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The effects of large class size on the english learning environment

The effects of large class size on the english learning environment

This investigation was conducted to understand the impact of large class size on the English teaching and learning in a 6 th grade. The data collection included an interview with the English teacher, a survey administered to 40 students of the class and a focus group with students. The aim was to understand the participant’s perceptions of being part of a large class. The qualitative analysis followed a thematic coding approach. The study revealed that students have normalized their context and that they see their classroom generally positively, regarding it as a space to socialize. Additionally, it was found that the main factors affected by large class size were students’ behavior and the opportunities to develop their speaking skill. Finally, the main teaching aspects affected by this situation were the difficulties to complete the activities of the class, and the effective teaching considering students’ differences.
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The perceptions of English teachers about the English lessons in the current education system of Turkey

The perceptions of English teachers about the English lessons in the current education system of Turkey

The biggest difference between the perceptions of English teachers occurred in terms of the class size; none of the state school teachers indicated a positive opinion for this item whereas the ratio of positive perception was 73,7% for the private school teachers. This result directs us to think about the number of the students in English classes at state schools. It should not be forgotten that English is a language that is used for communication; it may not be possible to practice language skills especially the speaking skill in overcrowded classrooms which seem to be a big problem for the state schools. As another item of the questionnaire which may be related to the class size, the teachers were asked whether their students have problems to keep up with the content of the lessons or not. 62,5 % of the state school teachers think that their students have problems in terms of keeping up with the lessons; whereas the ratio is 31,6 for the private school teachers. This may be related to the class size (the number of the students). It may be difficult to be aware of the weaknesses and strengths of the students in an overcrowded classroom and additionally, each student may not have the equal opportunity for attending the lesson and having feedback. All these may affect students’ learning or catching the subjects.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Estudio realizado en la Unidad Educativa Pública Santa Elena , del cantón Santa Elena y de la Provincia de Santa Elena en el año 2014-2015

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Estudio realizado en la Unidad Educativa Pública Santa Elena , del cantón Santa Elena y de la Provincia de Santa Elena en el año 2014-2015

This research analyzes the influence of large classes in the teaching and learning of English language in schools in Ecuador; the purpose of the study is to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learning process, and the implications of classes with many students in academic, social and psychological aspects. The study was conducted in the Santa Elena province. The population of this research included students of a public high school. This research was carried out in three basic general education classrooms and two classrooms of higher Secondary education in the public high school. There were forty to sixty students per course where the questionnaire was administered. The method was quantitative. The variables considered for research focused on the influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process; they included class size, teaching approaches and methods, managing learning, activities for working with large classes, and classroom space and the different levels of proficiency. The data was collected in statistical tables. This study allowed to know that interaction in the English classrooms.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian Public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian Public high schools

Another consequence of the reduced space was the level of noise in the classroom. Since students’ seats were too close to each other, lea rners talked a lot between them and it impeded teachers to teach classes adequately, students did not behave well and their level of attention was poor. In consequence, the reduced space affected the teaching- learning process. Regarding that, Shalaway & Beech (1998) mention that students behave well and achieve academic goals when teachers provide them a good classroom space according to learners’ needs. But in Ecuador, teachers do not choose a classroom, they are assigned one. Moreover, lack of classroom space is a problem that has been affecting public Ecuadorian high schools since a long time. Even though classrooms in public institutions are designed to hold up to 30 students, class size usually exceeds that limit. This situation is caused by the high demand of educational needs among
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

In contrast, 40.00% of the sample represents 6 out of 15 surveyed teachers who answered that they are comfortable with their number of students in their class, because the institution where they work does not have a great demand of students as in other institutions; therefore, it is easy to work with around 16 to 25 students per class. Similarly, students indicated that class size helps them to learn English better; they perceive that learning flows easily in small classes because interaction between students and teachers occurs appropriately. In fact, it was observed that teachers were able to monitor learners‟ activities and control discipline i n seven classes that had
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

