Abstract : The issue as regards the nature of the universal legal system and the presentation of different theories about the supremacy of the international law over the Argentine law, or vice versa, has resulted in a long lasting and persistent debate, in the doctrinal area – inherent to lawyers-, as well as in the case law issued by several courts. However, after the San Francisco Conference and the writing of the UN Letter, the codification of the public international law to acquire a definitive trend that used the monistic thesis to explain the relation between this legal specialty and the national law of the States and that, in the case of Argentina, adopted an international standard with the supremacy of that legal system over the local one, as stated by the Supreme Court of Justice of Argentina (hereinafter referred to as CSJN) based on the case Ekmekdjian w/ Sofovich (1992) and consolidated in the decision “Cafes La Virginia S.A” (1994) Notwithstanding, on February 14 th the
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Resumen: El foco de este trabajo se centra en la sentencia de la Corte argentina sobre la discusión acerca de la constitucionalidad de la obligatoriedad de la enseñanza religiosa en horario escolar en las escuelas públicas de educación primaria. Para poner la sentencia en contexto jurisprudencial, reconstruimos el case law de la Corte en materia de educación a los efectos de dar cuenta de la existencia de una serie de precedentes relevantes en la materia y que pueden ser considerados como antecedentes que guiaron al tribunal en su actual decisión. Luego, analizamos los argumentos plasmados en el fallo en concreto, prestando especial atención a aquellos vinculados con los principios de la neutralidad religiosa y la igualdad, en tanto ambos impactaron de especial modo en las interpretaciones que los jueces asumieron respecto de la naturaleza y los alcances del derecho a la educación y de las obligaciones del Estado (tanto federal como provincial) en la materia. Concluimos que si bien el fallo constituye un paso importante hacia la exigibilidad del derecho a la educación en Argentina, la Corte Suprema debió haber puesto un mayor énfasis argumentativo a los fines de asegurar una enseñanza pública laica, conforme a una interpretación progresiva y pro persona del desarrollo normativo educativo legal, constitucional y convencional de los derechos humanos en la Argentina.
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Even if the evolution in the Court’s case law just discussed is limited in scope, it is clear that it will have significant consequences for the immigra- tion laws and policies of the Member States. Indeed, it obliges the Member States to grant a residence permit to the parent of a child which acquired their nationality, even in situations formerly considered to be purely inter- nal situations. The consequences of this development should not be under- estimated, in particular since many young children of third country nation- als will have acquired the nationality of the Member State of residence of their parent without having a link to any other Member State. While these children and their parents could not traditionally claim a residence right un- der EU law, such will henceforth be the case. This can lead to a significant increase in immigration in a number of Member States. Furthermore, once a right of residence is recognised for the EU citizen and his parents, they can presumably rely on the EU principle of equal treatment, something which may entail significant financial burdens for their Member State of resi- dence. 35
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The most interesting case law affecting Spanish Contract Law system is the Aziz case. Aziz was a citizen who concluded before a notary, a loan agreement secured with a mortgage. According with the terms of the contract the agreement provided in clause 6, for annual default interest of 18,75% automatically applicable to sums not paid when due, without any notice. The same clause conferred to Catalunyacaixa, the creditor, the right to call in the totality of loan where the debtor failed to fulfil his obligation to pay in the time-limit any part both the principal and the interests of the loan. Mr Aziz failed to pay and the creditor, Catalunyacaixa, instituted enforcement proceedings, until on July 2010, when a judicial auction was arranged, according with the rules in the Civil procedure Code. As a consequence M. Aziz was evicted from his home. Meanwhile, Mr Aziz had applied for a declaration seeking the annulment of several clauses of the mortgage loan agreement, on the ground that they were unfair. The Commercial judge expressed doubts concerning the conformity of Spanish law with the framework established by the Directive 93/13/CEE on unfair terms in consumer contracts.
