In humans, few studies on the role of BMP4 in NSCLP have been reported. Lidral and Moreno per- formed a genome wide scan meta-analysis that showed evidence of linkage between NSCLP and the chromoso- mal region 14q21-24 . Lin et al. performed an asso- ciation study in a Chinese population using the non- synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of BMP4, rs17563 (p.Val152Ala) and described that the C allele carriers showed an increased risk for NSCLP . Recently, Jianyan et al. and Lin et al. have reported an interaction between rs17563 and environmental factors like maternal passive smoking in the expression of NSCLP [17,18]. The BMP4 coding sequence was ana- lyzed by Suzuki et al. in a sample of patients with sube- pithelial, microform and overt cleft lip . These authors detected missense and nonsense mutations in 0.7% of these patients which were absent in controls. All these findings support a role for genetic variation of BMP4 in the pathogenesis of NSCLP.
9 Lee mas
The study of Lynch syndrome in families of different eth- nic origins contributes to the definition of genetic and clin- ical differences among populations. In screening for ge- netic mutations in 21 families meeting clinical criteria for Lynch syndrome, we detected 9 mutations. Wide distribu- tion of 4 mutations in other ethnic populations strongly suggests varying origins of these mutations. Phenotypic results (most frequent location of colorectal tumors in the right colon and location of extracolonic tumors in the en- dometrium, stomach, and breast) were consistent with other Latin American studies. The finding of 2 novel mu- tations, in addition to the sharing of only 2 of 9 mutations with other South American populations, suggests a unique aspect of the Chilean population, possibly related to the strong Amerindian genetic component demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Availability of a screening program allowing early diagnosis of hereditary colorectal cancer in the Chilean population might help to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer.
10 Lee mas
Hardy-Weinberg test. Results. Frequencies of heterozygous were: for 5557G>A, 13% cases, 0%controls (p=0.0009); for IVS24-9delT, 21% cases, 8% controls (p=0.0122); for IVS38- 8T>C, only one case. 5557G>A and IVS24-9delT were more frequent in cases than in controls. The allelic frequen- cies found in 5557G>A are similar to those described by González-Hormazábal in Chile. Conclusion. The similarity of results in this polymorphism between Chilean and Mexican populations may be due to both being crossbred with an Amerindian-Spanish component, while differences may be due to fact that Chilean population has a greater European component than Mexican’s.
7 Lee mas
The study population included all women participating in the ENS 2003. The sample for the ENS 2003 was a national stratified multistage probability sample of non- institutionalized people aged 18 years and above, repre- senting the Chilean population and comparing regions, rural and urban, four age groups, and three socio-eco- nomic strata. The sampling error was set at less than 2%. The ENS 2003 is the first household based health survey with biological sampling (blood, urine) body measure- ments (height, weight, waist circumference), clinical examinations (visual and auditive acuity, dental health) and comprehensive health questionnaires administered by a public health certified nurse and a trained inter- viewer. Only one subject, selected by the Kish method, participated per household . The survey was con- ducted from June to December 2003. The ethics commit- tees of the Catholic University and the Ministry of Health reviewed and approved the study. All women signed a separate informed consent for the self-obtained vaginal sample.
12 Lee mas
Background: The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV): vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR) HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings: A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping). Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4%) women; 45 (4.6%) refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women < 20 years of age (19.4%) and lowest in women > 70 (0%); it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women < 30 years of age to 100% in women > 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits.
6 Lee mas
This study has information from various sources, which increases its efficacy, but it still has some limi- tations. It is possible that there is bias in the selection of all databases, associated with the way in which the international migrant population is defined and mis- takes in the register for the purpose of the analysis. In the analysis of the hospital discharges, it is impossible to clarify if the obtained results effectively reflect the information of the prevalence of morbidities or if they are consequences of a differentiated use of the health services among the migrant and Chilean population. Lastly, some central variables in the relation between migration and health, such as the socioeconomic status and residence time, among others, were unavailable, so it was impossible to elaborate a more detailed analysis.
10 Lee mas
The distinct scenarios of evolution of the three populations are described in this paper. Evolutionary ecology researches indicates the conviction that in the previously described context the sinistral snail population will replace the dextral variant. This mechanism can be used to explain left-right reversal in snails that have happened several times on Earth [1, 6, 11]. The analysis of the solutions for our model mostly supports this proposal but it also opens new possibilities for extreme cases such as the Pareas Iwasakii snakes. From the qualitative analysis of (10) the extinction of Pareas snakes is also a possible picture when snake species exhibit high specialization. Here, Pareas Carinatus teaches us the need to adapt to changes.