The class size has a great influence when achieving the goals during the class. Davies & Pearse (2011) state that the basic principles of teaching English are the same for groups of fourteen, forty, fifty, or sixty learners. But it is obviously much more difficult to achieve good results in very large groups; some of the problems can be observed in communication since the learner may not be able to see or hear the teacher well, and he/she may not want to see or hear all the learners well. Besides, it is very hard to get to know all the learners and their names, the learners get much less individual practice, there are too many pairs or groups to monitor, it would become very difficult to give learners individual feedback on written work.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Harmer (1998) states some of the principal learning skills that may be affected by a large number of students; even though for listening comprehension or reading lessons, class size is not a real obstacle, for speaking and writing lessons do present serious problems because teachers do not have enough time to check all of the activities, and due to the group is really big, classroom management will become a real problem for the teacher, especially if it is an inexperienced teacher. Regarding this topic Snow (2006) also states that the main purpose of speaking practice is to have students work in pairs and small groups rather than having dialogues with the teacher and in big classes; they may not have the opportunity to make sure and check if students are in fact using the language while they are not near them. He also claims that concerning writing classes, correction may become a big issue for teachers, since they will have to respond to each piece of writing done by the students.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

manage discipline. Students chatted a lot between them, especially when they worked in groups. Surprisingly, teachers and learners expressed that they work effectively with the current number of students in the classrooms. There is a clear contradiction between teachers and stude nts‟ responses and the real context observed in the classes. Therefore, class size is another factor that affected the teaching-learning process in the observed classes because teachers showed poor skills in managing learning and some activities done were not suitable due to the amount of students. About that, Mayer (2000) explains that the number of students affects course content, pedagogy, and the type of technology used in the class. In addition, some studies have focused frequently in the relationship between class size and teachers ‟ ability to deal with disciplinary problems. Do teachers feel comfortable with the number of students they are working with?
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Strategies for Practicing Writing and Speaking

Strategies for Practicing Writing and Speaking

After you have told your story as a model, the students will tell their personal stories to their classmates in small groups. The students will take turns telling their stories and the teachers’ role will be to pop in the different groups, listen to parts of their stories, and give feedback on content, not on grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation errors at this time. Rather, take notes of the most common mistakes basically with the past tense and past participles of regular and irregular verbs and give feedback to the whole class after the activity has been completed. This strategy works with all class sizes, as most of the time students will be working in groups, and the number of groups will depend on the class size. For large classes, let us say for 40 students, you can ask your students to form eight groups of five students each. For a small classroom you would form less groups.
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The Beamer Class

The Beamer Class

In the other direction, you can use larger text for titles. However, using a larger font does not always have the desired effect. Just because a frame title is printed in large letters does not mean that it is read first. Indeed, have a look at the cover of your favorite magazine. Most likely, the magazine’s name is the typeset in the largest font, but your attention will nevertheless first go to the topics advertised on the cover. Likewise, in the table of contents you are likely to first focus on the entries, not on the words “Table of Contents.” Most likely, you would not spot a spelling mistake there (a friend of mine actually managed to misspell his own name on the cover of his master’s thesis and nobody noticed until a year later). In essence, large text at the top of a page signals “unimportant since I know what to expect.” So, instead of using a very large frame title, also consider using a normal size frame title that is typeset in bold or in italics.
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The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes.

The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes.

