As we have seen, the “Calidad de vida en cuidadores de niños con parálisis cerebral (CVCNPC)” website (translated as “ Quality of life in caregivers of children with cerebralpalsy”) was developed in accordance with scientific literature about caregivers’ quality of life, including burden and stress. Effective caregiv- er skills were first identified, and those including communicating effectively, learning to relax, taking care of oneself, coping strategies, awareness of your child’s situation, and social support (See Table 1, Table 2, and Figure 1). The interactive features ac- commodate different caregivers’ needs and allow caregivers to choose different pathways based on their own needs.
Cerebralpalsy (CP) is a chronic condition defined as a set of functional limitations due to alterations in the development of the central nervous system (Rethlefsen, Ryan, & Kay 2010; Snider, Majnemer, & Darsaklis, 2010). It is estimated that the incidence of this disorder worldwide is between 2 to 2.5 cases per 1,000 births (Blair, 2010; Odding, Roebroeck, & Stam, 2006). Although motor malfunction is the cardinal limitation of CP, the severity of disability is also determined by the presence of sensory, cognitive and social impairments (Bottcher, 2010; Surveil- lance of CerebralPalsy in Europe, 2002), leading to significant limitations in self-care functions related to food, personal hygiene and mobility. For these reasons CP can be taken as a prototype of childhood disability (Raina et al., 2004).
 Quijano-González, Y., Chong-Quero J.E, Villanueva Ayala, D., Perez Moreno, J.C. “Comparison of 4 Different Smoothness Metrics for the Quantitative Assessment of Movement’s Quality in the Upper Limb of Subjects with CerebralPalsy.” PM&R, vol. 6, Issue 8, S88 - S89, Aug. 2014.. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2014.08.343  Quijano González, Y., Quiñones Urióstegui Ivett, Chong-Quero J.E., Alessi Montero, A., Ulacia Flores, P., León Garmendia, A.. “IMU pla- cement in the assessment of the upper limb using smoothness metrics” 2016 GCMAS Annual Conference
ABSTRACT Cerebralpalsy (CP) is the most common disability in children caused by central nervous system lesion. The aim of the present study was to verify the intensive neuromotor therapy effects in children with CP, in a reference Brazilian centre. In this study, three years of medical records from a Brazilian reference Centre of Intensive Neuromotor Therapy (INMT) which use the INMT protocol were analysed. The motor evaluation for each child was done by the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and GMFM-88 by an experienced professional, before and after each INMT module. A total of 53 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years (age at treatment initiation, initial evaluation), with a mean age of 5.94±3.38 years, participated in the study. Participants performed between 1 and 10 INMT modules. There was no strong correlation between age and overall performance on the GMFM scale, but it was observed a strong negative correlation between the percentage of GMFM gains and the number of modules (r=-0.709; R 2 = 0.50; p =
The purpose of the study was to determine the use of computers and assistive devices amongst children with cerebralpalsy (CP) and establish the satisfaction level of both users and educational staff. The study was carried out with 30 children with cerebralpalsy. A questionnaire was designed to characterize the use of new technologies and assistive devices. Some of the questions were reserved for the teachers. Even though 29 users show some type of communication difficulty, only 4 users dispose of a computer-aided communication device, with the static symbolic board being the most widely used device (4). More than half of the participants (17) regularly use a computer, 16 of them requiring some type of assistive device. The perception of the teachers with regard to the use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in the classrooms is positive in 5 out of 6 cases. ICTs only provide assistance if their application is accompanied by the involvement of professionals and the child's social environment. The low use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication techniques along with the absence of communication codes reveal the need to establish training protocols. The inclusion of social, physical, and personal factors is considered essential in order to evaluate the needs for assistive technology.
Las revisiones sistemáticas son un recurso metodológico y una herramienta de investigación que nos posibi- lita información y actualización temática sin necesidad de invertir tiempo y recursos (Perestelo-Pérez, 2013). La presente revisión se ha centrado en exclusividad en los trabajos que han sido publicados como artículos en revistas, localizados en las bases de datos ERIC, DIALNET, Medline y PsycINFO, consideradas las más prolíferas en la agrupación de publicaciones en ciencias sociales y de la salud. Para evaluar los trabajos se ha utilizado el procedimiento propio de las revisiones del sistema PRISMA. La búsqueda realizada para la revisión abarca el periodo de los dieciocho últimos años, lo que permite valorar la progresión de investigación en el campo de interés. Los criterios de inclusión han sido, por tanto, artículos de revista publicados entre enero del año 2000 y enero de 2018 sobre PC en personas mayores de edad (18 años). Como criterio de exclusión se omiten los artículos que abordan otra discapacidad en la etapa adulta o la PC en la etapa infantil o adolescente. En la exploración se cruzaron como términos críticos las palabras clave: “cerebralpalsy” por un lado, y tanto “aging” como “ageing” unidas por AND con el fin de obtener publicaciones que abordasen el envejecimiento tanto americanas como británicas; y sus correspondientes términos en castellano: “parálisis cerebral” y “envejecimiento”.