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The recently proposed new Copyright Directive was released on 14 September 2016. It has been described by EU law-makers as the pillar of the copyright package promised by the European Commission (EC), to be delivered before the end of Mr. Juncker’s mandate. In its Communication of 6 May 2015, the EC had stressed “the importance to enhance cross-border access to copyright-protected content services, facilitate new uses in the fields of research and education, and clarify the role of online services in the distribution of works and other subject-matter.” The proposed Copyright Directive is thus a key measure aiming to address two of these three issues. However it is not without shortfalls. We have therefore decided to publicly express our concerns and send an open letter to the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council to urge them to re-assess the new provisions dealing with mandatory filtering of user-generated content in the light of the CJEU case law and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
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Treaties, “where the European Council decided on an addition to the Maastricht Treaty to reject a retrospective application of this judge- ment on equal access to occupational pensions for women working part-time” (Pierson, 1996: 151 in Bickerton et al., 2015: 5), or the “Protocol on the acquisition of property in Denmark annexed to the TEU” (Ritleng, 2016: 38). Therefore, it is only logical to assume that the Court of Justice enjoys a privileged and strong position within the institutional framework of the Union. The fragmentation and division that are bound to rise among the Member States in the Council and the democratic representatives in the European Parliament will inev- itably hinder both institutions from reaching the required majorities (even more so if unanimity among the Member States is required). Given this circumstance, the institutional thresholds that constrain the legislative institutions of the Union frequently leave their hands tied when it comes to responding to the ad hoc legislative role of the Court of Justice or opposing/nullifying any of its rulings and decisions. Besides, taking into consideration the high level of independence that characterises the Court, as well as its exceptionally prolific case law (mainly because of the increasing relevance of the preliminary ruling procedure owing to the consolidation of the principles of direct effect, supremacy of EU law, and state liability), we could think of the Court as the strongest promoter of integration “in the shadows”. In many ways, its incremental case law regarding important political and social aspects can even influence the agenda-setting of the Commission, since many issues raised to the ECJ by the national courts may result in rul- ings that the Commission could deem worthy of further development. The Court has more room for manoeuvre when rendering its judgements. However, it has to realise that the more controversial the problems it takes upon itself to resolve through judicial interpretation are, the more opposition to its rulings it may find among the Member States, and even the societies. This fact could very well contribute to undermining its legitimacy and independence, and prevent the “compliance with its case law” (Ritleng, 2016: 38). In fact, “as ra- tional choice critics contend, the strength, particularly of international courts, is limited as they depend not only on the cases reaching them
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In the cement market in Ecuador, there are only four market participants: Holcim, LaFarge, Guapán and Chimborazo. Holcim has 62% of the market share. Its mission is to be the most respected and successfully operating company in the cement industry, creating value for their customers, employees, investors and community opportunities. (Holcim, 2011) Lafarge is the second strongest competitor with 23% of the market share. Lafarge, worldwide leader of construction materials, creates materials derived from the earth to shape up the world that surrounds them. (LaFarge, 2013) Guapán, on the other hand, desires to contribute to the economic development and social improvements for the country, based on the production and supply of cement and related products of high quality. (Guapán, 2013) Finally, Chimborazo has the lowest market participation. Its mission is to produce and commercialize with high productivity and quality levels, to satisfy the needs of their clients, contributing to the development of the country with a socio-environmental responsibility (Cemento Chimborazo, 2013). This leads to a potential problem due to market dominance. The new Organic Law for Regulation and Control of Market Power regulates and monitors market imperfections to avoid unfair practices.
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expenditure at the national level decline and those available at the sub-national level rise by the same amount as do sub-national expenditures”, but as has been explained, this was not the case in Colombia. In addition, in real terms tax revenues in- creased less than expenditure at both levels of government, growing more at sub-national than at national level, despite the passage during the 1990s of seven different tax reforms that were intended to increase the collection of national taxes. Indeed, while regional and local taxes grew on average by 7.6% per year between 1993 and 2000, national taxes grew by only 4.9% over the same period, regis- tering negative real increases in 1998 and 1999. As a percentage of GDP, during the period 1993-2000, national tax revenue reached on average 11.8% of GDP, with a peak of 12.8% in 2000. Sub-national taxes represented on average 3.0% of GDP during the same period. Municipal taxes, in particular those levied on property and business, also registered an important increase during this period, increasing by 0.5% of GDP. However, nearly 50% of this increase was observed in Bogotá where, in contrast with the rest of the country’s municipalities, different tax-recovery programs had been carried out since the early 1990s. In fact, regional taxes, in particular on cigarettes, beer and alcohol, fell by nearly 0.5% of GDP, going from 1.4% in 1992 to 1.0% in 1997.
