Abstract: The West Indian Topshell Cittarium pica is artisanally collected on rocky shores along the CaribbeanCoast of Costa Rica. There are neither data on the state of its exploitation nor exist any regulation of the fish- ery. From October 2000 to March 2001, the population dynamics of this species were studied at an unexploited and two exploited sites to determine the present impact of the fishery on the resource. Average population den- sity with 14 ind./m 2 about three times higher at the unexploited than at the exploited sites. Length-frequency his-
Due to the Calliphoridae’s medical and sanitary importance as being transmitters of pathogens, their close location to urban settlements, and their usefulness as a tool in forensic studies, it is necessary to have baseline information about this family in every region of the country. The objective of this study was to evaluate the species composition of blowflies collected in four cities of the colombian Caribbeancoast and to describe their preferences in bait and dial behavior in order to increase knowledge of the ecology of this family.
and 74% for the hydrozoan M. complanata. Furthermore, a high infection rate of the Black Band Disease or BBD (Antonious 1981) observed in those reefs in 1996, seemed to have been triggered by the 1995 bleaching event, increasing partial mortality of the surviving colonies (Guzmán & Guevara 1998). Whereas in subsequent visits to Cahuita during 1996, surviving colonies showed exten- sive tissue partial mortality (overgrown by calcareous and fleshy brown algae), few dead whole-colonies were observed. Additionally, only two Siderastrea siderea and one Diploria clivosa colonies were infected by the BBD. Therefore, the extent of the 1995 bleaching and mortality in the two Caribbean localities of Costa Rica, is comparable to what was observed in Puerto Rico (Winter et al. 1998), where few corals died during the same warm- ing event. Also, to the same area of Cahuita during a previous warming event in June 1983, when moderate bleaching and death of reef organisms were observed when SWT along the Caribbeancoast of Costa Rica was between 29 and 35°C (Cortés et al. 1984). What makes the observed mortality during the 1995 warming event relevant to the coral reefs of the Caribbeancoast of Costa Rica? To answer this, we have to consider the actual situation of those reefs and the processes which are influencing them. The Costa Rican Caribbean reefs are under the negative impact of increased terrigenous sediment loads (Cortés & Risk 1984, 1985, Hands et al. 1993, Cortés 1992, 1994, Cortés et al. 1998), chemical and solid pollution (Cortés & Guzmán 1985, Mata et al. 1987, Guzmán & Jiménez 1992, Rojas et al. 1998, Cortés & Jiménez in prep.), punctuated uplift of the coast (Cortés et al. 1992, 1994, Denyer 1998), mass mortalities of reef organisms (Guzmán & Cortés 1984, Murillo & Cortés 1984), and tourism related activities (Cortés 1994, Cortés & Jiménez in prep., Jiménez, unpublished). All this factors acting in combination have been associated with a significant deterioration of the reefs. Not only near-shore reefs are affected, even offshore submerged banks were observed to have been reached by heavy loads of silt (Cortés & Jiménez in prep.). The consequence is a rampant deterioration of the reefs and it explains the observed decrease in live coral cover from 40% in the 1980’s to less 0
Abstract: Three hundred and eighty-four gastropod species from the Caribbeancoast of Costa Rica are report- ed. Eight species are new records for Costa Rica: Cyclostrema tortuganum, Rissoina c.f. fenestrata, Vanikoro oxychone, Epitonium c.f. denticulatum, Latirus infundibulum, Hastula salleana, Daphnella lymneiformis and Tenaturris c.f. inepta. Thirteen species are found on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica: Tegula fas- ciata, Cymatium nicobaricum, Anachis lyrata, Costoanachis varia, Mitrella ocellata, Agaronia testacea, Hastula cinerea, Architectonica nobilis, Dolabrifera dolabrifera, Stylocheilus striatus, Cavolinia longirostris, Phidiana lascrucensis and Spurilla neapolitana. In comparison with a recent report of the Caribbean and west- ern Atlantic gastropods of Colombia, the Costarican fauna hardly presents 35.8% of those species. Similarly, in comparison with a work from Panama, the quantity of species shared between Costa Rica and its nearby coun- try is 48.2%. The number of species reported here is probably an underestimation because few micromolluscs have been studied and no samples have been collected in deep waters nor in the north part of the coast. Key words: Gastropoda, Mollusca, biodiversity, Caribbean, Costa Rica.