Rodriguez & Varela (2004) suggest that some problems happen when teachers have to deal with learners´ teaching process at pre-school levels especially in early ages. Teachers propose different kind of activities to develop in class depending on the age. In almost all situations, during the period of study, teachers give students some advice, resources, or keys to facilitate foreign language learning. Likewise, other important aspects in early language learning have been taken into account; for that reason, teachers have applied many techniques to teach children in their classes because all of them need to be taught in a different manner than adults; for instance, the teacher can consider singing songs, reciting rhymes, and playing games. Using this kind of aids, students can develop many skills to improve their knowledge; likewise, the teacher has to take into consideration that learners have to learn a foreign language for communication and not only for enjoying the class. Therefore, all the time the student has to be motivated to do as many activities as possible using extra aids during the learning process. Another consideration that the author claims is that the language should be taught for a communicative purpose in order to encourage children to enhance their ability to communicate. The teacher has to be precise in the method to be used with any specific topic because if the teacher does not apply the correct method in class, students will not realize what the topic is about and the teacher could fail. In addition, Konigs (2003, p. 236) states “Foreign
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A Tractable Syntactic Class

A Tractable Syntactic Class

A common example of an NP problem not known to be in P is the Boolean satis- fiability problem, also called the SAT problem, which refers to the satisfiability of propositional logic formulas in CNF form. The representation of formulas in its CNF form is extremely important not only because it exacts essential information but also because it deletes superfluous data. Every decision problem in the com- plexity class NP can be reduced to the SAT problem, hence solving the question whether SAT has a polynomial time algorithm is equivalent to the P versus NP problem.

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Receptores de membrana  acoplados a protenas G

Receptores de membrana acoplados a protenas G

GLP-1, lower blood glucose, stimulating the formation of insulin, via gene transcription, islet cell growth, and neogenesis of β-cells, as well as favoring the hormone secretion. All these actions are carried out by activation of a specific class B GPCR. The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) that rapidly inactivates intestinal incretin is inhibited by agents called gliptins (or DPP-4 inhibitors, as sitagliptin, linagliptin and alogliptin), which prolong the biological life of GLP-1, a mechanism that

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Percepciones de los profesores y estudiantes de la enseñanza del idioma ingles en clases pequeñas

Percepciones de los profesores y estudiantes de la enseñanza del idioma ingles en clases pequeñas

statement. It is clear from these responses that the teachers overwhelmingly support the sense that there is better interaction between them and the students. The students also strongly support this statement. In the observations there were many examples of good student teacher interaction. In the class based on correcting sentences, the students were constantly asking the teacher questions about the activity that they were doing and she was giving them immediate feedback on responses. Moon (2005) discussed the importance of teachers talking in class. Although this can sometimes be criticized, she argues that this interaction with students is important for a number of factors including classroom management, giving instructions, motivating the students as well as providing language input for learning. All of these factors were present in the classes that were observed for this study. Domvei and Murphey (2003) also highlight the importance of the tasks that teachers and students are given in the class to promote greater interaction. In the classes that were observed some of the students were asked to record errors that other students made and to report these back to the group.
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Applying the teaching personal and social responsibility model (TPSR) in Spanish schools context: lesson learned

Applying the teaching personal and social responsibility model (TPSR) in Spanish schools context: lesson learned

Regarding our application of the TPSR model, the primary change was our departure from a focus on prevention and deficit reduction to a focus on the strengths of youth. In keeping with the literature on positive youth development, we hypothesized that the best way to avoid disruptive or problematic behaviors in adolescence was to teach students, at an earlier age, the basic skills and competencies they would need to successfully face the challenges of life (Larson, 2000; Lerner, 2004; Seligman & Csikszentmihaly, 2000). As some authors have indicated, the TPSR model can serve as a vehicle for promoting positive youth development (Hellison et al., 2000; Petitpas et al., 2005; Wright & Li, 2009). Therefore, in this phase we implemented the TPSR model as a positive youth development program offered to all students (from 10 to 12 years of age) during their PE classes in five different primary schools in the region of Valencia, Spain. Consequently, our objective in this phase was to integrate the subject matter of PE with the teaching of responsibility, as advocated by Hellison (2003), in the Spanish context. To achieve this, we formed a working group with five elementary school PE teachers to plan and discuss the program, i.e. specific objectives, content, teaching strategies and activities. By including their perspective, we hoped to develop a program approach that would be acceptable to them and effective in promoting the goals of the TPSR model (see Escartí et al., 2005). The core activities of this first implementation of the program included: 1) participating in the discussion of class norms; 2) batting and fielding games; 3) juggling; 4) skating; and 5) acrobatics/gymnastics. These activities were included in the program because they were either cooperative or competitive in nature and, therefore, we reasoned they would offer varied but plentiful opportunities for the students to put the responsibility levels into practice.
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A hybrid method to face class overlap and class imbalance on neural networks and multi class scenarios