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Objective. To assess the degree of compliance with current legislation using Geographic Information Systems. Material and Methods. Schools and billboards advertising tobacco were geo-referenced and the distance to schools were measured. Students’ access to purchasing tobacco products was observed. Results. In Cuernavaca, billboards were found within 250 meter from schools and students had access to buying cigarettes. In Culiacan, students were less exposed to tobacco advertising. Conclusions. Geographic Information Systems were useful for studying compliance with the law and could also be useful for its continuous monitoring and for suggesting changes for diminishing tobacco advertising exposure. This exposure and the ease of access to purchas- ing cigarettes could explain the higher prevalence of active smokers among students in Cuernavaca. This suggests that current legislation is still not enough enforced for diminish- ing Mexican adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising and products.
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There are different approaches to theoretical controversies about the formation and development of international migration law, which we think are controversial and controversial. First, it is based on the subjective and objective theoretical views of various scholars on the field, and secondly, it is directly related to the socio-political processes in society. In our opinion, it is desirable to study various theories on the emergence of international migration law in the international legal system, using common and proprietary methods of studying the subject “International Migration Law”. The general method is based on nature, reasoning, and society’s regularities, but on a personal basis (systematic, comparative, historical, sociological, logical). In a systematic manner, the free movement of individuals, the right to move from one area to another, and the right to seek asylum and refugee status are studied as a single subject as a set of rights as migrant workers.
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“Si esto es lo que la conexión necesaria del Derecho con la Moral significa, podemos aceptarla. Lamentablemente es compatible con grandes iniquidades”. (“If this is what the necessary connection of law and morality means, we may accept it. It is unfortunately compatible with very greatiniquity”). ¿Qué significa que “podemos aceptar” la tesis de la necesaria conexión? La ambigüedad mencionada más arriba proviene de que no hay una respuesta nítida a esta pregunta. Simmonds señala, en este sentido, que el texto da lugar a dos interpretaciones, dependiendo que adjudiquemos a la mención que Hart hace de la tesis de Fuller un sentido genuino o irónico. Se pregunta Simmonds: “¿sugiere Hart que, a la luz de su compatibilidad con grandes iniquidades, las características formales del gobierno por reglas (o de reglas) no pueden cons- tituir realmente una conexión con la moral, al menos en un sentido sustancial o significativo? ¿O sugiere que hay aquí en efecto una conexión significativa y necesaria entre Derecho y Moral, pero no del tipo que su teoría busca negar?” 37 .
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features, providing abundant evidence of their sustainability. However, as the author points out, “traditional ecological knowledge and the common property systems that sus- tain them do not exist in isolation from the nation-states in which they are situated”. On the contrary, they “are indeed heavily inﬂu- enced by the political frameworks in which they are situated, which can either strength- en or undermine their long term viability, and potential contribution to contemporary resource management initiatives”. The Be- lize case study which Caddy provides is a re- markable piece of evidence for her thesis, as it clearly demonstrates that, where the state law and political system does not provide the possibility of oﬃcial recognition of common property based land tenure rights, the eﬀorts of Indigenous peoples to maintain the cohe- sion of their traditional natural resource use governance systems (even if well supported by grassroots mobilization, competent ad- vocacy and qualiﬁed technical assistance, in- cluding participatory land use mapping and planning) can unpredictably lose momen- tum, strength and viability. If, after years of collective mobilization and struggle, Indig- enous communities see no recognition by the state of their common land rights, an isolated event, such as the death of a traditional lead- er, can lead to hope being suddenly lost with the only alternative being to claim individual
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Lo expresado hasta este punto indica que no parece destacarse una postura dominante sobre el término soft law, sino que la misma noción varía dependiendo de la capacidad del Estado para flexibilizar y adecuar su estructura administrativa al tenor de la emergencia de los asuntos sociales y económicos, según el contexto globalizado en el que se encuentren dichos asuntos. De acuerdo con Ramírez, en el campo jurídico el fortalecimiento de la normativa internacional potencia el desarrollo de redes transnacionales en las que operan organizaciones internacionales que reclaman a los estados que sean actores responsables en el cumplimiento de obligaciones y normas internacionales, como ejemplo, el cumplimiento de tratados de economía de mercados y procesos de privatización que conducen hacia una crisis del Estado soberano que lo obligan a la reducción del aparato estatal y a perder sus prerrogativas tradicionales como la seguridad. En suma, el Soft Law no sólo representa una media transitoria, sino una media para un Estado en crisis y un modelo de soberanía transitorio 85
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Frente a la pregunta en cuestion del presente articulo, sobre ¿qué es el Fashion Law bajo la perspectiva del ordenamiento jurídico en Colombia?, es posible responder que esta figura no se encuentra contemplada, en el ordenamiento juridico colombiano, y aunque la industria textil es un factor importante en la economía, aún no se ha incursionado en esta disciplina. No obstante, y como se menciono a lo largo, del artículo sí existen unas herramientas jurídicas que facilitan al creador de moda, la protección de sus derechos. Vale la pena resaltar, que en ciudades como Milán, Barcelona y Nueva York, en sus facultades de derecho, ya existe un reconocimiento al Fashion Law, como una especialidad jurídica, tanto así, que existen universidades que brindan postgrado en esta area.
