specifically for use in a judicial process at the highest level of the colonial administration. The building depicted was the seat of indigenous municipal authority, and was constructed to demonstrate and dignify this legitimate indigenous political power within the new colonial regime. Its careful graph- ic representation in this high level document was intended to convey that demonstration and impart its authority and dignity into the legal process. The Tecpan of Mexico beautifully recorded in the Codex Osuna was a build- ing intended to be a lasting architectural expression of the legitimate power and authority of the indigenous leaders, demonstrating not only their con- tinuing role as transmitters of the traditional culture but also their new role as interpreters and transducers of the new culture. The new architectural forms that emerged under their direction as permanent and highly visible elements of the new built environment demonstrated their ability as cultural and political leaders to successfully perpetuate and integrate their culture into the new world order in early colonial Mexico.
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40 Lee mas

GPSS interactive learning environment

GPSS interactive learning environment

Desporovic et all implemented a GPSS/FON (another less used GPSS dialect) based environment, which they called FONWebGPSS. The purpose of their work is to combine a GPSS implementation with Moodle. With this purpose in mind, teachers prepared case studies and problems related to the area of discrete event simulation, and students used GPSS/FON via Moodle to write and run the models. Simulation execution results are also integrated into Moodle, mixing standard GPSS reports with statistics charts created ad-hoc. Although the simulation engine was not adapted for teaching purposes, this work exposes the need to transform simulation learning via web environments, and to integrate simulation tools in existing LMS. In a different approach, Fonseca et all designed a framework with a Java-based desktop application to build GPSS models from graphics. The framework lacks, on purpose, the implementation of the simulation engine. The main idea of their work is to let students complete the engine by programming themselves the behavior of GPSS entities. This would help students understand how the engine works and would motivate them to write their own simulation engine. In addition to the empty shell, JGPSS also includes a regular GPSS engine and statistics generator. Note that in that work the authors considered the importance of understanding a simulation engine by accessing its core implementation and modifying its source code in a language they feel comfortable with.
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10 Lee mas

GPSS interactive learning environment

GPSS interactive learning environment

The application has been organized into a multi-layer architecture mainly composed by a thin client on one side and GPSS interpreter with the simulation engine and the RDBMS on the other side. Both parts of the application are completely independent one from the other. For them to work together, a MVC application has been developed to acts as a bridge between them, transforming requests from the client to messages to the interpreter and vice versa. The high decoupling level also allow application parts to be easily embedded into other environments. The client side was built using only HTML, Javascript and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and works as an independent pluggable module. The GPSS interpreter and engine is a common open source Java and MySQL application. It has been adapted to the Maven2 standard, which makes it really easy to download, extend and compile. Even though it is not likely that GPSS students will try to modify or extend something they still do not understand at first, accessing the source code of the simulation engine is a powerful way to understand how GPSS entities really behave inside, by reading it in a well known language. Similarly, having snapshots that compose a simulation stored in a database gives the students an opportunity to write their own SQL queries and to research much deeper about the entities than any front-end could offer. The application can also load and execute preexisting models; teachers can create their own models and leave them available for students to understand particular issues, review any class subjects or prepare quizzes and activities. Once models are created by the teacher, students will see an icon to load them in one click. After a model is loaded, users have full access to it just as if they had written it block by block and command by command. They are able to modify it too or even to extend it, which proves very suitable for some activities of interpretation and system improvement or optimization. In the meantime, as they analyze the model, the system will
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10 Lee mas

Analysis Model to Optimize Ground Stations in Built-up Areas

Analysis Model to Optimize Ground Stations in Built-up Areas

From the communication systems point of view the basic concept of the measurement procedure is to determine the existence and location of interfering signals which affect the operational quality of the system. In spectrum congested areas, such as in the case scenario of a satellite tracking antenna mounted on a building roof, the capturing of intermittent signals sources which affect the up/down links is a complex process. In this sense, an Omni-directional antenna is used to capture data from all directions from the antenna location site in the first stage of the capture process. The radio performance occasionally suffers from interference at what may seemingly be random times of the day. For cases when the interference is pulsed or intermittent, the spectrum analyzer can be configured to store the maximum trace values over many sweeps combining different available functions such as the maximum and minimum hold, stored memory and peak power, among others. Another useful display option is the spectrogram which allows analyzing on the same display frequency, time, and amplitude. The second stage is the location of the azimuth direction of the interference sources. A directional antenna is used, as these high gain antennas provide pointing capability within the wireless environment. Observing the amplitude of the signal on the spectrum analyzer as the directional antenna is moved around the environment could potentially point to the physical location of the interference when the signal amplitude is at a maximum. Due to fact that multipath reflections in the surrounding environment could reduce the pointing accuracy, it is important to make the measurement from as high as possible such as on rooftops or tall buildings, and from several locations for a best estimation of the interference source location.
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264 Lee mas