27 Lee mas
The so-called 'pod-R' (for resident), a unique inshore occurring community in the central-north of Chile (González et al., 1989; Capella et al., 1999; Sanino and Yañez, 2001), originally consisting of some 28 photo-identified individuals moved ca. 27 km south from Isla Chañaral (29°02'S) to the area near Islas Choros, Damas and Gaviota (29°15'S) after one dolphin was illegally harpooned by swordfish fishermen (Sanino et al., 2001). Genetically pod-R is highly divergent from both Peruvian offshore and coastal stocks but showed a relatively closer mt-DNA affinity with the Chilean offshore stock (Sanino et al., 2005). We hypothesize that this coastal community may have diverged relatively recently from the large offshore population. It retains at least one 'ancestral' offshore morphologic trait, i.e a strong falcateness in dorsal fin shape, normally found in offshore bottlenose dolphins of the SE Pacific (Félix et al., 2017a). Otherwise, the pod's long-term nearshore residency, their slender body, non-stubby rostrum and light colouration are consistent with the coastal morphotype in Peru and Ecuador.
13 Lee mas
This paper describes a study that evaluates fifteen-year-old (10th grade) Chilean students Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. The paper presents an operational definition of ICT skills, an instrument measuring these skills as well as the students’ results in the test. The definition of ICT skills used considers Chile’s curricular framework, functional and cognitive skills. Specifically, ICT skills were defined as the capacity to solve problems of information, communication and knowledge in digital environments. A performance-based assessment was designed in a virtual environment to measure these skills. The analysis of the results showed that, the majority of students were able to solve tasks related to the use of information as consumers, this is, approximately three quarters of the students were able to search for information and half of them were also able to organize and manage digital information. Additionally, they show that very few students were able to succeed in tasks related to the use of information as producers, this is, only one third of the students were able to develop their own ideas in a digital environment and less than one fifth were able to refine digital information and create a representation in a digital environment. Socio- economic group, access, daily use and confidence in doing ICT related activities were all positively associated with higher scores, showing the need to implement strategies to compensate this inequality, possibly by explicitly defining these aims in the national curriculum.
205 Lee mas
Given that a significant proportion of the Chilean education system is financed with household resources, we present human capital contracts (HCC) as an option for higher education financing for students facing financial constraints, but who could use their expected future income flows as collateral. We analyze the feasibility of HCC implementation in Chile over a set of college majors. We find that HCC can partially fund any college major in Chile and finance some majors completely, under certain conditions. Among the variables analyzed, those af fecting most severely the contract pricing are initial wage level after graduation and graduation rate. JEL classification: C01, I22, J24, J31
31 Lee mas
Abstract: Mass spectrometry has become a method of choice to characterize bioactive compounds in biological samples because of its sensitivity and selectivity. Hybrid ultra-HPLC hyphenated with Orbitrap mass analyzer is an innovative state of the art technology that allows fast and accurate metabolomic analyses. In this work the metabolites of a Chilean mistletoe endemic to the VIII region of Chile were investigated for the first time using UHPLC mass analysis (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-Orbitrap MS n ). The anthocyanins, together with the non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Six anthocyanins were identified, and among them, the 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were the major ones. In addition, several phenolic acids (including feruloylquinic acid, feruloyl glucose, chlorogenic acid) and several flavonols (luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, isorhamnetin and glycoside derivatives) were also identified. The mistletoe leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by the DPPH radical bleaching, ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity tests (13.38 ˘ 0.47 µg/mL, 125.32 ˘ 5.96 µmolTE/g DW and 84.06 ˘ 4.59 at 100 µ g/mL, respectively).
15 Lee mas
EN Fragments of a Rhapsody — Franco Chilean Video Art Festival file selection — From 1985 until 1997, the suite of 36 travel diaries commissioned to Chilean and French video makers, and then to Latin America and Baltic video producers, accompanied the development of the Festival Franco Chileno de Video Arte. This project was born in Santiago in 1980, extending to Latin America; it passed through a strange north- south axis to Paris, and then into the three Baltic republics. This suite gave testimony of the nearly 20 years, of a generation, of the diversity of the visions of whom invented video as a medium of expression by itself and imposed its autonomy both in television and cinema. It is an indirect testimony of the history of the world, of the end of long and cruel dictatorships both in the north and the south.
9 Lee mas
Consequently, identifying and classifying children and adolescents at greater health risk, especially those overweight and obese, is important. In doing so, they then may be diagnosed by using international references. However, it is evident that the references would not reflect the desired patterns of body fat, since the cultural and ethnic variation between the populations are different. Therefore, given the need to understand and explore the WC patterns of Chilean students compared to international benchmarks and the absence of a national Chilean standard, this study has the following objectives: (a) compare the values of waist circumference of students from the Maule Region (Chile) with the CDC-2012 as well as other international standards, and (b) propose a specific reference to assess the WC of students from the Maule Region (Chile) based on age and sex.
13 Lee mas
As for the analysis of population structure, we used 31 free-ranging dolphin samples from the inner estuary of the Gulf of Guayaquil. A Bayesian model-based clustering method was used to determine the most probable number of distinct nuclear genetic clusters and assign individuals to each one using STRUCTURE v.2.3.3 . The admixture model with correlated allelic frequencies was selected, without specifying the sampling location. The model was run with the most probable number of clusters (K) set to values of 1 to 5 with a burn in period of 10,000 iterations followed by 100,000 MCMC iterations. Five independent runs for each number of clusters were carried out for each K value. The real K value was detected by calculating the modal value of ΔK, a quantity based on the second order rate of change with respect to K of the likelihood function  using Structure Harvester web v.0.6.93 . The five independent runs from STRUCTURE were analyzed with the CLUMPP 1.1.2 . The results were visualized using DISTRUCT 1.1 .