ABSTRACT This study aimed at observing children with cerebral palsy's (CP) gait maturation and to correlate gait maturation's motor skill parameters. Podogram and video shooting of eight children's gait were used. Children up to seven years of age participated in the study. Cluster analysis was applied, dividing the sample into two groups, using the relation between pelvis’ width and the spreading of the ankles (REL) as parameters. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of Deltas, and Pearson’s correlation. Deviance from normality for all the parameters was demonstrated with greater failure in speed and cadence and a significant correlation among these parameters, and yet between them and the REL parameter. Although children with CP had acquired gait, they still do it immaturely.
Introduction: Physical and sports practice can produce many benefits for people with cerebralpalsy, however those people practice less than people without any disability. Aim: Is expected to recognize the evolution of sportpeople from the Federación Madrileña de Deportes de Parálisis Cerebral between 1997-1998 and 2011-2012 sport seasons, and the differences according to gender, age and sport, considering that a bigger knowledge should guide better certain promotion activities of sport. Methods: A quantitative methodology has been used, it consisted in all sport licenses processed by this federation in the studied sport seasons review. Results & discussion: The results show that there are few people with sport license in Madrid, an irregular tendency in sport license evolution although there was a increase in the last three sport seasons; in total of sport seasons percentage of men is higher than women; according to age the 18 to 24 age group has the largest number of participants; according to the sport boccia is the more practiced one; in all sports modalities there are more men than women and the majority of sportpeople are 24 or less years old. Conclusions: it is concluded that the most prominent profile of athlete is: Boccia player, man and with and age between 18 and 24 years.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dance therapy on the functional mobility of children with spastic hemiparetic cerebralpalsy. Ten female children (mean age 7.2 ± 1.2 years) diagnosed with cerebralpalsy were included. In order to evaluate their functional mobility, standing (D) and walking, running and jumping (E) dimensions from GMFM were applied, and measurements were carried out in two phases: 1) control, six weeks without any motor intervention, and 2) activity, 18 sessions of dancing. Children were assessed three times: first, before the control phase, second, after the control phase, and third, at the end of the dancing phase. Kruskal-Wallis (p < .05) and Dunn tests (p < .05) were used. There were no changes in performance between the two first phases of evaluation (p = 1.00), however, at the end of the dancing phase a significant increase was measured in relation to D (p < .01) and E dimensions (p < .01). Results showed that dance therapy influences children's functional mobility.
Cerebralpalsy (CP) is mainly designated by central nervous system irregularities, thus loss of selective motor control and abnormal muscle tone, that may changeover in its presentation as an individual grows and develops. [9, 13] As a result of maturation, these principal characteristics usually head to secondary deficits, which include bony deformities, muscle contractures, and gait abnormalities (that are often noted in mobility and balance). Gait abnormalities in children with CP are known to cause a more than two-fold increase in energy cost (EC) of walking compared with wealthy children.  Disabilities can be evident in the amount of time and assistance a child needs to complete basic life skills. 
The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebralpalsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.
We are referring to the deinition agreed upon in 1959 in Edinburgh, compiled and introduced by Bax (3) and later reviewed in 1990 at the International Meeting in Brioni and by The Surveillance of CerebralPalsy in Europe (SCPE 2000) (4): “an umbrella term covering a group of non-progressive, but often chang- ing, motor impairment syndromes secondary to lesions or anomalies of the brain arising in the early stages of development”.
The environment is designed for users with profound cerebralpalsy. Despite their limited cognitive and physical conditions, they show interest when there is a significant stimulus in the environment. Frequently, these users present self- stimulating behaviours, that is, “repetitive body movement which serves no apparent purpose in the external environment” , but that interferes with the daily routine. Furthermore, together with anxiety episodes, the self-stimulation can transform into self-injury. Self-injury is a destructive behaviour that implies social and personal consequences and risks the person’s physical integrity like biting one’s arm or banging one’s head with the fist. These users also present other behavioural disorders such as screaming, banging the table and the floor or throwing objects.
Authors Ng, Kumar, Cody, Smith, & Didi (2003) and Zaffuto-Sforza(2005) have indicated that neurological disorders in children could lead to advanced puberty. However, because of the wide variety of bouts studied, there are still only a few studies focused on the direct relation between CerebralPalsy and precocious puberty. With this in mind, this study aimed to evaluate the pubertal development of children diagnosed with CerebralPalsy and identify the gender with the highest incidence of advances in the maturation of primary and secondary sexual characteristics. A study like this becomes necessary to analyze how CerebralPalsy can affect the changes in puberty by gender.