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This text is based on the Building Standard Law and related regulations. It is intended to be used solely as a reference to facilitate in the understanding of the Law and related regulations BCJ will not be responsible for any consequences Law and related regulations. BCJ will not be responsible for any consequences resulting from the use of the information in this text.
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Consequently, the question of superiority of community law is left to each country to answer, which poses a new problem due to the lack of correspondence among the criteria adopted by the member states. According to the 1994 reform to the Argentine Constitution, integration treaties are superior to the laws passed by Congress; hence, all the rules arising in connection with said treaties are superior to the domestic laws. The Venezuelan Constitution indicates that the rules adopted in connection with the integration treaties shall be considered immediately binding and shall have primacy over domestic legislation. The Paraguayan Constitution, while establishing that international treaties form part of the country's law, does not indicate whether rules derived from integration treaties shall enjoy any preferential hierarchy or not. The Uruguayan Constitution also fails to include any express provision concerning the hierarchy of international treaties and the rules arising therefrom, although the tendency is to acknowledge that international treaties are superior to domestic laws. Neither does the Brazilian Constitution make any special reference in connection with the hierarchy of the international treaties and the law arising according to them. In case of conflict, the Federal Supreme Court of that country rules as to the hierarchy of the rules, following, in general, the principle that lex posterior derogat priori 28 .
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As we have set forth, the basis for differentiating, in terms of the deserved punishment, between a completed crime and an attempted crime has been widely discussed by philosophers (Donnelly-Lazarov, 2015) as well as criminal law scholars (among others, Mañalich, 2004; Roxin, 2017) and constitutes a classic topic of discussion among objectivists and subjectivists (Lippke, 2016). Although in most of the doctrine, attempt deserves less punishment than a completed act based on the result produced and in accordance with the danger that the act effectively poses for legal rights (Gil Gil, 2015; Serrano Piedecasas, 1999), taking the interest of other individuals suggests that they should be punished equally because of the actor’s intent, which is usually identical in both situations (Christopher, 2004; Deely, 2016). Other authors have advanced mixed theories that “begin with criminal will as the basis for punishment but believe it necessary to limit punishment through objective requirements, such as the act having shocked the community” (Mir Puig, 2015, p. 348).
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From the 1950s, with the increasing use of fresh water resources for agri- culture, power generation and the supply of domestic use, in conjunction with human rights and a growing awareness of the need of environmental protection the efforts to regulate multiplied. This became particularly imperative since many States used rivers as a convenient sewage system, in particular for industrial waste. The starting point of international law for the management of fresh water resources are the legally non–binding Helsinki Rules on the Uses of Waters of International Rivers, adopted by the International Law Association in 1966. The basic principle of the Helsinki Rules stipulated in Article 4 is that’ each Basin State is entitled, within its territory, to a reasonable and equitable share in the beneficial uses of the waters of an international drainage basin. The Helsinki Rules hence reflect the fact that traditionally, international water law was concerned with the allocation of water resources between neighboring States rather than with their environmental protection or their sustainable use in the interest of the of the community of States of the drainage basin. However at least the ILA Rules introduced the issue of ‘drainage basin’ thus reflecting that one should perceive the object and purpose of a management system from a wider perspective, namely the perspective of the drainage basin.
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“The applicants’ case in that connection is that when Notice is given, the United Kingdom will have embarked on an irreversible course that will lead to much of EU law ceasing to have effect in the United Kingdom, whether or not Parliament repeals the 1972 Act. As Lord Pannick QC put it for Mrs Miller, when ministers give Notice they will be “pulling … the trigger which causes the bullet to be fired, with the consequence that the bullet will hit the target and the Treaties will cease to apply”. In particular, he said, some of the legal rights which the applicants enjoy under European Union law will come to an end. This, he submitted, means that the giving of Notice would pre-empt the decision of Parliament on the Great Repeal Bill. It would be tantamount to altering the law by ministerial action, or executive decision, without prior legislation, and that would not be in accordance with our law.” 17
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