A hybrid method to face class overlap and class imbalance on neural networks and multi class scenarios

Class imbalance and class overlap are two of the major problems in data mining and machine learning. Several studies have shown that these data complexities may affect the performance or behavior of artificial neural networks. Strategies proposed to face with both challenges have been separately applied. In this work, we introduce a hybrid method for handling both class imbalance and class overlap simultaneously in multi–class learning problems. Experimental results on three remote sensing data show that the combined approach is a promising method. Keywords: Multi-class imbalance, overlapping, back-propagation, cost function, editing techniques.
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Estudio de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) que se desarrollan en neumáticos en República Dominicana: consideraciones sobre un problema acuciante

Estudio de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) que se desarrollan en neumáticos en República Dominicana: consideraciones sobre un problema acuciante

Informed consent was obtained from each of the sampled private shop owners. All water-filled tires (positive or negative) were counted and classified according to the tire size in four classes: motorcycle, car, truck, and tractor tires with a mean tire rolling diameter of 64, 76, 102, and 178 cm, respectively. The presence of organic matter was recorded as positive (input of decaying leaves, plants, or fine detritus) or negative (no organic matter or just a thin layer of it) in water-filled tires. If present, all mosquito larvae and/or pupae were collected from each tire into plastic trays and then transferred to hermetic tubes using disposable pipettes. No tire was sampled more than once.
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Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

2.1. Study Selection. Five meta-analyses of HLA class II polymorphisms in LA patients with ADs published from 2007 to 2010 by our group were included [9–13]. The ADs included were rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), multiple sclerosis (MS), and type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, the results from the only study of Sj¨ogren’s syndrome (SS) reported on the LA population were included [14]. Briefly, the strategies to search for, select, and analyze the studies used for each meta-analysis are mentioned hereinafter.

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Analysis Of The Incidence Of Teaching English In Students Of Second Year Of High School At Unidad Educativa “San Vicente De Paul” Riobamba City, Chimborazo Province In The Academic Year 20216 2017

Analysis Of The Incidence Of Teaching English In Students Of Second Year Of High School At Unidad Educativa “San Vicente De Paul” Riobamba City, Chimborazo Province In The Academic Year 20216 2017

However, the researchers had observed that these activities were deficient because students did not remember the vocabulary and could not use them when talking. The activities could be excellent but if the teacher and students do not participate together, they will not work and the skills will not develop. Some activities could help to students remember the vocabulary, for instance the teacher could use a “vocabulary bag” with the words written in some strips of card, and at the beginning of the class each students takes a card and says something related with it, day by day students can bring sentences using an specific word, each student in different contexts (Sprachcaffe - Language Plus, 2011)
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Abundance and life history of two gall inducing homopterans on Nectandra salicina (Lauraceae) in Monteverde, Costa Rica

Abundance and life history of two gall inducing homopterans on Nectandra salicina (Lauraceae) in Monteverde, Costa Rica

Coccid gall mothers were measured, and the number of offspring were counted. Correlation analyses were used to determine whether the size of the mother and the number of offspring were related to gall area. AH measures of central tendency are expressed as means (+ SEM). Specimens of the psyllid and parasitoid were reared to the adult stage and voucher specimens were deposited in the Museo de lnsetos at the University of Costa Rica. Specimens were sent to the Natural History Museum in London, UK, where the identification of Trioza sp. was made by David Hollis and the identification of Metaphycus electra was made by John Noyes.
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