Abstract: Nereis garwoodi n. sp. is described on the basis of eight syntype specimens (six atokous and two het- eronereis) collected in Bahía Chetumal, Mexican Caribbeancoast, and the variability in the paragnath numbers in the pharynx is established using 180 specimens; paragnath numbers are I:10(SD=1.9); II:30 (SD=2.6); III:41 (SD=5.2); IV:29 (SD=3.5), V:1, VI:4, VII-VIII: >30. Its eyes are big and its longest tentacular cirri reaches setiger 11. A revised key to species of Nereis recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea is included.
Abstract: Pink shrimp, Penaeus brasiliensis, were caught from May 1990 to February 1991 in three sites of the Caribbeancoast of Costa Rica: Limón, Parismina and Barra del Colorado. Length frequency data were used to esti mate, with the Compleat Elefan computer program, growth, mortality, optimum exploitation rate, probability of cap ture, recruitment, relative yield and biomass per recruit for each sex and study area. Using modal progression analysis, three age groups were determined in each zone. There was significant seasonal growth. Fishing mortality and the exploitation rate in these areas were low, indicating that these stocks are probably underexploited.
Abstract: Seagrass epiphytes play an important role in seagrass habitats; however, available information from Central America is scarce. The present study focuses on macroalgal epiphytes on leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum in the seagrass meadows at Punta Cahuita, Caribbeancoast of Costa Rica, and it is the first one of its kind in Costa Rica. A representative amount for each algal epiphyte species found was collected, preserved and identified to the lowest possible taxon. Preserved samples of each species were deposited in the Herbarium of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A total of 26 species of macroalgae were found: 15 species belong- ing to Rhodophyta, four to Chlorophyta, six to the class Phaeophyceae, and one diatom species which could not be identified. The present inventory reports three species that are new for the phycological flora of Costa Rica, four species are reported for the first time for the Caribbeancoast of Costa Rica, and 17 are new reports for the Parque Nacional Cahuita area. Epiphyte species number might further rise if sampling efforts and the study area increased. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (Suppl. 4): 163-174. Epub 2009 June 30.
According to the Bjerknes’ circulation theorem (Bjerknes, 1921), sea breeze circulation is influenced by three main mechanisms: (1) density gradients, (2) Coriolis force, and (3) friction. Based on the geographic position, near the equator in the Colom- bian Caribbeancoast, the Coriolis acceleration has no negative effect in sea breeze. By assuming that the atmosphere is not viscous enough, it could be suggested that density gradients are the main gener- ating sources of sea breeze in this area, as a result of the differences between sea and earth temperature. In all Caribbean areas, a sea breeze signal during the dry season was observed (December-March), which is consistent with the season in which the higher gradients occur during the whole year. This also matches the information reported by Salvador and Millán (2003) and Azorín (2004), who observed higher sea breeze occurrence during summer in the Spanish coasts.
Abstract: A clash of cultures that adopt different forms of expression such as invasion and plundering of natural resources of indigenous peoples and overt discrimination occurs within the socio-cultural relations of the colonization border areas in the Independent North and South Regions of Nicaragua’s CaribbeanCoast. In this article a reflection is made on culture as form of life and culture as a form of production, emphasizing the perspective proposed by Gramsci and the contributions of others say writers who have addressed the subject; the intention is to demonstrate that the construction of the autonomous subject occurs in the middle of struggle and contradictions that must be incorporated as an essential aspect in the relationship between the Independent Regions with the National State.
From the analysis of plankton samples from a coastal lagoon system of northern Colombia a female specimen of the poecilostomatoid copepod Kelleria reducta Gómez, 2006 was recorded. This species was originally described from the Mexican Pacific and it is the only species of the genus known from the Americas. The specimen from Colombia bears the diagnostic features of K. reducta as originally described, but shows some subtle differences in the basis of the maxilliped, the caudal rami length/width ratio, the ornamentation of the caudal setae IV and V, and the body length. The morphological range of this species is complemented and additional comparisons are made with respect to 6 species recently described from Korea and Indonesia. Among them, K. reducta most closely resembles K. indonesiana Mulyadi, 2009 but they can be separated by differences in the last endopodal segment of antenna, the P4ENP, the P5, and the mandibular blade. This is the first record of the genus in Colombia and in the Caribbean basin; it represents a significant range extension of the species from the eastern Tropical Pacific to the western Caribbean.