The environment in El salvador

The environment in El salvador

Remember the activities that you were asked design? In lesson 1, Hands on! 2A asked for you to make a list of places. Lesson 1 activities helped to prepare you with the use of comparatives and superlatives, which are the key ingredients to express opinions. Lesson 2 activities helped you to identify your attitude towards the environment. Hands on! 2B asked you to make another list of people who might be interested in helping with the project and to prepare a short oral presentation to teach others about the environmental issues that you have learned throughout the lessons. Hands on! 2C asked you to make a list of organizations that might help provide funds for the project. Lesson 4 activities taught you how to make predictions about the future, which is an important part of explaining to others how your projects will benefit others. Lesson 4 also showed you how to make a fundraising proposal. Lesson 5 activities showed you how to link and direct your ideas. These activities provided you with a good background to be able to perform your project efficiently.
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46 Lee mas

CBTC Test Simulation Bench

CBTC Test Simulation Bench

Moreover, if we take into account that the use of simulators in a railway environment has been fully justified throughout this article, and more so in this particular example of a CBTC environment, we may state that using this test bench tool is an overriding guarantee for bringing new CBTC lines into service as well as ensuring that the different track and on-board equipment will run smoothly under absolutely any circumstances.

11 Lee mas

ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABILITY

ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABILITY

Based on the conclusion that economic growth causes disorder in all areas and, obviously, in the environment ([29], [30], [31]), [32] defend extending the range and scope in the analysis of economic processes, including methods and theories from natural sciences ([33]; [34]; [35]; [36]; [37]; [38]). The change is substantial. But it contributes to technically and conceptually enrich the analysis of the economy ([39]; [40]; [41]; [42]; [43]). This change moves away from a mechanistic phase, that is, a closed circular flow, to a holistic one, in which the economist is required to dialogue with other disciplines to better understand what happens in his own discipline ([44]; [45], [46]). The temporal vector and the mobility of factors are basic characteristics, which provide a depth and greater rigour to the investigation ([47]; [48]).
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17 Lee mas

Economic environment

Economic environment

As is evident in the preface to theory book, it is not enough to read and understand it without working examples. If limited to this, certainly at the end of your reading you will not be able not use the Supply and Aggregate Demand model in response to the impact of certain policies or disturbances in the business environment. This manual is intended to assist the reader in this task. By developing the solved exercises, which should be answered or at least put your effort in trying to solve them without having to look at the solution given and with the exercises provided, the reader will more easily retain a basic outline of the model, without requiring memorization.
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61 Lee mas

Transport Interchange and Local Urban Environment Integration

Transport Interchange and Local Urban Environment Integration

Paper’s review has focused and adapted the particular case of the transport interchange, since most of the literature had focused on the generic case of either land use – transport relationship or standard transport stations and on how to increase access-dispersal (demand) as the one of its main goals. Still, the interchange urban integration issue has to be framed in the wider transport and urban context. Three urban/architectural scales/elements have been considered herein: the “foreland” or the city itself, the “hinterland” or the surrounding urban environment, the public space around the building/area, and the building/area itself. According to these, the paper proposes to consider interchange facilities in three dimensions:
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9 Lee mas

https://www.industrialshields.com/web/content?model=ir.attachment&field=datas&id=137792&

https://www.industrialshields.com/web/content?model=ir.attachment&field=datas&id=137792&

- In complex systems, you can create a network between several Tinker Board Touch. Providing integral supervision and control solution for entire production plants and real-time data at hand. Panel PC based on HummingBoard, incorporating a 10.1” resistive Touch Screen for industrial environment using Linux or Android Operating System.

20 Lee mas

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

24 may have easier access to personnel in other government sectors to make them aware of national commitments to and rationales for wetland conservation and wise use thus facilitating national coordination, especially as the conventions would be on a more equal footing. Through all of the above, implementation of the Convention at country-level will experience new possibilities, since partnering with UNEP and the UNEP conventions will be more frequently undertaken. More specific, UNEP and its MEAs are already undertaking a range of national and regional technical assistance and capacity building activities, including among others training to MEA negotiators, legal drafting assistance, policy analysis. A broadened funding base that might instigate new activities, such as under the United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks and the Global Environment Fund will be fully explored.
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37 Lee mas

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