78 Lee mas
There are now an estimated 137 million internet users in China, 1 second in number only to the United States, where estimates of the current internet population range from 165 million to 210 million. 2 The growth rate of China’s internet user population has been outpacing that of the U.S., and China is projected to overtake the U.S. in the total number of users within a few years. 3 The influx of tens of millions of new online participants each year can be expected to have far- reaching consequences for the Chinese population, for China itself and for the larger world. At the very least, the internet will offer ever greater numbers of Chinese a much more sophisticated information and communications world than the one they currently inhabit. And because the Chinese share a single written language, despite the multiplicity of spoken tongues, it could have a unifying effect on the country’s widely dispersed citizenry. An expanding internet population might also increase domestic tensions that could spill over into China’s relations with the U.S. and other countries while the difference between Chinese and Western approaches to the internet could create additional sore points over human rights and problems with restrictions on non- Chinese companies.
6 Lee mas
Several studies have addressed the role of drama and emotion in television news, oftentimes regarding them as opposed to quality journalism. Such ap- proaches ignore the cultural resonance of melodramatic features in televi- sion newscasts in regions like Latin America, and pay little attention to how newsworkers perceive dramatic news and melodramatic treatment of news events. Based on in-depth interviews with 14 news editors from four major Chilean broadcasters, this study taps into their insights on audiovisual lan- guage and melodrama in television news. The findings suggest a common perception among Chilean editors of audiovisual language as inherently dra- matic-emotional and close. Emotionalization and personalization are descri- bed as a communicative potential of television journalism, and melodrama is framed negatively as an excess of emotion that damages information.
30 Lee mas
In January 2007, the Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research was indexed by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI). This paper reviews the research that has been published since 2007 by using records extracted from the Web of Science database. The papers published were mostly affiliated to researchers from Chile, and six out of the ten most-contributing countries were from Latin America. The analysis by
8 Lee mas
G. Ossa, J.T. Ibarra, K. Barboza, F. Hernández, N. Gálvez, J. Laker, and C. Bonacic. 2010. Analysis of the echolocation calls and morphometry of a population of Myotis chiloensis (Waterhouse, 1838) from the southern Chilean temperate forest. Cien. Inv. Agr. 37(2): 131-139. Echolocation is characteristic of bats of the suborder Microchiroptera. Though recent studies of echolocation calls in Latin America have generated significant advances in knowledge about distribution, habitat use and ecology of bats, the recording and analysis of bat calls is barely known in Chile. As a first step in studies on the ecology of the endemic Chilean myotis bat (Myotis chiloensis), we carried out morphometric measures and analyzed echolocation calls in a rural site near Pucón (39°15’S 17°W) in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile. During January 2009, we obtained 22 records from captured and 75 records from flying individuals. The analysis of calls in searching phase showed that the terminal frequency for this species is 43.4 ± 1.2 kHz, with a mean duration of 2.1 ± 1.0 ms and an interval between pulses of 77.5 ± 16.9 ms. The calls are FM – QCF, as is characteristic for the family Vespertilionidae. The contribution of new morphometric data from captured and released individuals indicates differences from previous studies. The records and acoustic analysis establishes a baseline for more detailed future ecological investigation of this and other bat species in Chile.
10 Lee mas
ported sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in the ranges of 22-78%, 58-100%, 30-81%, and 92-100%, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 53%, specifici- ty of 87%, low PPV of 26%, and NPV of 95%. The values obtained in our study are comparable with those obtained in different geographic locations and with data from a more recent study of the English population, which obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 0.84. This provides even greater statistical power supporting the use of this marker for detecting ad- vanced fibrosis in our population. However, one drawback of this marker is the need for a calculator to produce the value because the formula is com- plex. However, this method is applicable to Latino populations because of its high diagnostic accura- cy for severe fibrosis.
9 Lee mas
The transcultural adaptation and validation pro- cess of the SWLS-C scale in Chilean adolescents was performed with a convenience sample of schools and the randomization of classes and participants within each class. The process was carried out with seven edu- cational institutions in the Metropolitan Region, be- longing to the three types of administration of Chilean education: 2 public schools, 2 private subsidized ones, 2 fee-paying private ones and 1 rural private subsidized school. The inclusion criterion was the age (to be bet- ween the ages of 10 and 18), without exclusion criteria. Within the process, cognitive interviews (CI) were performed with the first group of 23 adolescents (11 female and 12 male). Then, a pilot application was per- formed on 24 adolescents (12 male and 12 female), and finally, the instrument to be validated was applied to 200 adolescents (115 female and 85 male).
8 Lee mas