25. Fízková V, Krejčí E, Svoboda Z, Elfmark M, Janura M. The effect of hippotherapy on gait in patients with spastic cerebralpalsy. Vliv hipoterapie na chůzi u osob se spastickou formou dětské mozkové obrny. Acta Universitatis Palackiane Olomucencis Gymica 2013;43(4):17-23. 26. Herrero P, Gomez-Trullen EM, Asensio A, Garcia E, Casas R, Monserrat E, et al. Study of the therapeutic effects of a hippotherapy simulator in children with cerebralpalsy: a stratified single-blind randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2012;26(12):1105-13 27. Kwon JY, Chang HJ, Lee JY, Ha Y, Lee PK, Kim YH. Effects of hippotherapy on gait parameters in children with bilateral spastic cerebralpalsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Vol 92, May 2011 28.Villasana G., Torres C., Solórzano C.,Evaluación de la efectividad de la hipoterapia en niños con trastornos del desarrollo psicomotor (Brimapema 2009- 2010) Avances en ciencia de la salud. Volumen 1, Número 1, Noviembre 2011
Cerebralpalsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorders of the development, movement and posture, causing activity limitation and are attributed to non- progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebralpalsy are often accompanied by disturbances in sensitivity, perception, cognition, communication and behavior, or by epilepsy fits. It generally the urinary dysfunctions in the patient with cerebralpalsy is explained by the neurological damage at brain level and not at level of their spinal marrow. The case of a patient diagnosed with spastic diparesia, who evolved into a secondary complication known as anchored marrow was described. In spite of the multiple diagnoses, this patient has been able to walk without any external support.
Background: Facial palsy is the most frequent manifestation of neuroborreliosis in the United States, Europe, and Asia, whereas in Mexico, its frequency is unknown. Objective: We aimed to determine the frequency of Borrelia spp. infection in patients with acute facial palsy in Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, referral hospital-based survey, 191 patients with facial palsy were selected and clinical and epidemiologic data recorded. IgM and IgG serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western-Blot (WB). IgM and IgG antibodies against the herpes viruses HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were tested by ELISA. Results: 71 patients (37%) tested positive by ELISA to either Borrelia spp. or the herpes viruses. Of 25 patients (13%) who tested positive for B. burgdorferi by ELISA, 23 (12%) were confirmed by WB; 14 had IgM and 9 had IgG antibodies. Among the 14 IgM-WB positive patients, two cases recognized antigens of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), 10 of Borrelia garinii and 2 of B. afzelii, whereas all 9 IgG-WB positive were reactive against B. burgdorferi s.s. 14 patients had facial palsy in addition to other clinical data compatible with Lyme borreliosis. Patients infected with B. burgdorferi s.s. had a longer recovery time and a significantly higher risk (odds ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5-12.9) of recurrent facial palsy than patients infected with other Borrelia genospecies. Conclusions: Borrelia infection is frequent in facial palsy patients in Mexico, with B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii being the most frequent causative species.
Discussion: The benefit from releasing contracted muscles and muscle transfer to improve shoulder abduction in the sequelae of obstetric palsy has been amply reported in the literature. The results we had from elevating the subscapularis muscle off the anterior surface of the scapula and transferring the latissimus dorsi were good. Children who were difficult to classify based on the described scale were taken note of and some sub-classifications for Gilbert’s descriptions were proposed. Patients must be selected carefully. To transfer the latissimus dorsi, it is necessary to have good passive mobility in abduction, a minimum of 20º of external rotation and no joint deformities. When negative external rotation is found, the subscapularis muscle should be released. When there is glenohumeral joint deformity in older children, other methods are recommended, such as rotational humeral osteotomy.
El daño cerebral adquirido (DCA) hace referencia a cualquier tipo de lesión que se produce en el cerebro maduro independientemente de su gravedad, desde las lesiones más leves hasta las más graves que pueden conllevar estados vegetativos persistentes (Bilbao, 2008; Gangoiti, 2007; Ríos, Benito, Paúl-‐Lapedriza, y Tirapu, 2008). Este tipo de lesión puede causar un deterioro neurológico permanente que repercute en la calidad de vida del individuo, disminuyendo su capacidad para realizar las actividades de la vida diaria (Castellanos-‐Pinedo, et al., 2012). La etiología lesional del DCA puede ser por traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE), accidentes cerebrovasculares (ACV) o ictus, tumores, encefalopatía postanoxica por parada cardiorespiratoria, enfermedades infecciosas, etc. (Bilbao, 2008; Gangoiti, 2007; Ríos, et al., 2008). El DCA es conocido actualmente como una “epidemia silenciosa” debido al aumento del número de casos a nivel mundial en los últimos 25 años (Bori, 2002; Gangoiti, 2007), siendo la principal causa de discapacidad del adulto en países industrializados (Bori, 2003). En España hay 12 casos de personas con DCA por cada 1.000 habitantes (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2008). La incidencia por género es más del doble en hombres que en mujeres (Defensor del Pueblo, 2006).