The present study included 202 individuals from three indigenous groups that inhabit the Colombian Caribbean Region. The samples obtained took into account the phenotypic traits characteristic of these indigenous populations (thin, straight black hair, dark eyes, red tinted skin, and average stature), their geographic location, the preservation of their traditional activities and rites according to their socio-cultural behavior and originating during the pre- Hispanic time, and the low consanguinity grade. The larger groups of the indigenous group Ette ennaka or Chimila (own people), also known in ethnographic literature as Simiza, Chimíle, Simza, or Shimizya (Preuss, 1926; Ortiz, 1965 and Loukotka, 1968, cited by 13), are located in the central prairies of the Department of Magdalena, which is in the Naara Kajmanta settlement in Puerto Mosquito bordering the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and located in Sabanas de San Angel county protected by the Issa Oristunna reservation (Land of New Hope). These groups speak the ette taara (tongue of the people) language, which belongs to the linguistic family Chibcha. Their population is estimated to be 910 individuals 13-16 . The indigenous group Wiwa, also known as
This paper presents some elements that influence in the Medical School within the context of strengthening higher education, taking into account that leading is a broad and integral, dynamic and flexible aspect, maximum when working with interactive communicative people. The objective of this paper was to determine the elements that influence in leading the School of Medicine at Bluefields Indian and Caribbean University BICU, Autonomous Region of the South CaribbeanCoast of Nicaragua. According to the initial level of knowledge is explorative, with a qualitative approach, is descriptive, cross-sectional. The techniques used for data collection were constituted by the SWOT matrix (strength, opportunities, weaknesses and threats), as well as the application of a questionnaire with four dimensions: leadership, motivation, reciprocity or commitment and participation. The results obtained in the research can be useful to improve the leading of the medical school.
For almost two decades we had been planning to review the data obtained from the largest mangrove inventory done in Colombia to date (Sánchez-Páez, et al., 1997 a, b), but despite an extended abstract and exploratory analyses in theses required for graduation (Estrada-Urrea, et al., 2010), the raw dataset of this inventory has remained inaccessible to the scientific community and no in-depth analysis has been performed. However, the passing of the senior forester Heliodoro Sánchez-Páez in February 12, 2017, prompted us to finish the data mining and assembling the geographical database to serve national and international researchers in an era of new scenarios (climatic, socioeconomic, and political) in Colombia that will require open access to nation-wide baseline data. Heliodoro Sánchez-Páez was the director of the National Park Division in the former Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente (Inderena), prior to the creation of the Colombian Ministry of the Environment in 1993. In this post, he was instrumen- tal for the designation of various protected areas including the Salamanca Park, a mangrove landmark area in the Caribbeancoast of Colombia. He also worked as a university professor and editor of a national forestry journal (Colombia Forestal), and most importantly, he was the leading scien- tist responsible for the largest national inventory of man- groves undertaken until now in the country by the Ministry of the Environment with funding from the International Tropical Timber Organization (IITO) (Sánchez-Páez, et al., 1997a,b). The Mangroves of Colombia Project (MCP) was executed in two phases between 1991 and 2001 and it was key for updating the extent of mangroves of the country, empowering fishing communities, initiating pilot restoration projects, and drafting a national policy. Nearly three decades after the initiation of the MCP, we finally wrote this review paper with the following objectives: 1) to highlight the uniqueness of mangroves in Colombia and their global significance; 2) to briefly explain the major achievements of the MCP, and 3) to promote the use of the MCP databases to address the main challenges before
Fossil records of cookie cutter sharks are scarce in the Western Hemisphere. They are known from a few localities including Panama. Here I report the finding of a fossilized lower tooth from an extinct cookie cutter shark (Isistius triangulus) from an outcrop from the Chagres Formation, in the Caribbeancoast of Central Panama and the vouchering of this sample in the Museo de Peces de Agua Dulce e Invertebrados (freshwater fishes and invertebrates collection) at UNACHI. This is one of the few local collections with an academic orientation where Panamanian fossils have been vouchered.
cannot discriminate between sites where introductions have occurred, but X. laevis has failed to establish, and those where it has not been introduced yet, but which are potentially susceptible to invasion. Thus, our pre- diction that the African clawed frog has invaded only 12% of its potential range in Chile has to be taken with caution. For example, it is interesting to note that an isolated population of this species has persisted since 2003 at a site about 250 km north of the more continu- ous area of invasion, in the watershed of the Limarí River (Lobos & Jaksic 2005). Our model assigned 20% probability to finding the species in that specific region. Genetic information (Lobos, personal obser- vation) indicates that those frogs possess the haplotype dominant in central Chile; thus we suspect that the translocation of frogs by humans represents an inva- sion risk within the areas of greater suitability (above 7% according to what has been recorded in Chile). North of the Chilean mediterranean region, our model predicted the presence of areas susceptible to inva- sion near the coast in the Atacama Desert up to 19 ◦ S (bordering Peru). In the rivers and watering places of this area, threatened and endemic amphibians such as R. atacamensis occur (Correa et al. 2008). Toward the south of the predicted distribution, the African clawed frog could invade the surroundings of the city of Concepción (38 ◦ S). Interestingly, the species is maintained routinely in laboratories in the latter city, so an inadvertent escape of specimens from those cen- ters could accelerate the expansion of the species range in the south.
Regional setting: The continental shelf along the coast of the State of Bahia varies considerably in width. It is very narrow at its Northern limits with an average width of 50km, and, at its minimum reaches about 15km off Tinharé and Boipeba islands. In its Southern portion, by contrary, particularly in the Abrol- hos area, it widens circa 200km, forming the Royal Charlotte and the Abrolhos Bank. The shelf break is commonly at an average of 70m depth. Carbonate sediments dominate the middle and the outer shelves. The inner shelf constitutes a typical mixed zone of siliciclas- tic and carbonate sediments; the siliciclastics originate from river discharges, coastal erosion and reworked relict deposits of former lower sea-level stands and the carbonates are locally produced grains by the growth and transport of calcareous organisms (Leão & Ginsburg 1997, Leão & Dominguez 2000).
Abstract. In this paper asks how places were distributed living spaces, ields for agriculture and hydraulic control in the old course of the lower river San Jorge (Colombian Caribbean), The spatial analysis allows determine the concentration, dispersion and association of the different elements found in the anthropogenic landscape.
hosts via a predator-prey relationship. Ectoparasites such as monogeneans and copepods, on the other hand, are strongly influenced by external environmental conditions. Previously 2 species belonging to the genus Pseudorhabdosynochus had been reported off the coast of Yucatán (P. capurroi in M. bonaci by Vidal-Martínez and Mendoza-Franco  and P. yucatanensis in E. morio by Vidal-Martínez et al. ). In the present survey, however, just 1 species was found at Celestún and 2 at Arrecife Alacranes. This difference may be related to the geographical distribution of the parasites, rather than a seasonal pattern, since that samples from Celestún were collected at different times of the year, which would rule out seasonality as an explanation for the difference. Prevalence and mean abundance values for Gorgorhynchus sp. were lower at Arrecife Alacranes, probably as a consequence of the intermediate host distribution.
Abstract: This paper identifies the Exogoninae (Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean coasts and includes a key to identify all the species recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea. The classification of the family and the composition of Exogoninae are briefly examined; the correct names of the subfamilies are Syllinae Grube, 1850, Eusyllinae Malaquin, 1893, Autolytinae Malaquin, 1893 and Exogoninae Langerhans, 1879. Exogoninae inclu- des Anguillosyllis Day, 1963, Brania de Quatrefages, 1866, Braniella Hartman, 1963, Exogone Ørsted, 1845, Exogonella Hartman, 1961, Exogonoides Day, 1963, Parapionosyllis Fauvel, 1923, Psammosyllis Westheide, 1990, Spermosyllis Claparède, 1864, and Sphaerosyllis Claparède, 1863. Pseudexogone Augener, 1922, for- merly included in the group, is not a syllid; it belongs to Pilargidae. We collected 814 specimens belonging to 3 genera, 3 subgenera and 13 species as Brania (4), Exogone (4) and Sphaerosyllis (5); five new species are des- cribed: Brania russelli n. sp, Brania uebelackerae n. sp, Brania westheidei n. sp., Exogone (Exogone) bondi n. sp. and Exogone (Parexogone) sanmartini n. sp. For each species, selected references, diagnostic features, ob- servations on morphological variability, distribution and illustrations are provided; new species also have an en- glish diagnosis. Most abundant species were B. uebelackerae n. sp. (295), S. taylori Perkins (169), E. (E.) dis- par Webster (76), and E. (E.) bondi n sp. (72).